Top legal issues facing the sports industry

Part
01
of five
Part
01

Top Legal Issues - Sports Industry: Licensing And Deals

After an exhaustive search through the public domain, we have established that there are no preexisting reports revealing the top 3-5 legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to licensing and deals. Moreover, there are almost no reports or articles that directly address this topic (especially for licensing and deals). However, we have provided helpful findings obtained through our research. Below mentioned are the helpful findings and an outline of our research strategy, to better understand why the requested information is publicly unavailable.


Helpful Findings: top legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to licensing and deals

  • Intellectual property rights and licensing issues cover 50% in esports.
  • The esports industry is facing legal issues related to "the way the young audience consumes the content — predominantly via streaming platforms such as Twitch — and the complex relationships between publishers of the games (who own the IP in the game), eSports event owners and the growing number of professional eSports teams."
  • The negotiation of licensing in premium sports media rights is one of the key areas of debate in terms of reserved rights.
  • In November 2016, Sky Sports have blocked over 1,500 unauthorized live streams of fights. Since then, joint bids for major sporting events is a trend up until now.
  • Collective Bargaining Agreement in NFL with the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) that will expire in 2021.
  • The regulation of sports betting within borders.
  • The suitability of Las Vegas as the host city for a professional sports franchise. It is now free to decide on "whether to legalize sports betting or not."
  • This has become a hot issue in the sports industry leaving some of the key stakeholders who look this as "opportunities to monetize" whereas, "others raise concerns about the impact legalized gambling could have on the integrity of the game, and federal and state governments consider their roles and legislative next steps."
  • By 2019, sports betting will become legal in the Washington DC.


Research Strategy:

To identify the top legal issues facing the sports industry that is related to licensing and deals, or research team started searching through legal platforms for sports and industry association reports such as LawInSport, SportsProMedia, and LegalSportsReport hoping to find the desired information related to the top legal issues of sports industry particularly about licensing and deals. But these reports only mentioned information about four key issues in sports media. This included that licensing of premium sports media rights is a key area of debate which has always been the question of reserved rights, Sky Sports identified and managed to block over 1,500 unauthorized live streams of the fight (a 2016 issue in the UK since Sky Sports is based in the UK and not in the US) and others. The search also provided the legal challenges in the sports industry but they were related to the traditional sports law issues, Labor relations in the NFL and to make sports betting legal. No specific report was found about licensing and deals.

Next, we changed our strategy and tried to find the alternative data points by looking directly through BusinessWire and Foley’s multidisciplinary Sports Industry Team hoping to generate information on the top legal issues of sports industry particularly about licensing and deals. These reports only mentioned about esports continued Growth and Investment, significant impact on the growth of esports over the past year and intellectual property rights and licensing issues on esports which is about 50%. But these reports did not specifically mention anything on the latest legal issues of the sports industry, particularly about licensing and deals.

Then, we tried broadening the research criteria by extending the requested range of years i.e. instead of just the for the years 2018-2019, we looked for data up to 2016-2017. We searched through other media reports and university published reports such as Forbes, CNBC, Marquette Education College of Law, and UNLV.edu hoping to generate information on the top legal issues of sports industry particularly about licensing and deals. These sources only mentioned about VR licenses to new entities and existing licensees in the year 2016, MGM bought the WNBA’s San Antonio franchise and moved it to Las Vegas, Emerging Legal Issues in Professional Sports but no specific information and appropriateness of Las Vegas as a host city for a professional sports franchise in the year 2016. The reports did not mention legal issues particularly related to licensing and deals.

Based on our research, we have established that the information on the latest top legal issues facing the sports industry related to licensing and deals is not available publicly. One of the possible reason for the unavailability of the required information is that the legal issues being sourced are not specific to licensing and deals thus the information about licensing and deals is not publicly available. However, we have provided helpful findings that were obtained in our research.

Part
02
of five
Part
02

Top Legal Issues - Sports Industry: Corruption

Match-fixing, doping and insider information and trading (insider betting) are some top legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to corruption. The following section provides an overview of and insights around each of the legal issues identified.

