US Public High Schools Spending

Part
01
of three
Part
01

Non-academic Spending - US Public High Schools

The direct high school statistics were not specifically stated, but the percentages were ascertainable through triangulation. Public high school spending in the United States on programming that is not targeted at academic development is between 35.08% and 39.3% of all expenditures. The total current expenditures for all elementary and secondary schools (high schools) in the United States in 2014-15 was over $575.81 billion. As of 2015 there were 98,200 total public schools, with 24,053 secondary schools and 6,205 combined elementary and secondary schools. There were between 14.9 million and 15.73 million secondary students out of a total of 50.3 million public school students spread across the 30,000 secondary schools. The percentage of secondary students and secondary schools is the same, at roughly 30%. The total current expenditures of public high schools, whether looking at total secondary students or total secondary schools, is $172.74 billion. Therefore, nonacademic spending is between $60.6 billion and $68.6 billion dollars.

CATEGORIES OF EXPENDITURES

Current expenditures is broken down between Instruction, Support Services, Food Services, and Enterprise Operations. Instruction is 60.7% of all current expenditures. The support services category (35.08% of current expenditures) is broken down between student support services, instructional staff support, general administration, stool administration, operations and maintenance, student transportation, other support services. At 5.62% of current expenditures, "student support services include attendance and social work, guidance, health, psychological services, speech pathology, audiology, and other student support services.
A separate breakdown of current expenditures is based on salaries and wages in conjunction with employee benefits, which accounts for 79.8%, or $459.3 billion of current expenditures.

BREAKING DOWN THE NUMBERS

The budgetary numbers are provided for the 2014-15 academic year, but they are up-to-date because the National Center for Educational Statistics published its report January 2018. 2014-15 current expenditures across elementary and secondary schools was over $575.81 billion, which means $172.74 billion was expended by public high schools, because secondary schools make up around 30% of all public schools and secondary students make up around 30% of all public school students.

If instruction is 60.7% of a public high school's expenditures, then generally speaking nonacademic spending is upwards of 39.3%, which would be $68.6 billion expended by public high schools. Nonacademic/non-instructional categories are listed above. The student support services makes up 5.62% of current expenditures, which is $9.71 billion expended by high schools.

It is important to note that spending per student varies drastically per state. This variable spending affects the nonacademic support that students receive.

CONCLUSION

In the United States, public high schools are spending upwards of 39.3%, $68.6 billion, on nonacademic areas across 30,000 secondary schools.

Part
02
of three
Part
02

Non-academic Spending Breakdown - US Public High Schools

The latest report on the revenue and expenditure of public elementary and secondary schools in the US by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) was published in January 2018 pertaining to the fiscal year 2015. This report breaks down the total non-academic expenditure of public schools into support services, food services, and enterprise operations.

* Support services: This includes expenditure on student support services, instructional staff support, general administration, school administration, operations and maintenance, student transportation, and other support services. Student support services include expenses on attendance and social work, guidance like Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs, health, psychological services, speech pathology, audiology, and other student support services. According to a report by Transforming Education, SEL programs account for the $160 million spent by high schools to "support students’ development".

* Food services: This includes expenditure on providing services like preparing and serving meals or snacks to the students and staff, and delivery of food to the schools.

* Enterprise operations: Enterprise operations are operations that are conducted as a private business and are used to fund the school. This includes expenditure on school bookstores and certain after-school activities.

Since all of these expenses pertained to both public elementary and secondary schools, we used the data published by the NCES to determine the data for public secondary schools. In 2015, about 15.05 million students were enrolled in public secondary schools. In 2015, there were 24,181 public secondary schools and 6,347 combined public elementary and secondary schools.

Using these data and the expenditures per pupil as reported by the NCES, the break down of the non-academic spending was calculated.

Calculations

Number of high school students in 2015 = 15.05 million

Total non-academic expenditure by high schools
= (Support services per pupil + Food services per pupil + Enterprise operations per pupil) * Number of students
= ($4,018 + $459 + $24) * 15.05 million
= $67.74 billion

Percentage of support services
= (Support services per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($4,018 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 89.27 percent

Percentage of student support services
= (Student support services per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($644 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 14.31 percent

Percentage of social emotional learning
= Expenditure on social emotional learning / Total expenditure
= $160 million / $67.74 billion
= 0.24 percent

Percentage of instructional staff support
= (Instructional staff support per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($536 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 11.91 percent

Percentage of general administration
= (General administration per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($229 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 5.09 percent

Percentage of school administration
= (School administration per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($632 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 14.04 percent

Percentage of operations and maintenance
= (Operations and maintenance per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($1,078 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 23.95 percent

