Hispanic Health, Wellness, and Insurance Market in Florida
The demographic profile of the Hispanic population living in Florida reveals some interesting patterns. Information relating to the general Hispanic population of Florida is presented where available. In line with the request to include specific details about the South Florida communities and those living in Miami, Palm Beach, Tampa, Orlando, Jacksonville, Naples, and Tallahassee, demographic data on those areas within this list that had publicly available information is included. This relates primarily to Orlando, Tampa, Miami, and Central Florida. Despite an extensive search, there was little demographic data available on the other areas.
The upcoming Presidential election in 2020 means that several opinion polls and surveys have been completed that are relevant to the psychographic profile of the Hispanic population in Florida. On some issues, the Hispanic population is unified, while in other areas, the sub-culture plays a more significant role. The sub-cultural differences have been identified wherever possible. There was less information of this nature available that was specific to Florida, so some generalized information about the US Hispanic community has been included. The same is true in respect of insights around healthcare and the Hispanic population.
One of the difficulties with information of this nature is that much of the data is sourced from the last US census, which was in 2010, meaning it is somewhat dated. A census is due in 2020. Wherever possible, the data provided has been corroborated with data external to the last census.
General Demographic Information
- Currently, Hispanics make up 17% of the total US population. They have the longest life expectancy of any population group in the US. US-wide Hispanics are typically younger and have larger families compared to other demographic groups. Often they are in the lower-income brackets. There are currently 4.9 million Hispanics in Florida. They account for 24% of the population in Florida and 9% of the US Hispanic population.
- The average age of Florida Hispanics is 34.
- 26% of the Hispanic population in Florida is 18-34 years old, 33% are 35-54, 23% are 55-74, and 18% are over 70.
- In Orlando, 47% of the Hispanic population is aged 18-34, 31% are aged 35-54, 17% are aged 55-74, and 6% are over 70.
- In Tampa, 44% of the Hispanic population is aged 18-34, 37% are aged 35-54, 13% are aged 55-74, and 6% are over 70.
- In Miami, 32% of the Hispanic population is aged 18-34, 39% are aged 35-54, 16% are aged 55-74, and 12% are over 70.
- 48% of Florida's population is male, and 52% female.
- In Orlando, 41% of Hispanics are male and 59% female. While in Central Florida and Fort Meyers, 44% are male and 56% female. In Miami, 46% of Hispanics are male and 54% female.
- 46% of Hispanics in Florida are married.
- A US-wide survey regarding marriage found that by age 46, 84.6% of Hispanics have been married, and 39.3% have been divorced (at some time).
- Among the Hispanics that have been married at some time before age 46, the average age of marriage was 23.6%, of which 51.3% remain married. 45.6% of the marriages resulted in divorce.
- The average duration of the Hispanic marriage was 10.9 years, with 54.8% remarrying before age 46.
- The average time to remarriage was 4.2 years, with 61% still in their second marriage and 37.7% ending in divorce. The average duration of the second marriage was 8 years. Of those whose second marriage failed, 48.7% went back for round three.
- Hispanic births made up 29.3% of the births in Florida in 2017. The birth rate for Hispanics in Florida was 13.0.
- Unfortunately the data relating to the age of the Mother is not broken down into a Hispanic sub-group instead using a non-white category, which is of little assistance.
- Hispanics are more likely to work a blue-collar job in Orlando (37%), Tampa (31%), and Central Florida (33%). In Miami, 24% of Hispanics work in blue-collar jobs, while in West Palm Beach, 29% are blue-collar workers.
- The number of Hispanics working white-collar jobs is 30% in Orlando, 26% in Tampa, 30% in Central Florida, 39% in West Palm Beach, and 42% in Miami.
- 49% of Hispanics in Orlando are High School graduates or less, 32% had some college education, 10% are college graduates, and 10% are post-graduates.