Match-Fixing

DOPING

Insider Information and Trading (insider betting)

YOUR RESEARCH TEAM APPLIED THE FOLLOWING STRATEGY:

To find information on the top legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to corruption, we began by conducting a general search, utilizing credible sources like LawInSport to get an overview of the topic. From the background check, we identified corruption related legal issues like match-fixing, doping, insider information, host bribery, salary cap abuses and kick-backs for player transfers. With the ‘top’ legal issues criteria in mind, we sought to explore each of the issues to determine whether they were the most discussed and pressing matters relevant to the US sports industry. To determine the same, we made use of credible sources like Research Gate, Reuters, Legal Sports Report, Global Anti-Corruption blog, Telegraph News, Investopedia, and NCBI. We established that while host bribery, salary cap abuses, and kickbacks for player transfers are corruption-related legal issues, they are not pressing in the USA. Focusing on recent issues discussed in 2018 and 2019, we identified match-fixing, doping and insider information and trading as the top legal issues as it relates to corruption, with focus on US sports industry.
Part
03
of five
Part
03

Top Legal Issues - Sports Industry: Media Rights

Some top legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to media rights in the US are in-venue streaming & broadcasting of live sports events, new broadcasting partnerships in the OTT market, piracy of live sports broadcasting, and piracy via set-top boxes.

In-venue streaming & broadcasting of live sports events-

  • A more recent phenomenon noticed is the spectators are holding their smartphones aloft to capture the action and uploading high-quality footage of the match on the internet.
  • Spectators even live-stream the sports events without legal rights.
  • The challenge is as the technology advances and recording/transmission devices become smaller, less detectable and more powerful, attendees at live sporting events could soon have the technical capability to significantly disrupt subscription distribution models for sporting events.
  • They spectators may even disrupt solely advertiser-supported distribution by providing an ad-free viewing environment.
  • It is recommended that the U.S. event organizers and sports law practitioners look to France for inspiration.
  • In the French Sports Code, Article L.333-1 provides that “sports federations and organizers of sports events mentioned in Article L.331-5 are the owners of the exploitation right of the sports events or competitions that they organize.”
  • The French Sports Code sets forth a statutory, sui generis right (i.e. a unique or distinct type of legal right) that provides sporting event organizers with a monopoly over the right to broadcast their events. This right is similar to copyright in that it affords ownership rights to those persons responsible for creating a work, along with attendant rights to control the “exploitation rights” to that work.
  • Unlike France, the U.S. lacks a statutory regime providing distinct protection to sporting events.
  • In the absence of statutory law that expressly recognizes and confers ownership rights in sporting events to their organizers, such organizers will likely have to resort to a patchwork of existing legal rights, including those arising under state common law, to deal with in-venue, peer-to-peer transmission of events.

New broadcasting partnerships in the OTT market

  • When NBA decided to enter the OTT market, innovations like NBA Digital, NBA Mobile view, streaming access NFL-Verizon deal, streaming agreements with, Turner, Twitter and then Amazon, etc were a part of it.
  • Overall, these streaming options dramatically expand the reach of NFL in-market and nationally televised games.
  • From a legal standpoint, such new partnerships in the OTT market pose challenges for attorneys representing all sides in such transactions.
  • In crafting such OTT partnerships, the various parties need to address the following legal issues:
A. Whose Production is Used: The particular party producing the telecast of the specific sporting event needs to be decided (for instance, CBS produces certain NFL Thursday night telecasts, in partnership with the NFL Network, which is streamed through Yahoo).
B. Territory of Distribution: OTT rights are usually bifurcated by country, with Yahoo having NFL OTT rights in the U.S., but Sky Sports having NFL OTT rights in the U.K. for instance.
C. Responsibility of Securing Clearances: These need to be secured for athletes and the music used in the produced game, in order to distribute the telecast in the OTT market, with the league usually securing athlete clearances, but the producing partner usually securing music clearances for the OTT distribution.
D. Warranties Being Issued: Between distribution partners, certain warranties are issued for in-game elements (such as a quitclaim or absolute representation), with the OTT partner having more leverage, usually delivering less robust warranties to the other party.
E. Licensing of Trademarks: Are trademarks being licensed royalty-free from the league or does a streaming partner need to pay royalties for the use of trademarks in the OTT market.
F. Allocation of Advertising Slots: The advertising slots for each telecast need to be allocated among the various distribution partners, including (usually small) allocation of advertising slots to the OTT partner in exchange for streaming the original broadcast partner’s telecast.

