Worker Profile Overviews - Global

of six

Demographic Insights - Administration Workforce Category

The typical global administrative employee is female, aged between 41-55 years, and earn an annual income between $65,000 and $69,999. Additionally, they are likely to have some form of college education, but not a college degree. Additional details have been provided below.

Gender Mix

  • According to a survey by the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP), females make up 81.22% of the global administrative workforce, while males make up 18.07%.
  • The remaining 0.71% included those who declined to answer and those whose preferred gender was not listed.


  • The typical age of administrative assistants is 41-55 years, with 38.55% of respondents reporting to be in this age bracket.
  • Other age-related demographic data include:

Educational Background

  • 38.28% of respondents in the IAAP survey reported having some form of college education, but not a college degree, while 28.78% have a bachelor's or equivalent four-year college degree.
  • 17.99% have a two-year college degree, while 5.83% have a high school degree or a GED.
  • 4.79% of respondents have a master’s or professional degree (MA, JD, MBA, etc), while 4.09% attended vocational school.
  • Only 0.14% and 0.10% of respondents have a doctorate and less than a high school degree, respectively.

Dominant Qualifications

  • 31.70% of respondents have a current IAAP Certified Administrative Professional (CAP) certification, while 4.09% have a CAP that they have not recertified.
  • According to Statistics Canada, "completion of secondary school is usually required," as well as the "completion of a one- or two-year college or other programs for administrative assistants or secretaries."

Typical Salary

  • The typical annual base income for those in the administrative industry is $65,000 - $69,999 with 20.96% of the survey respondents indicating so.
  • Other wage breakdown include:
    • Less than $15,000 : 1.64%
    • $15,001 - $29,999 : 2.96%
    • $30,000 - $34,999 : 4.57%
    • $35,000 - $39,999 : 5.40%
    • $40,000 - $44,999 : 7.15%
    • $45,000 - $49,999 : 11.47%
    • $50,000 - $54,999 : 10.15%
    • $55,000 - $59,999 : 8.12%
    • $60,000 - $64,999: 9.69%
    • $70,000+: 17.89%
  • 55.47% report earning additional compensation for the extra time they work outside regular hours, while 42.43% do not.
  • 58.05% of survey respondents are paid per hour, while 41.95% are paid a monthly salary.

Differences Between Permanent and Temporary working

  • Only 2.07% of respondents in the IAAP survey were working part-time (less than 37 hours) without the help of an agency, while 0.27% were working part-time via a temporary agency.
  • In the United Kingdom, men make up 32.32% of full-time administrative and secretarial occupation workforce, while women make up 67.68% of the workforce. [calculations below]
  • However, when it comes to temporary administrative and secretarial occupation workforce, men only make up 9.09% while women make up 90.91%. [calculations below]

Research Strategy

To provide demographic data on the global administrative workforce, we leveraged the survey by the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP). The survey recorded responses from 3,634 respondents who answered 62 questions. Respondents in the survey come from all around the world including countries such as Nigeria, United States, Canada, Philippines, Zimbabwe, New Zealand, Egypt, Germany, Bangladesh, Australia, Brazil, Israel, and more than 40 other countries. While the survey covered demographic data on both full-time and part-time employees, the survey report did not bifurcate the survey results by permanent or temporary workers.

To provide data distinguishing permanent or temporary workers we consulted platforms that provide job data such as Monster, but these sites mostly focus on salary data and job ads. We also explored global open data platforms such as Open Data Inception and USAFacts, but these platforms did not have any data concerning the demographics of the global administrative workforce. Another approach we explored was to select a few countries and research if demographic data was available showing the difference between their temporary and permanent administrative workforce. The countries we explored were the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Unfortunately, we only found data relating to the difference between male and female employees who work full-time or part-time in the United Kingdom.


