Smart Cities

Part
01
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Part
01

Smart Cities (U.S.)

Some examples of emerging smart cities in the United States are New York, Boston, and San Francisco. According to the Eden Strategy Institute, 12 of 50 top smart cities in the world are located in the United States. We have chosen the following cities from the list.

NEW YORK

1. IMPLEMENTED TECHNOLOGY

  • New York is a smart city and everyone have access to facilities in the same way. For example, the design team has developed journey maps that help them in the identification of the key areas where homeless concentrate. After being detected, they are taken to Home-state created to eradicate homelessness.
  • A mobile app was created to help families to enroll their children in prekindergarten centers. The app provides information on nearby prekindergarten and gives the option to complete the application through any kind of device.
  • Since New York is one of the most populated cities in the USA, 'Midtown in Motion' project, the implementation of traffic sensors, cameras, EZ, and Pass Readers aims to solve the problem of traffic congestion.
  • LinkNYC is a free ultra-high-speed WiFi network program whose purpose is to have the entire city connected by the Internet. The WiFi network is free as well as the cell phone charging and domestic phone calls.
  • City Bike program provides people with hundreds of bike stations where thousands of bikes are lined up for being used 24/7 for 365 days. There is an app which provides pedestrians all the information related to the nearest bike station and how many bikes are available at a given time. This program makes the public transportation system more equitable.
  • NYC Connected Communities is a program to promote digital literacy and improve the quality of life. This program provides access to computer centers in places where poverty is concentrated. The digital centers are being offered at libraries, Parks, Recreation Centers, Computer Resource Centers(CRCs), and New York City Housing Authority Centers, among others.

2. SOME POLICIES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

  • The NYC Mayor’s Office of Technology and Innovation (MOTI) is in charge of turning New York into a smart city. Their aim is to conserve natural resources such as water and energy in order to reduce the environmental impact.
  • The improvement of quality of the NY's population requires the addressing of issues such as street lighting efficiency, smart water metering, smart waste management, and air quality monitoring.
  • The upgraded street lighting has the purpose of removing incandescent and first-generation fluorescent lighting and replacing it with LED lighting retrofits, which permits the city to save over $800,000 per year while preventing over 900 metric tons of GHG emissions.
  • Since water consumption is a worry in a city with a population over 8.5 million, the NYC Department of Environmental Protection has developed an Automated Meter Reading (AMR) system which is a smart water meter, to measure the quantity of water consumed. The AMR can be integrated with a smartphone application that warns customers when over passing the parameters.
  • The BigBelly is a smart trash can that offers many advantages in comparison with traditional garbage bins. For example, it is equipped with a trash compactor that runs with solar power and with a wireless sensor that monitors trash level, allowing pick-up trips to be scheduled more efficiently.
  • In order to address the issue of air pollution, attractive rebates for the conversion of heating systems from oil to natural gas were introduced. New York City has reduced by more than 70% of its sulfur dioxide emissions since 2008 due to the air monitoring program.

BOSTON

1. IMPLEMENTED TECHNOLOGY

  • Boston is facing the challenge of reducing fatal accidents to zero. Vision Zero Initiative, a pilot program in which the city has Verizon company as a partner, will provide data to improve the roads such as safe sidewalks, streets and advanced signage for traffic.
  • To achieve the decrease in fatal accidents, roads and streets are occupied with surveillance cameras, LED street lights, road and traffic sensors, integration of data analysis, dashboards, and visualization on a single web-based platform. Cameras and sensors record all that happens on the streets.
  • Autonomous vehicles are the means of transport for the future in Boston. Since the majority of fatal accidents occur because of human errors, the authorities think autonomous cars would be the solution as well as a way to help visually impaired and senior citizens.

2. SOME POLICIES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

  • Laptop Lending and Computer Instruction: Every Boston Public Library, except the central branch, provides all the citizens with laptops available for library cardholders. They are allowed to borrow them for two hours.
  • Even though the Boston Public Library offers services such as free Wi-Fi connection, public computers, and printing, it is important to state that this institution does not control Internet use and it is not responsible for its content.
  • The Boston Public Library complies with the federal Children’s Internet Protection Act but it also encourages parents to monitor their children's activities.
  • Concerning air pollution, the Boston Air Pollution Control Commission is in charge of regulating activities that affect air quality and noise levels. They work to check chemical cleaning of buildings and construction, open burning, and smoke from industrial sites.
  • The commission also determines whether noise such as car alarms, loud parties or individuals exceeds the standards.

