Transportation Greenhouse Emissions

Part
01
of six
Part
01

Greenhouse Emissions: Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks US

GHG emissions from light-duty trucks account for 5.07% of all GHG emissions in the United States, and those from medium-and-heavy-duty trucks account for 6.76%. The number of light-duty trucks and heavy-duty trucks is not publicly available.

Breakdown of CVs in the US

  • The breakdown of on-road, non-transit registered vehicles in the United States in 2017 (provided by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics):
  • The breakdown of registered private trucks and commercial trucks (under 10,000 lbs.) in the United States in 2017 (provided by the Federal Highway Administration)
  • The exact number of light-duty commercial vehicles and heavy-duty trucks is indeterminable from the statistics provided by the Department of Transportation.
  • There were 141,872,000 commercial vehicles in use in the United States in 2015.
  • According to Denso, there were 18,000 heavy-duty and off-road vehicles in operation in the US in 2017.

GHG Emissions

  • In 2017, the total GHG emission in the United States was 6,456.7 Tg CO2-e.
  • The total GHG emission in the transportation sector was 1,867.1 Tg CO2-e.
  • Emissions from on-road vehicles were 1,558.6 Tg CO2-e.
  • Emissions from light-duty trucks were 327.3 Tg CO2-e. This represents 5.07% (327.3 Tg/6,456.7 Tg) of all GHG emissions.
  • Emissions from medium-and-heavy-duty trucks were 436.5 Tg CO2-e. This represents 6.76% (436.5 Tg/6,456.7 Tg) of all GHG emissions.

Research Strategy

We first searched government databases for the number of light-duty and heavy-duty trucks, however, the information we found did not provide the vehicle count specific to light-duty and heavy-duty trucks. We also searched vehicle-in-operation statistics for the two CV segments in ACT Research, IHS Markit, and Experian reports and industry association websites but did not find the required data. Most statistics we came across was for light vehicles as a whole. Alternately, we looked for the data in CV supplier annual reports (for references on market size) and related media reports but met with limited success.
Part
02
of six
Part
02

Greenhouse Emissions: Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks NA

The total number of trucks in Canada and Mexico was 22.75 million and 12.40 million, respectively. The percent of greenhouse gases (GHG) generated by light and heavy-duty trucks in Canada's transportation sector stood at 34.96% and 41.88% in 2017. It is noted that the transportation sector for all three countries accounts for about 24% to 29% of the total GHG generated by each country in North America.

Canada

  • In 2018, the total number of registered vehicles in Canada was 35.10 million. The total registered vehicles comprised 23.13 million light-vehicles, 620,481 medium-duty vehicles, 481,182 heavy-duty vehicles, and 7.74 million trailers, among others.
  • In 2019, the total number of light vehicles in operation in Canada stood at 26.2 million. The light-duty trucks accounted for about 53.1%, i.e., calculated to be about 13.91 million vehicles.
  • According to the Government of Canada, the total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions stood at 716 MT CO2 eq in 2017, while the total GHG produced by the transportation sector was 174 MT CO2 eq or 24% of the total GHG emissions in Canada.
  • Greenhouse gases (GHG) produced by the Canadian road vehicles, i.e., passenger vehicles, buses, two-wheelers, transport trucks, and stood at 143 MT CO eq in 2017.
  • The Natural Resources Canada reports the total GHG generated by light trucks was about 50 MT CO2 eq (34.96%), and the medium and heavy trucks accounted for about 59.9 MT CO2 eq (41.88%) in 2017.

Mexico

  • In 2019, the total number of vehicles in Mexico stood at 47.79 million. The total number of vehicles in operation includes 33 million cars, 441,658 buses, and 11.47 million trucks and cargo vans. In 2018, the total number of heavy load cargo trucks in the country stood at 496,057 vehicles.
  • According to a recent report, the greenhouse gases generated by Mexico were 683 Mt CO2 eq in 2015. Additionally, the automobiles generated about 159.94 MT CO2 eq (23.4%) of total emissions in Mexico.
  • In 2017, about 171 MT CO2 eq was generated by the transportation sector in Mexico. Additionally, the heavy-duty trucks using diesel fuels accounted for 27.14% of the total GHG emissions in 2015.

United States

  • In 2019, the total number of light vehicles in operation in the US stood at 278.1 million. The total number of trucks registered in the US stood at about 55.9%, i.e., calculated to be about 155.45 million vehicles.
  • The breakdown for the total number of trucks operating in the US includes 13% heavy-duty, 13% medium-duty, and 74% light-duty vehicles.
  • In 2017, the greenhouse gas emissions by the US transportation sector stood at 6,456.7 MT of CO2 eq or about 29% of the total GHG emissions in the US.
  • In 2017, the medium and heavy-duty trucks accounted for 23% of transportation greenhouse gas emissions. Alternatively, the light-duty vehicles accounted for about 59% of the total GHG in the US transportation sector.