PIRACY OF LIVE SPORTS BROADCASTING- A BARRIER FOR NATIONAL SPORTS DEVELOPMENT:

  • Piracy is the unauthorized streaming of live broadcasts of sports events, which undermines the revenue potential that broadcast rights offer and stunts the growth of the sports sector.
  • A recent BBC survey revealed that the professional boxing match between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Conor McGregor is estimated to have been viewed illegally by some 3 million viewers (including through social media platforms such as Facebook), generating estimated revenue losses of $250 million. Yet, identifying and fighting piracy of live broadcasts of sports events is very difficult.
  • Piracy of live broadcasting of sports events exists in most economies today and governments around the world are increasingly becoming cognizant of the need to address this rapidly growing illicit activity.
  • Rampant and unrestrained sports broadcasting piracy impacts not only the holders of broadcasting rights but also the national sports environment as a whole, as revenues from subscriptions are reflected in deals on broadcasting rights between leagues and broadcasters.
  • This, in turn, enables broadcasters to provide increased access to more national and international sporting events.
  • Thus, in the fight against piracy of sports broadcasting, the existence, and enforcement of IP rights is critical.
  • In countries where the IP regime is weak, the national sports environment is missing out on essential income that could develop and promote it further.

SET-TOP BOXES: A NEW BATTLEGROUND-

  • The plug-and-play set-top boxes setup allows consumers to illicitly intercept sports broadcasts of their choice effortlessly.
  • Often, the electronic interface of a pirated set-top box mimics the user experience provided by legitimate cable companies so well that the users are not aware of their copyright-infringing actions.
  • These set-top boxes are creating a new battleground of online piracy that is even more challenging to counter than its predecessors.
  • Most of these services provide unauthorized access through paid subscription at prices not much different from legitimate providers.
  • Their business models also rely on advertising, except nearly 66% of advertising promotes malware, scams, and online gambling.
  • A study by the Canadian-based networking company Sandvine finds that an estimated 6.5% of North American households subscribed to TV piracy services, resulting in the loss of an estimated $4.2 billion each year in subscription revenues.
  • While these figures provide an estimate of the impact of online piracy on all TV broadcasts in general, given the popularity of live sports, it can be assumed that sports broadcasts make up a significant share of these overall piracy numbers.
  • Evidence from individual economies also suggests that pirated live sports is a huge part of pirated content online.

Other relevant information

Rights to Broadcast Live Sports: Broadcasting professional sporting events-

  • An individual who wants to broadcast live club or professional sporting events should always seek approval from the league or organization.
  • Users cannot stream or broadcast these games and events on streaming platforms.
  • An individual does not have the right to broadcast or stream professional sporting events that are copyrighted and licensed.
  • One must get the proper permissions so that both the broadcaster and the league can benefit from the business model, legally.

Research Strategy

In order to determine if the "top" legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to media rights, we found that those mentioned above were commonly mentioned in websites like LawIn Sports, FCC, Broadcast Law Blog, and many more relevant databases. Based on this, we chose to mention four legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to media rights in the United States. Also, along with these four, we could not cite any other issues that are mentioned which also led us to determine that currently, these four maybe be the only issues facing the sports industry as it relates to media rights in the U.S.
As another strategy, we also looked for these issues and tried to find out if they were trending on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter, but we could not find any useful information. We checked on websites like Social Mention, Social Bearing, and Hashtagify, but we could not find any relatable mentions of these topics based on which they can be determined as the top.
Part
04
of five
Part
04

Top Legal Issues - Sports Industry: eSports

Over the years, esports has experienced a meteoric rise in popularity which has resulted in increased revenue generation. By investing in esports events and international players such as Drake and Michael Jordan, recent years have been record-breaking for the industry with the highest revenue of $900 million generated in 2018 alone. As an emerging sport, however, esports experiences diverse legal issues when it comes to the management of the players, the teams, team owners, and engagement of other parties. Below is a list of legal issues that the industry is currently facing.