- 58% of Hispanics in Tampa are High School graduates or less, 22% had some college education, 15% are college graduates, and 5% are post-graduates.
- 54% of Hispanics in Central Florida are High School graduates or less, 27% had some college education, 12% are college graduates, and 7% are post-graduates.
- 52% of Hispanics in Miami are High School graduates or less, 26% had some college education, 12% are college graduates, and 10% are post-graduates.
- The average annual income of Hispanics in Florida is $22,000.
- 40% of Hispanics in Orlando earn less than $35,000, 32% earn $35,000-$54,999, 16% earn $55,000-$74,999, 12% earn $75,000-$99,999, 15% earn $100,000-$249,000, and 3% earn over $250,000.
- 48% of Hispanics in Tampa earn less than $35,000, 24% earn $35,000-$54,999, 11% earn $55,000-$74,999, 8% earn $75,000-$99,999, 8% earn $100,000-$249,000, and 1% earn over $250,000.
- 44% of Hispanics in Central Florida earn less than $35,000, 26% earn $35,000-$54,999, 13% earn $55,000-$74,999, 8% earn $75,000-$99,999, 8% earn $100,000-$249,000, and 1% earn over $250,000.
- 37% of Hispanics in Miami earn less than $35,000, 20% earn $35,000-$54,999, 14% earn $55,000-$74,999, 11% earn $75,000-$99,999, 14% earn $100,000-$249,000, and 4% earn over $250,000.
Living Status (homeowner or renter)
- The home ownership rate of the Florida Hispanic population is 50%.
- Only 66% of the eligible Hispanic population is registered to vote in Orlando, 67% in Tampa, 68% Central Florida, and 65% in Miami. This is well below the general adult population in Florida, of which 80% are registered to vote.
- Of those Hispanics living in Orlando, 20% always vote, 22% sometimes vote, and 59% never vote. 23% of the Hispanic population in Orlando identifies as Democrat, 10% Republican, 10% Independent, 13% Independent (leaning Democrat), 7% Independent (leaning Republican), and 36% none.
- Of those Hispanics living in Tampa, 23% always vote, 25% sometimes vote, and 52% never vote. 28% of the Hispanic population in Tampa identifies as Democrat, 17% Republican, 5% Independent, 12% Independent (leaning Democrat), 6% Independent (leaning Republican), and 31% none.
- Of those Hispanics living in Central Florida, 21% always vote, 22% sometimes vote, and 57% never vote. 28% of the Hispanic population in Central Florida identifies as Democrat, 14% Republican, 8% Independent, 12% Independent (leaning Democrat), and 6% Independent (leaning Republican), and 32% none.
- Of those Hispanics living in Miami, 26% always vote, 21% sometimes vote, and 57% never vote. 23% of the Hispanic population in Orlando identifies as Democrat, 10% Republican, 9% Independent, 10% Independent (leaning Democrat), 4% Independent (leaning Republican), and 30% none.
- Among the Hispanics living in Florida, 71% are affiliated with a Christian based faith. This includes 37% Catholic, 22% Evangelical Protestant, 8% Mainline Protestant, 2% Historically Black Protestant, Jehovahs Witness 1%, Other Christian 1%, and Mormon and Orthodox Christian, which make up less than 1% each.
- 3% of the Florida Hispanic population are affiliated with Non-Christian based faiths. This includes Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, and Buddhist, Hindu, and other world religions that all account for less than 1%.
- Those unaffiliated to any religion make up 25% of the Hispanic population. Atheists are 1% of this group, Agnostics 3%, and nothing in particular accounted for 21%.
- 1% of the Hispanic people in Florida did not know their religious affiliation when asked.
- Information published recently suggests that 1 in 4 Hispanics in the US are former Catholics. The number of Hispanic Catholics in the US is declining. There has been an uptake in those affiliated with Protestantism or not affiliated with any religion in particular.