Research Strategy

We started our research by searching for the total number of heavy and light-duty trucks in operation across North America. We scoured through industry database sites, market research reports, government publications to ascertain the total number of trucks in operation across the continent. However, we could not find any public information about the total number of trucks operating across North America.

Next, we tried to identify the number of trucks in operation across major countries in North America, i.e., the United States, Canada, and Mexico. We were able to identify the total number of heavy and light-duty trucks in operation for all three countries.

Further, we tried to understand the total amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) generated by each country and its transportation sector. We were able to successfully compile the amount of GHG in Mt CO2 eq for light and heavy-duty trucks in each country.

Part
03
of six
Part
03

Greenhouse Emissions: Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks Asia

The total number of registered trucks in china for the year 2018 was 25.68 million. Heavy-duty trucks contributed to approximately 6.1% of all GHG emissions in China and about 1.81% in light-duty vehicles.

Number of Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Trucks

  • The most recent information available from the Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) estimated that there were 27,040,000 commercial vehicles in use in China.
  • China recorded a total of 1,772, 800 units in the number of light duty vehicles in 2017.
  • Japan recorded a total of 818, 214 units in the number of light duty vehicles in 2017, and about two million light commercial vehicles produced in 2018.
  • According to Statista, there were a total of 25.68 million trucks registered in China in 2018. The country produced about 2.13 million heavy trucks in the same year.
  • China recorded about 1.1 million heavy-duty trucks and 229,113 medium-duty trucks sold in 2017.
  • A total of 518,000 heavy trucks were produced in Japan in 2018.

GHG Emissions from Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks Asia

  • In 2015, Heavy-duty trucks contributed to approximately 6.1% of all GHG emissions in China and about 1.81% in light-duty vehicles.
  • According to research, China saw its emissions rise by 1.7 percent in 2017.
  • China is the top global CO2 emitter. "Close to 10,000 million metric tons of CO2 from burning fossil fuel were emitted by China in 2017. "
  • Japan emitted 1,314 million metric tons of CO2 in 2013.

Research strategy

We started our research by searching for the total number of heavy and light-duty trucks in operation across Asia. The team scoured through industry databases, market research reports, and government publications to ascertain the total number of trucks in operation across the continent. However, we could not find any public information about the total number of trucks operating across Asia. The team then decided to identify the number of trucks in operation across the 2 major countries in Asia, specifically China and Japan. We were able to identify the number of heavy and light-duty trucks produced and registered in all the countries. After several hours of researching through different channels, the team was unable to determine the percentage of GHG emissions by light-duty trucks in china and japan. Due to lack of information, we believe this information is not available because it has not yet been published. Most of the information available on this subject are relating to each countries expected limit of GHG emissions.

Part
04
of six
Part
04

Greenhouse Emissions: Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks Australia

In 2017, there were 3,229,960 light-duty trucks and 439,287 heavy-duty trucks in Australia. The GHG emissions from light commercial vehicles were 15,679.33 Gg and the emissions from heavy-duty trucks were 20,463.73 Gg.

Number of Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Trucks (2018)

  • The number of registered vehicles in Australia by type in 2018:
  • According to the Australian government, light commercial vehicles have a GVM of up to 3.5 tonnes, light rigid trucks have a GVM of between 3.5 and 4.5 tonnes, and heavy rigid trucks have a GVM of over 4.5 tonnes.
  • In the United States, light-duty trucks are classified as class 1, class 2, and class 3, where class 1 has a GVM of 0–2,722 kgs., class 2 has a GVM of 2,722–4,536 kgs., and class 3 has a GVM of 4,536–6,350 kgs. Medium and heavy-duty trucks have higher GVMs.
  • The Australia government considers class 3 light-duty trucks as heavy rigid trucks. We have stuck to the Australian classification system for our calculations.
  • Therefore, the number of light-duty trucks in Australia is 3,345,163 (3,187,131 +158,032) and the number of heavy-duty trucks is 447,660 (346,966 + 100,694). Articulated trucks have been considered as heavy-duty trucks.