Lack of contractual obligation's clarity

  • Contracts in esports are usually handled similarly as those of mainstream sports; players and teams sign contracts to protect their investments and rights while tournament organizers and event participants enter into contracts to protect their investments.
  • An example of a lack of awareness of the consequences of signing a contract is the recent case of Counter-Strike: Global Offensive player, Owen Butterfield. The player displayed his contractual problems in late 2017 via Twitter where he states that his contract resulted in the reduction of his monthly salary from $2,000 to $700 only. This is just an example as several players fall into victims of exploitation due to lack of advice and protection when signing a contract in the esports industry.
  • Another contractual issue is the obligations between the player or teams and the tournament organizers. There are instances when organizers fail to have written a contract with the players or teams involved in the events, and in the end, fail to deliver what they allegedly promised. Lack of contracts makes it challenging for players and teams to prove their claim over what they are rightfully owed, and imbalance of power usually arise in the case where players are unable to afford legal representation to protect their rights.

E-doping

  • While the fight against doping continues to be a major intervention in traditional sports, esports is also affected by ‘cheating’ and the invention of manipulative game aids and tricks that are not permitted. The sports industry has experienced a wide variety of e-doping cases.
  • Game software is being modified, and keyboard settings are altered by players to perform several game actions using a single click. In some instances, players watch live broadcasts of matches they are engaging in to gain an insight on how to defeat their opponents; this is commonly known as stream sniping. In the US, cases of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), have been reported to slow down the network of a competitor for an unjustified win.
  • In 2014, Valve had issued a lifetime ban against Arrow Gaming players due to match-fixing in Dota 2. However, the banned players still got the opportunity to play and become tournament champions in other events.

Governance and regulations

  • Experts in the industry assert that in the US where traditional sports such as soccer or football have sports regulatory organizations, there is no single entity to oversee competitive video games. Unfortunately, it remains unclear whether traditional sports laws like civil liabilities, labor, and antitrust regulations also apply to esports.

Intellectual property and broadcasting rights

  • IP always becomes a major issue during leagues and tournaments. For instance, cyber athletes or players are never given the right even to own their avatars during the competitions. Although some players have been able to handle tricky IP issues, it is always a great hurdle for players and teams to benefit from their own endorsements.

NOTE

Other two legal issues highlighted by experts in the esports industry as well as the latest sport magazines include:
  • Integrity
  • Gambling

Research strategy

In order to locate the top legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to eSports, we began by researching credible research reports such as Market and Market Research, PRNewswire, and Globe Newswire and other relevant sites addressing the sports industry, particularly esports. Fortunately, we found several reports from CQ Press Library, Johan Cruyff Institute, Marquette Law, and lawinsports.com that listed the top legal issues affecting the industry. We selected issues facing the esports industry as outlined by the multiple sources and included two other issues that significantly affect the industry.

Part
05
of five
Part
05

Top Legal Issues - Sports Industry: Gambling

The top legal issues facing the sports industry as it relates to gambling include regulation of sports betting within borders, state revenue impacts, and the black market. The Supreme Court in the United States has struck down the federal ban on sports betting which leads to the start of a new era in the sports industry.

1. REGULATE SPORTS BETTING WITHIN THEIR BORDERS:

  • As per Murphy v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, the Supreme Court held that a provision of the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) has violated anti-commandeering doctrine by prohibiting states from authorizing private sports gambling.
  • The US court has made a decision in Murphy v. National Collegiate Athletic Association that declared the federal Professional and Amateur Sports Provision Act (PASPA) unconstitutional. Thus, paving the way for individual states to legalize and regulate sports betting within their borders.
  • As a result, 8 states have implemented full-scale legalized sports betting while 29 other jurisdictions have passed their legislative frameworks.
  • PASPA has made it nearly impossible for law enforcement to protect those consumers who choose to gamble on sports. PASPA has failed to stop the spread of illegal sports gambling, prompted the rise of an enormous gambling black market, increased criminals’ profits, and prevented states from raising millions in tax revenue and enacting consumer protection. This has led the pursuit to stop corruption in sports more difficult.