SAN FRANCISCO

1. IMPLEMENTED TECHNOLOGY

  • San Francisco has been working for many years to reduce energy use, streamline waste management system and expand its transportation system. This city also has an environmental goal, zero carbon, and the improvement of the transport system.
  • Among the projects created to achieve the above-stated purposes, smart traffic signals to reduce congestion and improve safety, and the testing of electronic, autonomous shuttle buses are few among the many projects.
  • Another technology implemented in San Francisco includes wireless sensors that detect parking availability in real time, as well as intelligent monitors that manage traffic flow in the city.

2. SOME POLICIES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

  • Even though San Francisco is one of the smartest cities in the United States, it has become the first to ban the use of facial recognition technology by police and city agencies.
  • This technology has been used by the government for many years to find missing children or to prevent fraud, however, it was banned because it is supposed to go against civil liberties and to promote racial bias.
  • The use of facial recognition technology is only forbidden for the police but it can be used by the San Francisco International Airport and the Port of San Francisco.
  • Regarding waste management, San Francisco aims to reach zero waste. The achievement of this goal implies recycling, composting, reusing, and reducing consumption so that nothing goes to either the landfill or incineration.
  • San Francisco is struggling against contamination since 2009 when it banned environmentally hazardous items like checkout bags and Styrofoam. In addition, the city called for a change of behavior from the part of the population.
Part
02
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Part
02

Smart Cities (Global)

Four emerging smart cities that are implementing innovative energy, environmental, and transport technologies are Kigali, Rwanda; Jakarta, Indonesia; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Phuket, Thailand. Each of these cities is striving to improve the livelihoods and prosperity of its people.

Kigali, Rwanda

Technologies being Implemented

  • Developing Kigali to become a modernized smart city is a high priority for the Rwanda government, primarily to simplify and improve their people’s access to public services. The initiative of Irembo platform was launched by the country’s government to develop e-government services to enable Kigali’s citizens to complete various public processes online such as requesting for birth certificates and registering for driving exams.
  • The city’s Smart Neighborhood project called “Vision City” creates a neighborhood with tech-enabled necessities along with free Wi-Fi and solar-powered street lights. The plan is currently in its initial phases and the planners have declared that they intend to develop affordable housing during the project’s later phases.
  • In May 2017, Paul Kagame, the president of Rwanda revealed that Rwanda was making a strategic partnership with Korea Telecom to install 4G LTE for over 95% of the country, including Kigali. The president said that this deal would be an opportunity for stronger collaboration between public and private entities.
  • Nokia has installed smart classrooms in the city, while Culligan, a United States-based water treatment firm, has built a smart water grid for the city. It was also found that the United States-based robotics company, Zipline, is working on delivering blood, across the city, by drones.
  • In May 2017, at the Transform Africa summit held in Kigali, Rwanda signed numerous agreements with a Korean software firm, Hancom; Microsoft; and Inmarsat, a mobile satellite communications firm. Most of the firms involved are private and provide smart technologies and services to the city.
  • Nokia and Kigali have partnered together to implement smart city technologies by implementing the much-needed telecommunications infrastructure for the city.

Policies/Legal Frameworks in Support of City

  • The Kigali Smart City initiatives are supported by the Rwandan state's SMART Rwanda Master Plan, which is built on three major technology development areas — ICTs, Secured and Shared Infrastructure, and Governance. This governance structure is integrated and combines expertise from local and central government, along with the private and public sector units, commercial, and technical roles.
  • Within the SMART Rwanda Master Plan, the context analyses and reviews the country's current socio-economic policies, provisions, and strategies, along with the ICT development, implementation, and use in the country. The primary principle of the plan is to establish Kigali and other cities with a "Service-oriented, Modern, Accountable, and Real-Time Government" that drives the country's job creation sector and competitiveness in the global market.

Jakarta, Indonesia

Technologies being implemented

  • The Qlue app promotes bottom-up engagement, civil participation, brings suggestions forward, and encourages people to complain about the lack of public services. The data can be shared through various platforms such as Smart Mobility, Smart Safety, Smart Media Analysis, Smart Environment, and Smart Government Dashboard.
  • Another smart city project that Jakarta is implementing is the development of a cashless payment system called OK OTrip. This project will integrate all of Jakarta’s transport payment units into a single cashless platform to enhance modal share, improve urban mobility, and decrease travel time, while enabling travel to remain affordable.
  • Jakarta has also developed a smarter waste management grid that utilized the heatmap of incidents that have caused problems over the years. Through the heatmap, the city’s waste management department and the local village council were able to overlay the routes of garbage trucks to reduce the number of public complaints on the scheduling and routing of these trucks.
  • In order to reduce the city’s bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption, the city has incorporated the use of IT technology to solve various urban problems that include the lack of transparency and corruption. The city also launched an electronic budgeting system for government officials, enabling them to submit their budget proposals online. This way, Jakarta’s government can monitor all possible activity on a single platform.