Percentage of student transportation
= (Student transportation per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($483 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 10.73 percent

Percentage of other support services
= (Other support services per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($415 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 9.22 percent

Percentage of food services
= (Food services per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($459 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 10.2 percent

Percentage of enterprise operations
= (Enterprise operations per pupil * Number of students) / Total expenditure
= ($24 * 15.05 million) / $67.74 billion
= 0.53 percent

non-academic expenditure breakdown

According to the previous request, about 39.7 percent of all expenditure by public high schools was spent on non-academic services. The breakdown of the non-academic expenditure is as follows:

* Total support services = 89.27 percent
- Student support services = 14.31 percent
(Including 0.24 percent spent on SEL programs)
- Instructional staff support = 11.91 percent
- General administration = 5.09 percent
- School administration = 14.04 percent
- Operations and maintenance = 23.95 percent
- Student transportation = 10.73 percent
- Other support services = 9.22 percent
* Food services = 10.2 percent
* Enterprise operations = 0.53 percent

In conclusion, the non-academic expenditure of US public high schools can be broken down into expenditure on support services, food services, and enterprise operations.
Part
03
of three
Part
03

Pain Points in Non-academic Areas - US Public High Schools

There are two frequently mentioned pain points in non-academic areas: the ever-present need to juggle increasing demand for stagnated funding and the constant changes in legislation and requirements to pressure schools into providing creative non-academic programs.

FINDINGS

As per your request, I began by investigating the previous request "Non-academic Spending Breakdown — US Public High Schools". Using this resource, I have compiled the following over-arching list of non-academic expenditures:

— student support services,
• attendance and social work,
• guidance like Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs,
• health,
• psychological services,
• speech pathology,
• audiology,
• and other student support services.
— instructional staff support,
— general administration,
— school administration,
— operations and maintenance,
— student transportation,
— and other support services.
2. Food services:
— preparing and serving meals or snacks,
— and delivery of food to the schools.
3. Enterprise operations:
— school bookstores,
— and after-school activities."

As such, three major spending sections can be determined "support services, food services, and enterprise operations". Using these sections pain points in non-academic areas have been identified. Below I will highlight each pain point in relation to its spending section.

SUPPORT SERVICES

One major issue in support services is that of aging facilities. There has been some improvement in this area over recent years, however, this remains a prominent issue despite some influxes of construction for education facilities. Statistically, "the average age of a school building in the United States is more than 40 years old".

Another strain in support services derives from the ever-increasing workload throughout education. In particular, providing social work has become a pain point. This issue has been fueled by the fact that whilst workloads increase, caseloads have reduced. This pain point is summarized in the fact that workload and caseloads are "not a 1 to 1 metric" anymore.

Similarly, social-emotional learning has come under significant strain. It is described that there's no accurate way to measure social emotional learning at this time. In turn, this has made it extremely difficult for this sub-section of support services to measure "success versus investment". Due to the recent increase in awareness and priority of emotional health and well-being, this pain point is highly stressed.

FOOD SERVICES

Over the years, "The School Nutrition Association (SNA) has consistently supported school cafeteria professionals" in an effort to maintain high nutritional values in school meals. Unfortunately, these high standards are not cost-effective. This can be seen in the fact that the "US Department of Agriculture estimates that these changes will force schools to absorb an extra $1.22 billion a year in extra costs". It is reported that this cost is only increased by the level of wastage created through the scheme and reduction in students opting for school-provided meals. In turn, "this reduces the much-needed revenues to support the lunch program". Although some changes have been made by the SNA to increase participants and reduce waste, this remains a significant pain point as school meals are not yet financially stable.

Statistically, this pain point can be qualified. At this time, a total of $3 per school meal is appropriated by the government. However, this leaves education facilities with the need to cover their overheads. In the end, approximately $1 per lunch is retained for use.

ENTERPRISE OPERATIONS

It is highly desired by parents and governance for schools to provide creative and different after-school programs. In turn, this has created a strain on schools to deliver exciting and new content that will entice students. On a whole, after-school activities have become increasingly expensive with no increase in funding. In order to keep up with these demands, education facilities have begun to "try to mitigate this by sourcing donors and tapping into state and nationwide grants". The need for long-term sustainability in after-school programs has become a major pain point and point of discussion among educators and governance alike. It is notable that many children do not have access to any alternate extra-curricular activities that are needed to "learn academic, social and professional skills"; it is a necessity that education facilities are able to provide extra-curricular services.

CONCLUSION

To sum it up, I have extrapolated information from the previous request "Non-academic Spending Breakdown — US Public High Schools" and conducted further research into each finding. Through this endeavor, I have compiled an overview of the main pain points in non-academic areas.
Sources
Sources