United Kingdom

  • Number of worker working full-time in the administrative and secretarial sector: 2,101,000
  • Number of men working full-time: 679,000
  • Number of women working full-time: 1,423,000
Percentage men working full-time: (679,000/2,101,000) * 100 = 32.32%
Percentage of women working full-time: 100% - 32.32% = 67.68%
  • Number of part-time workers in the administrative and secretarial sector: 1,078,000
  • Number of men working part-time: 98,000
  • Number of women working part-time: 980,000
Percentage men working part-time: (98,000/1,078,000) * 100 = 9.09%
Percentage of women working part-time: 100% - 9.09% = 90.91%

of six

Demographic Insights - Industrial Workforce or Blue Collar Workers Category

The demographic details of blue-collar workers varies greatly across the regions of the globe. In the United States, blue-collar work is available for both males and females, who have a high school degree to less than a college degree diploma. Manual labor is generally part of the job, but it may not be necessary for all jobs, however, several years of experience is generally required. In Asia, blue-collar workers are predominantly employed part-time, and they rarely earn enough to have savings. In Africa, blue-collar work is dominated by men, except for the clothing and textile industries, while in Europe, blue-collar workers need to have ICT skills.

Region: Asia

Region: Africa

Region: Europe

Region: US


Educational Background

Dominant Qualifications

  • Physical labor is often involved in blue-collar jobs such as oil-rig work, landscaping or construction.
  • Blue-collar work involves skilled or unskilled labor and tends to be more manual in nature. But according to Aparna Mathur, resident scholar in economic policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute, "the necessity for manual hard work is no longer true for certain positions that have become more high-tech".
  • Companies now tend to demand that their blue-collar workers already have several years of experience or skills apprenticeships in order to get a job.

Typical Salary

  • Around 50% of blue-collar jobs pay more than the jobs that require a four-year college degree. Michael D’Ambrose, senior vice president and CHRO for Archer Daniels Midland Co., a Chicago-based global food-processing and commodities trading corporation, confirmed this by saying that at their company "they pay about 50% more for a five-year apprentice technician than they do for an electrical engineer who just graduated from college".
  • An elevator mechanic in the U.S. with 10 years of experience can earn a median income of $88,200. Still, according to Peter Cappelli, professor of management at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, "many of these jobs still don't pay enough to lure young adults".
  • Blue-collar male workers typically make more than female workers. The typical annual salary of full-time male workers ranges from about $25,000 to $60,000 (depending on the type of job), while that of female workers ranges only from about $23,000 to $40,000.

Research Strategy

After thorough research of different articles and journals published in various sites, it was found out that most of the published articles are U.S.-based, with no article featuring demographic insights that is global in scope. Thus, we turned to regional research of demographic insights. The regions that we looked at are the US, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The publicly available data for regions other than the U.S. is minimal. It is possible that other relevant data are behind a paywall or that few studies have yet been conducted in these regions.

of six

Demographic Insights - Professional Staffing Category

The demographic details of employees in the professional staffing category vary vastly for people belonging to different demographics as well as regions. This sector employs people from ages 15 and beyond, with educational qualifications being as low as less than a high school diploma. Differences in average wages and salaries can be seen across different parts of the globe. The scope of regions in this research includes the US, 28 countries from the European Union, and the Asia Pacific Region comprising Pakistan, Vietnam, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. Further breakdown with additional details has been provided below.

Region: USA

  • According to the US Bureau of Labour Statistics, as of 2017, 5.9 million people making up 3.8% of the entire workforce in the US, were employed in staffing jobs.
  • Within the gender demographic, the likelihood of men and women being employed in this category was equal with 3.9% of total female employees and 3.8% of total male employees being employed in staffing jobs.
  • Of this staffing job employee population, 27.5% were 16 to 24 years of age, 55% were in the 25 to 54 years age group and the remaining 17.4% were 55 years and older.
  • In terms of educational qualifications, employees with a college degree formed the majority. 43.5% had a Bachelor's degree or higher, 20.9% had a college or an associate degree, 22.1% had only graduated from high school without further college education and 13.5% had less than a high school diploma.
  • When observing the data by race, 3.7% of total white employees in the labor force, 4% of total Black or African American labor force, 4.9% of total Asian employees and 5.1% of Hispanic employees were working in the professional staffing category.
  • For employees working full time, the weekly median salary was $685.