2. STATE REVENUE IMPACT

  • PASPA has not only put both consumers and sports at risk, but it also costs states hundreds of millions of dollars in potential tax revenue that could be used toward public projects or services.
  • In the United States, single-game sports betting, which is a part of gambling were only legal in Nevada until May 2018. Thus, a total of seven states had legal sports betting markets by the end of 2018 including Nevada, Delaware, New Jersey, Mississippi, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.
  • According to the U.S. News & World Report, by legalizing sports betting, states can expose themselves to additional taxpayer costs for crime and the creation of new financial products that could lead to potential speculation.
  • By disallowing states from regulating the activity, PASPA has made it impossible for law enforcement to protect those consumers who choose to gamble on sports. It does not only make consumers vulnerable but it is likely that it encourages corruption more in sports, therefore, impacting the state's revenue.

3. BLACK MARKET

  • Some gaming experts argue that high state tax regimes simply push bettors away from regulated sports books back to the black market. The integrity fees paid to leagues would chip away at state revenues and already slim margins for legal sportsbooks.
  • This phenomenon hurts their ability to compete with offshore books and move more consumers to the regulated market.
  • According to H2 Gambling Capital, a betting market intelligence firm, U.S. gamblers made $196.2 billion in illegal sports bets in 2016, including both gambling with licensed offshore websites and black market bookmakers.
  • This analysis means that 97 % of all U.S. sports betting in 2016 was illegal. American Gaming Association has estimated that an illegal sports betting is a $150 billion market in the U.S and the firm Eilers & Krejcik Gaming has estimated $50 billion to $60 billion black markets.
  • Americans illegally gamble about 14 times more money on sports than they spend going to the movies and nearly eight times what they spent attending spectator sports.
  • According to H2, Massachusetts spent the 8th most money of any state on gray market sports bets totaling $680 million in 2016, whereas California and New York topped the lists spending $3.6 billion and $1.57 billion respectively.
  • Thus, such betting made up about 10% of total illegal sports gambling in the country, with 69% going to black market online betting and 17% to illegal land-based betting.

Research Strategy

To find the information for legal issues facing the sports industry related to gambling, we started off our research by looking at the market reports, industry association reports, and blogs available on sources such as Report Linker, Market & Market, and Market Research to find if these can provide any publicly available information on the top legal issues. However, the reports talk about gambling in the sports industry in general along with some pertinent issues like prohibiting states from authorizing private sports gambling.

Next, we explored articles and research papers on some legal issues facing the sports industry in the context of gambling. The idea was to check the most discussed and pressing matters in the industry. We looked through sources, including but not limited to the New York Times, the Economist, and the research published by KPMG. We also tried to look for some hard data in sources such as Statista and IBIS World. However, no such metrics were available

From the above-mentioned sources, we were able to find that regulation of sports betting within states, black marketing, and state revenue is the most pertinent legal issues in the sports industry. Hence, we have gone with the issues which were highlighted in multiple credible sources. To confirm on those lines, we tried to look for surveys and estimations and came across a source which gave an estimate by H2 Gambling Capital, a betting market intelligence firm. The firm stresses on the fact that how the black market has become the major legal issues of gambling which confirm our initial research.

As there were no hard data / quantitative metrics available which listed any issues as "top," we relied on issues as covered by two or more credible sources LawIn Sport.com, Forbes.com, and Mass Live to include these as top and provided the details which illustrate that these are the pressing issues.