- The dramatic decline in Catholicism has happened over a relatively short time frame. In 2010 Pew Research recorded 67% of Hispanics in the US as affiliated to Catholicism, by 2013, this had fallen to 55%. The 37% affiliation to Catholicism in Florida suggests this number continues to fall.
- 52% of the Hispanic community in Florida were born in the US. 86% of this group have an origin other than Mexico.
- Latinas make up over 50% of the Hispanic population in Orlando, Tampa, and Central Florida.
- 68% of all Cubans in the US live in Florida. They make up 23% of the foreign born people living in Florida.
- It is estimated Puerto Ricans will become the largest Hispanic sub-culture in Florida in 2020.
- Currently, 28% of the Florida Hispanic population is Cuban, and 22% Puerto Rican. The influx of Puerto Ricans started after Hurricane Maria and continues.
- Those born in Haiti make up 7.7% of the foreign-born people living in Florida. Interestingly, those born in Mexico make up only 6.4% of the foreign-born Florida population. Colombians make up 6.2%.
- Statistics for South Florida show that the level of disability is above the US national average of 19.3%. The information is not broken down by ethnicity however the disability rates are as follows, Palm Beach 20.9%, Broward County 22.6%, Fort Lauderdale 23.7%, Miami-Dade 25.7%, West Palm Beach 27.6%, and Miami 29.4%.
- The prevalence of disability in the Hispanic community in Florida is 9.8%.
- Strong family-ties are fundamental to most Hispanics. Typically, Hispanic families will eat dinner together as a family on six of the seven nights of the week. The majority of Hispanic children live with both of their parents.
- Hispanic teenagers are no different from any other teenagers in their avid use of technology.
- As a teenager, Hispanics are expected to contribute to the well-being of their family, with 10% of Hispanics in High School and 45% of those in College making this financial commitment.
- Hispanic youth are not known for their fondness of physical activity, with few exercising regularly.
- Despite the strong family influence, the rates of teenage pregnancy in the Hispanic community remains high at 83.5 per 1,000.
- Global warming is one issue that Hispanics are unified on, with 77% believing global warming and climate change to be real issues.
- The response of government officials to the recent wave of Puerto Ricans settling in Florida is believed to be appropriate by 41% of the Hispanic population. The way that Puerto Ricans have treated following Hurricane Maria has unified the Hispanic community in Florida. 64% of the Hispanic population in Florida believe the US Senate should be addressing the rebuilding of Puerto Rico.
- Job creation is another area that the Hispanic community feels the government should be addressing more closely in Florida.
- Following a series of focus groups involving the Hispanic population, it was found Hispanic women are less likely to smoke (11%) compared to Hispanic men (30%). Immigrants that were smokers when they arrived in the US were most likely to stop due to higher costs, greater social pressure, and regulations.
- There is an emphasis in Hispanic families on ensuring the children are brought up to behave appropriately socially and are respectful to elders and others in authority. The closeness of the family is considered a source of strength in the Hispanic community.
- While Hispanic attendance at preschool programs is increasing, it still trails that of other population groups, with many Hispanic families still sharing the view that this is a family responsibility.
- One of the reasons for the Hispanic community not engaging with the healthcare profession is fear around immigration status, culture, and language also contribute.
- Internet usage among Hispanics in Orlando per week is as follows, less than 1 hour 6%, 1-4 hours 13%, 5-9 hours 23%, 10-19 hours 15%, 20 hours or more 25%, none 19%. The amount of time spent by Hispanics on Social Media in Orlando per week was less than 1 hour 13%, 1-2 hours 11%, 3-4 hours 12%, 5 hours or more 7%, and none 32%.
- Internet usage among Hispanics in Tampa per week is as follows, less than 1 hour 6%, 1-4 hours 32%, 5-9 hours 20%, 10-19 hours 11%, 20 hours or more 16%, none 18%. The amount of time spent by Hispanics on Social Media in Tampa per week was less than 1 hour 37%, 1-2 hours 22%, 3-4 hours 10%, 5 hours or more 2%, and none 29%.