Policies/Legal Frameworks in Support of City

The Jakarta Smart City group leads the Jakarta Provincial Government's efforts to develop and implement a smart city environment, working within six specific areas, which include the people, economy, environment, governance, mobility, and smart living.


Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  • Kaula Lumpur has been recognized as one of the top 10 smart cities in Southeast Asia, according to CIO Magazine.

Technologies being implemented

  • By 2020, Kuala Lumpur aims to become a smart city when the project, Malaysia City Brain, will be completed. This particular initiative will utilize Alibaba Cloud’s artificial intelligence technology along with big data analytics to develop real-time traffic analysis using image and video recognition technologies in order to elevate the city’s traffic congestion.
  • Outside of China, Kuala Lumpur is the first smart city to implement Alibaba Cloud’s ET City Brain. Through this system, the city’s residents will be able to save more time in traffic congestion scenarios.
  • Overall, the Malaysia City Brain plan offers the government a comprehensive suite of integration, acquisition, and analysis of big data through machine learning, AI, data-mining, and image-video recognition technologies. Urban planners and city council intend to make use of this data to enhance their decision-making abilities for the community.

Policies/Legal Frameworks in Support of City

  • According to Datuk Isham Ishak, the secretary-general of Malaysia’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the National Industry 4.0 policy framework will be launched in October, this year (2019), by the country’s Prime Minister. This government policy offers the required support and various incentives for those companies that are involved in the manufacturing industry. The National Industry 4.0 policy was designed especially for small and medium enterprises to adopt Industry 4.0 elements like data management, cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, and robotics.

Phuket, Thailand

Technologies being implemented

  • Phuket was recognized by the country's government as Thailand's very first smart city that has a clear vision and focus on tourism. The city has established a well-defined multi-pronged development plan called the Smart City Action Plan. This plan covers the development of various industries which include healthcare, education, governance, economy, environment, public safety, and tourism. With the plan in place, Phuket was able to prioritize various applications based on the intended outcomes.
  • With the view of becoming a sustainable and smart city, Phuket intends to be portrayed as a highlighting example to other Southeast Asian cities that are heavily dependent on tourism but have not succeeded in controlling its progress sustainably. One of the various steps taken by the city was installing public Wi-Fi systems for its 1.3 million users. The city expects to use this data for other future applications such as app development and tourist behavior analysis.
  • Within the smart city plan initiative, the city is working toward building a closed-circuit TV system that has “eagle eyes” over Phuket. Currently, the city has implemented 700 to 1,300 CCTVs that are publicly owned from local and police agencies. The city has launched a program to collect feeds from various private businesses to create a more comprehensive network. The business owners who participate in this program will be allowed to access the pooled data.

Policies/Legal Frameworks in Support of City

  • The country’s Digital Economy Promotion Agency was initiated in partnership with IBM to support and promote the innovation and development of the country’s digital industry. The initiative also helps companies adopt digital technology in terms of cultural, social, security, and economic benefits which are in accordance with Thailand’s Digital Development for Economy and Society Act B.E. 2560 (2017).