Sources
Sources

From Part 01
Quotes
  • "Respondents identified several factors that have had a significant impact on the growth of esports over the past year, including increased interest in streaming deals from major tech companies and TV networks (69%), the growing involvement of traditional professional sports teams, leagues and figures (68%) and the broadening of sponsorships beyond brands endemic to gaming (59%)."
  • "Tobias Seck, business analyst at The Esports Observer, added that “the near-term growth anticipated from sponsorship deals might be explained by their relatively lower degree of complexity and duration compared to media rights deals, which – especially considering the impact of mobile streaming – are likely to contribute significantly to the industry’s long-term growth."
  • "A strong majority (69%) said their organizations are focused on staying up to date on legal issues concerning esports and complying with current laws and regulations. Respondents also identified a number of legal issues that they believe pose a substantial risk to the esports industry, including cybersecurity and malware attacks targeting gamers’ and fans’ data (65%), intellectual property rights and licensing issues (50%), cyberbullying within games (43%) and contracts that do not provide adequate protections for players (43%)."
Quotes
  • "When negotiating the licensing of premium sports media rights, a key area of debate is always the question of “reserved rights”. This means, in essence, what rights the rights holder will seek to hold back and exclude from the scope of “exclusive” rights granted to its principal broadcast partner. It is a particularly important issue for pay-TV broadcasters to consider given their investment in premium sports rights is premised upon acquiring as great a level of rights exclusivity as possible."
  • "In the case of the Anthony Joshua PPV boxing event in November 2016, Sky Sports identified and managed to block over 1,500 unauthorised live streams of the fight. In conjunction with the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), Sky also successfully brought action in 2016 against the website fanatix which (as described in detail in chapter 3.5, above) claimed that its use of multiple 8 seconds clips on a near live basis from cricket and other sports could constitute legitimate “fair dealing” and not constitute copyright infringement. The decision in favour of Sky and the ECB was an important result, but marks only the tip of the iceberg of a much bigger problem in how to effectively tackle sports piracy."
Quotes
  • "Research released by the BBC in relation to England’s Premier League and Championship and the Scottish Premiership has shown that 322 players would not meet the current foreign player criteria if they were to be imposed on EU/EEA players. Some may argue that this will improve the fortunes of the national game but rights holders will be concerned about the knock-on effects to the commercialisation of sport in the UK through broadcast and sponsorship revenue."
Quotes
  • "Labor relations in the NFL could not be in a worse position heading into 2018. With the NFL’s Collective Bargaining Agreement with the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) set to expire in 2021 and negotiations ongoing, NFLPA executive director DeMaurice Smith is already on record saying an NFL strike or lockout is “almost a virtual certainty.” In fact, the NFLPA has already begun warning players to start saving money now so they have more leverage for a longer fight over the coming years."
Quotes
  • "If everything falls into place – sports betting will be live by [MLB] opening day next year,” DC Councilmember Jack Evans said in an interview with Legal Sports Report."
Quotes
  • "Last May, the United States Supreme Court struck down the federal ban on sports betting, marking the start of a new era in the sports industry.1 The Court’s decision in Murphy v. National Collegiate Athletic Association declared the federal Professional and Amateur Sports Provision Act (PASPA) unconstitutional, paving the way for individual states to legalize and regulate sports betting within their borders.2 Since the Murphy decision, eight states have implemented full-scale legalized sports betting, and twenty-nine other jurisdictions have introduced or passed their legislative frameworks at the time writing.3 It is only a matter of time before sports betting is legal in the vast majority of the United States."
Quotes
  • "Digital, mobile and social will continue to mature as key distribution, fan engagement and revenue sources for the sports industry in 2016. I am watching three things: 1) Continued evolution of the “individual as media company” model: Many athletes and public figures can now broadcast live via their phones to larger social media audiences than the media companies that employ them, which will generate innovative content and business models. "
  • "2) Wide adoption of immersive mobile video: New storytelling possibilities enabled by 360 video, VR/AR and mobile live streaming will create new fan experiences aimed at audiences like the one billion people checking Facebook daily (14 times/day on average). 3) The 2016 Rio Games: This year’s Summer Olympics could set a new high water mark for fan engagement around the world, harnessing the global conversation powered by social media, mobile growth and the factors above."
  • "On the legal side — the words “in any media, whether now known or hereafter devised” will begin to rear its head, as organizations offer VR licenses to new entities and existing licensees scratch their heads wondering about their rights or lack thereof in this new category of Virtual Reality Sports. "
Quotes