Number of Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Trucks (2017)

GHG Emissions from CVs

  • GHG emissions from road transport in Australia amount to 83,437.12 Gigagrams. This represents 15.7% of the total 530,840.9 Gg GHG emissions in Australia.
  • The GHG emissions from light commercial vehicles in 2017 were 15,679.33 Gg.
  • The GHG emissions from heavy-duty trucks in 2017 were 12,014.65 Gg.
  • The GHG emissions from medium-duty trucks in 2017 were 8,449.08 Gg.
  • The emissions from heavy-duty and medium-duty trucks were 20,463.73‬ (12,014.65 Gg+8,449.08 Gg). Medium-duty trucks have been considered as non-light or heavy-duty trucks in this research.

GHG Emissions from Cars, Buses, and Motorcycles

  • The GHG emissions from cars in 2017 were 45,005.17 Gg.
  • The GHG emissions from buses in 2017 were 1,986.90 Gg.
  • The GHG emissions from motorcycles in 2017 were 302 Gg.

Research Note

The classification of commercial vehicles differs on the Australian Bureau of Statistics website and the Department of Environment and Energy website. The Australian Bureau of Statistics classifies commercial vehicles as light commercial vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty trucks, while the Department of Environment and Energy has provided data for light commercial vehicles, medium-duty trucks, and heavy-duty trucks. The NSW government classifies medium-duty trucks as trucks with a GMV of 8 tonnes or more and having 2 axles; it classifies heavy-duty trucks as those having a GMV of 8+ tonnes and having three or more axles.
Part
05
of six
Part
05

Greenhouse Emissions: Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks Africa

In 2018, there were a total of 296,270 units of light-duty vehicles and 78,000 units of heavy-duty vehicles produced in Africa. In South Africa, the average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars in South Africa were 148 gCO2/km.

Overview

  • The most recent information available from the Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) estimated that there were 44,803,000 total vehicles in use for all African countries, with a motorization rate of 42.
  • In terms of commercial vehicles in use, the OICA estimated that there were 13,993,000 vehicles in use in Africa.
  • In 2018, the total sales or registration of new vehicles was estimated at 1,235,507 in Africa.
  • According to a 2018 report by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), "South Africa leads the continent’s automotive industry not just in terms of vehicle stock and new vehicle sales, but also as the main automotive manufacturing hub in the region and one of the largest globally."
  • The same 2018 report noted that the "total South African passenger vehicle population was 6.4 million units in 2015", which is the largest fleet in Africa. This accounted for 22.6% of vehicles on the continent. New passenger vehicle sales were more than 412,000 units in 2015, which represented about 37% of the African market and 60% more than Egypt, the second-largest new vehicle market in Africa."

Percentage of Greenhouse Emissions

  • According to the OICA, up to about 16% of global man-made CO2 emissions come from motor vehicles. (which is roughly 13% of total Greenhouse Gas).
  • The 2018 ICCT report noted that "the transportation sector is the second-highest contributor to South Africa's greenhouse gas emissions." Transport "emitted 61 Mt CO2 in 2013 and accounts for about 13% of total emissions, which is primarily due to South Africa’s heavy dependence on fossil fuels." This corresponds with the OICA's current estimates of greenhouse gas.
  • Additionally, the ICCT report noted that in 2015, the "average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars in South Africa, tested under the NEDC, were 148 gCO2/km. The equivalent metric in terms of fuel consumption is 6.3 L/100 km."
  • Finally, the average gasoline vehicle emits 145 gCO2/km, which is less than the average diesel vehicle in South Africa, which emits 166 gCO2/km. This is attributed to the fact that "most diesel vehicles in the country are SUVs (62%)."

Light-Duty Vehicles

  • According to the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA), there were 33,484 units in Morocco, 261,086 units in South Africa, and 1,700 units in Tunisia of light commercial vehicles produced in 2018, representing a total of 296,270 units in Africa.

Heavy-Duty Vehicles

  • In terms of heavy trucks, there were 50,507 units in Egypt and 27,493 units in South Africa, representing a total of 78,000 produced units in Africa for 2018.

Research Strategy

We were able to identify the number of units of light-duty and heavy-duty trucks produced in Africa in 2018, based on data gathered by the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA), which "represents the automobile industry at the international level." However, in terms of total vehicles that are actually in use, OICA only had general numbers available for 2015, with no specific breakdown and was the most recent report available. Data from the year 2015, was also referenced by other reports, such as the 2018 report by the International Council on Clean Transportation, as no other recent studies or statistics appear available. This is likely due to the time and cost of data gathering, which affects the rate at which reports are published. Additionally, the total sold units in Africa were based on the aggregated information that was available from OICA.