Region : European Union

  • In the European Union including the UK, according to the Labour Market and Labour Force Survey (LFS), 12.1% of the total labor force in 2018 was employed in the professional staffing category.
  • The gender distribution among these employees was fairly even with 49.94% of them being men and 47.03% of them being women. The remaining 3.03% provided no response.
  • Age group of the employees belonging to this category lies in the 15 to 64 years range.
  • 10.53% of these employees have received levels 0 to 2 of education which comprises less than primary, primary and lower secondary levels of education, 22.03% of them have attained levels 3 and 4 which include upper secondary, post-secondary and non-tertiary levels of education. 17.36% of these employees have levels 5 to 8 of education i.e. tertiary level and the remaining 50% had not provided a response.

Region: Asia Pacific

  • Nearly one in four wage employees in total in Pakistan, Vietnam, Indonesia and Sri Lanka works at a staffing job.
  • More men can be found working in staffing jobs than women, except in Sri Lanka where the difference is not noteworthy. In Pakistan, 34.5% of male wage employees and 26.3% of female wage employees belonged to this category.
  • All the employees were 15 years and older. Though "youth" and "adult" have not been defined in this market update by the International Labour Organization, there was significant difference in terms of proportions of young and adult employees being employed in this category. For example, in Sri Lanka, 40.2% of young employees had staffing jobs compared to 30.7% among adult employees. In Indonesia, however, the proportion of adult employees was higher at 23.6% compared to 15% of young employees.
  • 90% of these employees had primary level as their highest educational qualification. In Vietnam, 86% of staffing jobs employees had primary level as their highest level of education.
  • Across the four countries, staffing jobs employees earned significantly lower than their regular counterparts. Staffing job employees in Pakistan were paid 39% less than their regular counterparts and similarly and staffing job employees in Sri Lanka were paid 28% lesser.

of six

Professional Staffing Category - Necessary Skills

Jobs in the professional staffing category are available in almost all occupations and often require specialized skill sets relevant to the sector of work. However, going through job portals of several professional staffing services, there were certain skills that have been listed as requirements for staffing jobs across all sectors.

College Degree or Certificate

Knowledge of trade skills

  • For administrative and clerical jobs, proficiency in typing and a minimum word per minute is often prescribed as necessary in order to be eligible for the job. Close attention to detail, proofreading and document editing skills are a few more skills that are needed to do these jobs.
  • In the IT and medical industry, occupationally niche skills are considered necessary when applying for a particular job. For example, in order to be a lead maintenance technician, one must have working knowledge of preventative maintenance, electricity, air conditioning and plumbing.
  • Staffing jobs in legal field also require basic understanding and knowledge of fundamentals of relevant law.
  • These specialized skills and knowledge can be developed through a college degree in Engineering, Law, Medicine or through work experience in related environment.

Computer literacy and proficiency in Microsoft

  • All sectors, including administrative, legal, IT, healthcare, and professional, specify that the proficiency in Microsoft Office applications is a necessary skill for staffing jobs.
  • Computer literacy and knowledge of Microsoft applications can be developed by attending classes at YMCA or other institutions that provide similar services.

Reading, writing and understanding written information and instructions

Arithmetic skills

  • In the legal profession, basic arithmetic skills is necessary to complete daily projects.
  • The IT and Engineering industry also require application of concepts like addition, subtraction, division and multiplications in addition to basic arithmetic.