  • "What happens in Vegas no longer needs to stay in Vegas. With states now free to choose whether to legalize sports betting or not, many key stakeholders see opportunities to monetize, while others raise concerns about the impact legalized gambling could have on the integrity of the game, and federal and state governments consider their roles and legislative next steps."
Quotes
  • "This survey highlights sports-related cases decided by courts between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017. While every sports-related case maynot be included in this survey, it briefly summarizes a wide range of cases that impacted the sports industry in 2017. The survey intends to provide the reader insight into the important legal issues affecting the sports industry and to highlight the most recent developments in sports law. To better assist the reader, this survey is arranged alphabetically by the substantive area of law of each case."
Quotes
  • "The leagues’ nervousness around the growing appeal of sports gambling prompted a federal law known as the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (PASPA), which made it unlawful for states to “sponsor, operate, advertise, promote, license or authorize” sports gambling practices. Nevada—which has allowed widespread sports gambling since 1949—was grandfathered from the law and the only state fully excluded from PASPA’s ban."
  • "Last fall, the National Hockey League’s Vegas Golden Knights became the first professional sports team to play in Las Vegas. The Golden Knights’ newly-constructed home arena, T-Mobile Arena, was partially financed by MGM Resorts. MGM also bought the WNBA’s San Antonio franchise and moved it to Las Vegas, where the team is known as the Aces and plays at the Mandalay Bay Events Center."
Quotes
  • "Stakeholders and commentators have long debated the merits and appropriateness of Las Vegas as a host city for a professional sports franchise. These debates have engaged each of the four major U.S. sports, including, perhaps most prominently, the National Football League (NFL), which continues to express concerns about gambling and Las Vegas."
  • "This report examines the empirical evidence that confirms or refutes these concerns. Fortunately, many common (and understandable) questions have recently been addressed in the rapidly-emerging scientific literature on gambling impacts. Taken together, the analyses in this report constitute the first comprehensive, objective, and (where possible) scientifically-based assessment of the oft-articulated issues that arise in this context."
From Part 05
Quotes
  • "The Court’s decision in Murphy v. National Collegiate Athletic Association declared the federal Professional and Amateur Sports Provision Act (PASPA) unconstitutional, paving the way for individual states to legalize and regulate sports betting within their borders"
  • "Since the Murphy decision, eight states have implemented full-scale legalized sports betting, and twenty-nine other jurisdictions have introduced or passed their legislative frameworks at the time writing"
Quotes
  • "Every year, millions of Americans gamble on sports. Whether betting on the Super Bowl or filling out a March Madness bracket, many adults see betting on sports as a harmless way to enhance their enjoyment of the games."
  • "Few realize, however, that apart from a few privileged states and types of sporting events, most of this friendly wagering is illegal"
  • "A little-known law enacted by Congress in 1992, the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA), barred all but a handful of states from enacting laws to legalize sports gambling"
Quotes
  • "Single-game sports betting within the United States was only legal in Nevada until May 14, 2018. On that date, the SCOTUS struck down PASPA, effectively unlocking the legislative key for states that wished to legalize and regulate sports betting within their borders"
  • "Delaware was the first state outside of Nevada to launch single-game sports betting on June 5, taking advantage of its status as an original “grandfathered” state under PASPA. "
  • "Nevada, Delaware, New Jersey, Mississippi, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island are some of the states where legal sports betting is available in the U.S."
Quotes
  • "the U.S. House Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations will convene for a highly anticipated hearing on the state of the legalized sports gambling market."
  • "Already, four states -- New Jersey, Delaware, Mississippi and West Virginia -- have legalized sports gambling over the last three months."
  • "Societal effects of gambling addiction on Millennials and the nation as a whole. By legalizing sports betting, states can expose themselves to additional taxpayer costs for crime and the creation of new financial products that could lead to a potential "speculative bubble," he indicated at the time"
  • "Curbing the influence of the Black Market - Some gaming experts argue that high state tax regimes will simply push bettors away from regulated sports books back to the black market. The illegal market lacks consumer protections and threatens the integrity of sports, Rep. Dina Titus, a Nevada Democrat, wrote in a Sept. 25 letter to Sensenbrenner."
Quotes
  • "With the Supreme Court's decision this week to scrap a federal ban on sports betting, Massachusetts lawmakers are considering ways to legalize it -- and bring millions in potential tax revenues to the state."
  • "According to an estimate by H2 Gambling Capital, a betting market intelligence firm, U.S. gamblers made $196.2 billion in illegal sports bets in 2016, including both gambling with licensed off-shore websites and black market bookmakers"