- Internet usage among Hispanics in Central Florida per week is as follows, less than 1 hour 4%, 1-4 hours 24%, 5-9 hours 20%, 10-19 hours 13%, 20 hours or more 20%, none 19%. The amount of time spent by Hispanics on Social Media in Central Florida per week was less than 1 hour 36%, 1-2 hours 18%, 3-4 hours 10%, 5 hours or more 6%, and none 31%.
- Internet usage among Hispanics in Miami per week is as follows, less than 1 hour 5%, 1-4 hours 36%, 5-9 hours 19%, 10-19 hours 17%, 20 hours or more 12%, none 22%. The amount of time spent by Hispanics on Social Media in Miami per week was less than 1 hour, 36%, 1-2 hours 22%, 3-4 hours 10%, 5 hours or more 3%, and none 30%.
- The top websites visited by Hispanics in the 30 days prior to being surveyed were, Google sites 78%, Yahoo sites 78%, Microsoft sites 72%, Facebook 45%, and Ask Network 38%.
- Although Hispanic teenagers are less likely than other teenagers to own a cellphone, if they do own a cellphone it is likely to be a smartphone. They spend on average 13 hours a day on devices, including TV, computer, music systems, cellphones, and video games.
Values and Beliefs
- Hispanics, the world over, place a high value on their family. The family is a close-knit unit. It would not be uncommon for three or more generations to all reside in the same household. Family-orientated gatherings are widespread in Hispanic communities.
- Grandparents continue to play a key role in the upbringing of Grandchildren.
- The Spanish language is very important to those of Hispanic descent. Often the language is seen as a way to pass down the heritage and culture of their country of origin.
- 83% of the Hispanic population speak a language other than English at home. In Florida 19% of Hispanics speak only Spanish, 23% speak more Spanish than English, 30% speak more English than Spanish, 27% speak English only, and 1% speak Spanish and English equally.
- In Orlando 14% of Hispanics speak only Spanish, 36% speak more Spanish than English, 26% speak more English than Spanish, 24% speak English only, and 0% speak Spanish and English equally.
- In Tampa 23% of Hispanics speak only Spanish, 29% speak more Spanish than English, 29% speak more English than Spanish, 18% speak English only, and 1% speak Spanish and English equally.
- In Central Florida 17% of Hispanics speak only Spanish, 31% speak more Spanish than English, 27% speak more English than Spanish, 24% speak English only, and 1% speak Spanish and English equally.
- In Miami 28% of Hispanics speak only Spanish, 29% speak more Spanish than English, 27% speak more English than Spanish, 13% speak English only, and 2% speak Spanish and English equally.
- Religion is also central to the Hispanic lifestyle, with Christian-based faiths highly represented. Although Catholicism still remains the most popular religion, its popularity is waning among the Hispanic community in the US.
- Estimates suggest that up to one-third of the Hispanic population in the US do not have access to healthcare services. 26% of Florida's Hispanic community does not have health insurance.
- Over three quarters of all Puerto Ricans live in just 10 counties. They are Orange, Hillsborough, Miami-Dade, Broward, Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, Seminole, Volusia, and Lee. There are 1,000,000 Puerto Ricans in Florida.
- There is a disproportionate representation of Hispanic children in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. In these communities poor housing, schooling, and crime threaten their well-being.
Knowledge of Infuenza Vaccination in Hispanics in South Florida
- A recent study was completed regarding the Hispanic population's knowledge of the influenza vaccination due to the relatively poor rates of uptake when compared to the general population (35.9% vs. 45.9%). The study focused on South Florida Hispanics due to the high Hispanic population (66%).
- Knowledge regarding influenza was low. 78% believed that asymptomatic individuals could transmit the virus. Only 14% were aware the vaccination is recommended over the winter months. 50% felt that not everyone should be vaccinated. 25% believed the vaccine causes influenza, and 7% thought it caused autism.