We were also able to find general data on the percentage of greenhouse and CO2 emissions in South Africa from the ICCT report, which roughly corresponds to the global CO2 emissions reported by OICA. Additionally, research focused on South Africa since it "leads the continent’s automotive industry, in terms of vehicle stock, new vehicle sales, and is the main automotive manufacturing hub in the region." Since the OICA represents the international automobile industry, it is likely that their global percentage estimate of CO2 emissions also represents the other countries in Africa, as well.

Finally, we also came across a 2019 report from the Department of Environmental Affairs Republic of South Africa, which also referenced statistics from 2015. They included tables that showed a breakdown of greenhouse gas (Gg) emissions of light-duty and heavy-duty trucks, however, the information specific to their respective Gg emissions was left blank, which suggests that this specific data is not yet available for this country.

Part
06
of six
Part
06

Greenhouse Emissions: Light-duty vs Heavy-duty Trucks South America

On-road vehicles account for 37.42% of all GHG emissions in South America. There are 12,307,068 light commercial vehicles and 2,830,491 heavy commercial vehicles in Brazil as of 2020.

SOUTH AMERICA

BRAZIL

  • Number of Trucks in Brazil in 2020:
  • Therefore, the number of light-duty commercial vehicles in Brazil is 12,307,068 (701,054+7,997,237+3,608,777) and the number of heavy-duty commercial vehicles is 2,830,491.
  • We searched for the Ministry of Environment website but were unable to find the emission data of light-and-heavy-duty trucks. We also searched for the required data in the interviews of the Minister of Environment and the Minister of Transportation but did not find any relevant information.
Sources
Sources

From Part 03
Quotes
  • " This statistic shows the amount of trucks in China from 2008 to 2018. In 2018, approximately 25.68 million trucks were registered in China. "
Quotes
  • "Asia-Oceania is the leading region for heavy truck production with about 2.77 million units produced in the Asia-Oceania region in 2016. "
Quotes
  • "After registering a stunning 52% increase in sales to an all-time high of 1.1 million units in 2017, sales of heavy-duty trucks increased another 15% in the first six months of 2018. Of the 29 million vehicles produced and sold by China’s automakers in 2017, approximately 25 million were passenger cars and four million were trucks and buses. Trucks made up almost 90% of commercial vehicles last year, and within the truck category, 1.1 million heavy-duty trucks and 229,113 medium-duty trucks were sold in the country."
Quotes
  • "With the world's largest population and for decades one of the fastest growing economies, China is far and away the world's top CO2 emitter. Close to 10,000 million metric tons of CO2 from burning fossil fuel were emitted by the superpower in 2017. On a per capita basis, China's CO2 emissions of 7.1 metric tons per person trail that of most countries on this list but still rank in the top 50 worldwide"
  • "Japan's CO2 emissions peaked in the three years following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, reaching 1,314 million metric tons of CO2 in 2013. Emissions have since been reduced to pre-2011 levels as the country has increased its use of renewables – now about 5% of its energy mix. Still, Japan is heavily reliant on oil and is criticized for its promotion of coal and technology to reduce CO2 emissions from coal."
Quotes
  • "Roughly two-thirds of last year’s emissions increase came from Asia, where fast-growing countries like China, India and Indonesia continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels as they lift themselves out of poverty. China, which is responsible for one-quarter of the world’s industrial greenhouse gases, saw its emissions rise 1.7 percent in 2017, fueled by rapid economic growth and an increase in oil and natural gas use. The rest of developing Asia, including India and Indonesia, saw their overall emissions increase 3 percent."
Quotes
  • "his statistic shows the heavy truck production in China between 2010 and 2018. Some 2.13 million heavy trucks were produced here in 2018. That year, more than four million heavy trucks were produced worldwide."
Quotes
  • "total of 5,034, 434 light-duty vehicles in Asia total of 1,772, 800 units in 2017 light duty vehicles in China Indian 504,116"
Quotes
  • "Within the region, China remains as the biggest producer with about two million light commercial vehicles produced in 2018."
Quotes
  • "In 2018, there were approximately 14.3 million trucks in use in Japan,"
Quotes
  • " In 2018, approximately 518 thousand heavy trucks were produced in Japan, up from a production volume of about 512 thousand heavy trucks in 2011"
Quotes
  • " Given that the HDV fleet contributed approximately 6.1% of all GHG emissions in China in 2015,"
Quotes
  • "china 174 japan 136 light vehicle china 202 in 2012 japan 151 in 2013"
From Part 04
Quotes
  • "In 2016, light passenger and commercial vehicles produced over 59oMt CO2-e, which accounted for 61 per cent of emissions from the transport sector and over 11% of all greenhouse gas emissions produced in Australia1."