Excellent written and verbal communication

  • The ability to interpret information in written and oral form and to be able to express themselves effectively in both written and verbal form is a valuable skill across all sectors.
  • In the legal, administrative, medical and IT sector this is an important skill that candidates must possess in order to present information for clients and to interact with customers.

Prior experience in the related field of work

of six

Industrial Workforce or Blue Collar Workers Category - Necessary Skills

Bizfluent and Masterson Staffing Solutions, two blogs that provide manufacturers and workers with insights into the workforce have listed mechanical skills, physical skills, adaptability, problem solving, computer literacy, detail-oriented working, strong communications skills, reliability, and the ability to cross train as valuable skills in navigating the blue collar workforce. The Society for Human Resource Management reports that the United States represents a much smaller fraction of workers with completed apprenticeships than countries overseas. To provide potential and current workers with trade skills, companies have found success in using Virtual Reality and proactive training through outcome simulation as educational methods. The World Economic Forum works with global organizations through the Closing the Skill Gap Project to provide the current and future workforce with trade skills.

Insights into the necessary skills for obtaining a job (Industrial/blue collar workers)

  • Bizfluent, a blog dedicated to providing readers with business tips lists four essential blue collar skills as: having fine-tuned mechanical skills, being able to adapt to situations and solve problems, having sharpened physical capabilities such as good hand-to-eye coordination, and being fluent in computer literacy.
  • Masterson Staffing Solutions, an organization designed to help individuals develop job skills and find career options lists six necessary skills for a manufacturing job as: being detail-oriented, being able to solve problems, having strong communication skills, being familiar with technology, presenting oneself as a reliable worker, and having the ability to cross-train.
  • Both Bizfluent and Masterson highlight physical effectiveness, mechanical skills, problem solving, and computer literacy as centrifugal skills in navigating the blue collar workforce.
  • The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) further emphasizes the necessity for skill training -- approximately three-tenths of one percent of the entire United States workforce has completed trade apprenticeships, whereas completed apprentices in various countries overseas account for more than thirty percent of their own workforce.

Skill Acquirement

  • IndustryWeek, a magazine that sheds light on industrial trends for manufacturers, reports two methods for improving the skill sets of workers: digital training through Virtual Reality and proactive training through simulating outcomes.
  • As education reform begins to expand, workers are able to obtain trade skills while attending courses.
  • Closing the Skills Gap is a project initiated by the World Economic Forum that aims to train the current and future workforce by working with business leaders.
  • The World Economic Forum reports that thirty-three international organizations have pledged to take the initiative in providing the workforce with skills -- nearly eighty percent of those organizations have over fifty-thousand employees.
  • As many as 6,432,400 workers have received training as a result of the efforts of the World Economic Forum, as of January 2019.

of six

Administration Workforce Category - Necessary Skills

Administration workforce jobs include those that provide support in the daily operations of organizations. Jobs include office administration, support services, and employment services, thus require a wide variety of skills, and is even more segmented depending on the industry. However, there are several job positions that are necessary regardless of the industry, whether full-time or part-time.

Typing Skills

  • Administrative work requires adept typing skills. Those that provide administrative support in any industry, either part-time or full-time, are often required to do data entry and write emails, memos and letters. Administrative assistants must be able to type quickly and accurately.
  • Those in the administrative workforce can improve their typing skills through practice, not only with speed, but with accuracy as well.
  • There are several typing programs available online to improve typing skills such as, Typsey and KAZ Typing.
  • Typing courses are also available as part of a certificate or degree program. Courses are generally offered through community colleges or vocational schools.