- Only 27% received the vaccination annually, 35% receive it sometimes, and 38% have never received it. The study showed that interventions and education were needed in the Hispanic community, especially among the older population and those that did not have medical insurance.
Hispanics and Skin Cancer
- Skin cancer is an area that has received a lot of media coverage. In South Florida, given the frequency and intensity of the sun's rays, it is especially important. Many Hispanics believe that they are protected from the sun's rays because of their dark complexions.
- Most Hispanics do not wear sunscreen or undergo regular self-examinations. The concept of a "base tan" protecting them from the sun's dangerous rays is widely held within the Hispanic community with a number spending time on tanning beds before going into the sun.
- The lack of concern regarding skin cancer is generational, passed down through the generations. A Latino Outreach Program was started due to the level of concern, with free clinics and education being provided to low income Hispanic outdoor workers.
- Although the incidence rate of skin cancer is lower in the Hispanic community, it is still impacting them, and action is required. One of the issues is the beliefs held by the Hispanic population regarding skin cancer mean it is typically diagnosed later, which impacts treatment options and overall prognosis.
Hispanic Health-Seeking Behaviors
- Healthcare in the Hispanic community is a combination of traditional and western-based medicine. Western-based medicine is prevalent in the community, but traditional medicine is often used, especially among those who cannot afford the costs associated with western-based medicine.
- There is still a strong family-based structure to the provision of healthcare in the Hispanic community, with the family matriarch responsible for determining if a member requires healthcare assistance. Ultimately it is the family patriarch that permits seeking healthcare outside of the family or community.
- The Mexican population in Florida will make regular trips to Farmacias in Mexico for medications, including antibiotics, because they can b purchased relatively cheaply without a script. This is regardless of whether they have insurance or not.
- The Hispanic community has some of the lowest rates of health insurance in the US, with up to 32% being uninsured. This is more than double the overall US population rate of 15%.
- There is some variation among the foreign-born Hispanic community based on their country of birth. Pew Research found "49.3% of Hondurans, 47.9% of Guatemalans, 38.9% of Salvadorans, 34.8% of Mexicans, 34.7% of Ecuadorians, 30.2% of Peruvians, 26.4% of Colombians, 23.4% of Dominicans, 22.7% of Cubans, and 15.6% of Puerto Ricans" lacked health insurance. This is specific to the members of these sub-cultures not born in the US.
- Under the Affordable Healthcare legislation of the Obama administration, the number of uninsured nor-elderly Hispanics in Florida fell from 29% to 19%, and the number of uninsured children fell from 14.4% to 8.5%.
- 37% of the children enrolled in Medicaid or KidsCare in Florida are Hispanic.
The Aging Hispanic Population in Florida
- Research suggests that the older members of the Hispanic community in Florida are especially vulnerable. They are the fastest-growing aging population in the state, with those over 65 making up 11.5% of Florida's Hispanic population.
- 22.3% of the Hispanic population over 65 live below the poverty line. 70.4% are dependent on Social Security benefits, often receiving lower payments than other beneficiaries. Their average income is $14,143 per year.
- Hispanic beneficiaries have significantly less savings available to them. On average, they had $9,800 compared to white beneficiaries who had $91, 950.
- A forum held among Hispanic community members in Miami made many recommendations around retirement security in the community. They recommended that a family leave or paid time off fund should be established where employers match the workers accumulated time off so workers could use this fund to take time off to care for elderly family members when needed.
- There was strong support for better education around the platforms of different political candidates so that the community could better understand the social programs of the candidates.
- Concerns were raised about the distribution and allocation of resources, with some seniors reporting they had been advised to get divorced so they could access health and general benefits.
- Community members are anxious to develop a community advocacy program so that members of the community are heard.
- The lack of education around healthcare was concerning, and there was an ongoing need for education programs orientated toward this group.