Computer Software Competency

  • Those in administrative roles rely heavily on computer software programs to complete their day to day tasks. They manage schedules, input data, make travel arrangements, or perform basic invoicing. Most often, they require competency in programs like Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. However, they may also require proficiency in other programs like those found in the Microsoft Office suite, such as PowerPoint and SharePoint, as well as their Google equivalents.
  • Most computer software programs offer basic tutorials. Some of these programs that someone in the administrative workforce may need competency include WordPress, Quickbooks, Google applications and HTML.
  • Career development and training companies such as Fred Pryor and Software Pro offer online and live one or two day long seminars on computer software.
  • Microsoft Learn provides online and classroom training for many of their products, including SharePoint and Microsoft 365. They also offer certifications.
  • Computer literacy classes can also be found online and in the local community. These types of classes are typically standalone courses meant only for enrichment. They are usually free and are offered through the local library, an adult education program or community colleges. These courses cover basic computer skills.

Time Management

Interpersonal Skills


Organizational skills

Customer Service

Research Strategies

We researched types of jobs that fall under the "administrative workforce" category. A review of multiple articles, employment websites and career development blogs revealed the skills necessary to be successful in the administrative workforce. These skills work for both part-time and full-time staff. Once the skills were identified, we researched how each skill can be achieved and/or improved. For many of the "soft skills" such as interpersonal, customer service and communication, these are best learned through professional or personal development courses offered either online or through seminars. These types of skills are difficult to measure and take time to develop.


From Part 04
  • "Education: High School Diploma or equivalent preferred"
  • "Proficiency in Microsoft Office applications"
  • "Skills: Ability to read, write and comprehend written instructions and basic arithmetic "
  • "Computer-literate"
  • "Excellent written and verbal communication"
  • "Typing ability 40 wpm minimum; 60 wpm preferred"
  • "High school/GED plus three (3) years of medical billing experience, or equivalent combination of education and experience is required"
  • "Medical claims or billing experience"
  • "Proficient in Microsoft Office"
  • "Healthcare experience is preferred"
  • "Master's degree in a behavioral health field"
  • "High School Diploma or GED, along with"
  • "6 months or more of experience in an automotive or related environment"
  • "Ability to apply concepts such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication to practical situations"
  • "Ability to interpret a variety of instructions furnished in written, oral, diagram, or schedule form"
  • "High school diploma, some college preferred"
  • "3+ years of related work experience preferred"
  • "Proficiency in Microsoft Office applications"
  • "Must be able to read and write in English and use arithmetic skills accurately to complete required daily projects"
  • "High School diploma or equivalent required"
  • "6+ years’ experience as legal secretary or administrative paralegal"
  • "Strong verbal and written communication skills"
  • "Superior technology skills – proficiency with Microsoft Office suite (Word, Excel and Outlook); "
  • "Must be knowledgeable of bankruptcy law and foreclosure proceedings"
  • "At least 3-5 years experience in a paralegal role"
  • "Must possess excellent communications skills"
  • "Must be proficient in Microsoft Office"
  • "Must be proficient with basic accounting"
From Part 05
  • "To be successful at their jobs, these workers require a specific set of skills. Unlike white-collar workers, blue collar workers perform more physical work. Along with the physical responsibilities required, these workers may also need to use their mechanical skills, problem-solving skills and computerized equipment skills."
  • "However, in recent years there has been a transition from the assembly-line style of manufacturing of the past to the technology-driven manufacturing of today—changing the way manufacturing companies hire prospective talent. Today’s manufacturing workers need to have a wider scope of skills to be successful—something we know first-hand after placing talented workers in manufacturing jobs for 50 years. Drawing from our experience, below we review some of the skills that manufacturing hiring managers are looking for in prospective employees."
  • "This is not the case in other developed countries, King says. Those who have completed skilled-trade apprenticeships represent about three-tenths of 1 percent of the entire U.S. workforce, he said. In some countries overseas, he said, they represent more than 30 percent of the workforce. "
  • "Closing the Skills Gap 2020 provides a platform for World Economic Forum partners from regions like MENA, South Africa, France and ASEAN to be part of the global initiatives. As of January 2019, 6,432,400 people have been trained."
  • "“Instead of traditional classroom learning, AR and VR allow someone to actually perform the task and therefore the learning curve is much faster,” he adds."
From Part 06