Sources
Sources

From Part 02
Quotes
  • "For example, as some African countries presently lack steady telecommunication cable installations, African cities can install the newest available ICT technology, removing the costs associated with removing or upgrading existing ICT infrastructure. "
  • "Modernizing Kigali is part of a wider effort by the Rwanda government to increase and simplify access to public services. The Irembo platform launched by the government, seeks to create e-government services to allow citizens to complete public processes online, such as registering for driving exams and requesting birth certificates."
  • "Kigali’s Smart Neighborhood project, Vision City, creates a tech-enabled neighborhood with solar powered street lamps and free Wi-Fi in the town square. Critics, though, state that the project ignored the socioeconomic realities of a city where 80 percent of its population lives in slums with monthly earnings below $240 (Vision City Homes cost $160,000)."
Quotes
  • "One of Jakarta’s future smart city projects is the development of OK OTrip, an integrated transit cashless payment system. The project consists on integrating all of the city’s transport payment systems into one cashless platform to improve urban mobility, enhance modal share and reduce travel time, while keeping travel affordable."
  • "In 2016, Kuala Lumpur’s City Council was named finalist in IDC’s Smart City Asia Pacific Awards (Scapa) in the Public Works category due to its Heavy Vehicle Classification System (HVCS) initiative, which was implemented to address traffic problems during peak hours."
  • "Phuket has outlined a multipronged Smart City Action Plan covering tourism, safety, the environment, the economy, governance, education, and healthcare. The plan allows the city to prioritise applications against the intended outcomes. If it can manage to grow in a smart and sustainable way, the island could serve as a potential blueprint for other ASEAN cities that are dependent on tourism but in danger of being overrun by it."
Quotes
  • "Phuket has outlined a multipronged Smart City Action Plan covering tourism, safety, the environment, the economy, governance, education, and healthcare. Having the plan in place has enabled the city to prioritise applications against the intended outcomes. If it can manage to grow in a smart and sustainable way, Phuket could serve as a potential blueprint for other Southeast Asian cities that are dependent on tourism but in danger of being overrun by it."
  • "One of the first steps in Phuket was rolling out a public Wi-Fi system that today has more than 1.3 million accounts. While the service is free for users, Phuket intends to use the data it generates in the future for other applications. This detailed data is collated on a centralised platform where it provides the fuel for app development; it can also be analysed to understand tourist behaviour and preferences."
  • "However, the city has embarked on a program to incorporate thousands of feeds from private business to make the network more comprehensive. In return for participation, the city will provide the business owners with access to the pooled data."
Quotes
  • "Nokia is installing smart classrooms while Culligan, a US water treatment company, is building a smart water grid for Kigali, and Zipline, a US robotics company is delivering blood by drones. "
Quotes
  • "A high-speed fiber-optic backbone network now interconnects all districts and border points of the country. This network interconnects all government institutions and other private enterprises located in Kigali as part of the Kigali Metropolitan Network."
  • "Based on the analysis, three enablers, ICT Capability & Capacity, Governance & Management, Secured & Shared Infrastructure were identified. Seven pillars were also defined: SMART Agriculture, Finance, Business & Industry, Health, Education, Government, and Cities."
Quotes
  • "The ranking also recognized admirable efforts of smart cities at the nascent stage, like Jakarta, Phuket, and Kigali that experimented with integrated data platforms, public-private partnerships, and innovation districts."
Quotes
  • "As part of the project rollout, the Government of Rwanda will invest in network connectivity and sensor deployment in different applications, which will serve the local citizens in public safety, waste management, utility applications and healthcare to name a few."
Quotes
  • "The city government receives an average of 1,400 messages per day via its custom-built Qlue mobile app, which allows users to submit feedback about public services. On top of this, citizens send an average of 130 SMS messages per day to the governor’s mobile phone, and many more via other channels such as email and Twitter."
  • "We plotted all the incidents on a heatmap and overlaid the route of the garbage trucks, which showed us that the most complaints came from some areas where the garbage trucks don’t drive through. We were then able to work with the village council and the Jakarta waste management department to improve the routing and scheduling of the garbage collections—and sure enough, the number of complaints is now decreasing again."
Quotes
  • "Launched in 2014, the Jakarta Smart City project aims to harness IT to solve a wide range of urban problems, including corruption and a lack of transparency across the country."
  • "In 2014, Jakarta started requiring employees to use an "e-catalogue" system when making official purchases. The e-catalogue comprises vendors and products that have gone through a verification process, allowing officials to avoid lengthy tender processes. "
  • "The JSC team admits that integration is a long-term challenge because each government body has developed separate online systems that are difficult to integrate. Thamura, who worked alongside the information and communications technology ministry in 2006 to develop data inter-operability infrastructure, said there has not been much progress since then."
Quotes
  • "The initiative will use Alibaba Cloud’s artificial intelligence programme as well as big data analytics to produce real-time traffic predictions using video and image recognition technologies to combat traffic congestion in the city."
  • "Alibaba Cloud is the platform provider, whereas Malaysian Digital Economy Corp is leading the data analytics and project management while the Kuala Lumpur City Council provides access to camera live feeds, traffic light and events information."
Quotes
  • "Datuk Isham Ishak, secretary-general of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), said the National Industry 4.0 policy framework is expected to be launched in early October by Prime Minister, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad. "
Quotes
  • "Ultimately, we hope that Malaysia City Brain will not only attract and nurture world-class AI talent, but will also pave the way for co-creation among other ASEAN nations. Malaysia City Brain is an open platform, which will give businesses, startups, entrepreneurs, educational and research institutions the opportunity to access and leverage on the AI tools, and ultimately drive advance innovations."
Quotes
  • "The Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA) was established to promote and support the development and innovation of the digital industry, as well as to promote the adoption of digital technology as a means of achieving economic, social, cultural and security benefits at the national level in accordance with the Digital Development for Economy and Society Act B.E. 2560 (A.D. 2017) promulgated on 23 January 2017."
Quotes
  • "The Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA) was established to promote and support the development and innovation of the digital industry, as well as to promote the adoption of digital technology as a means of achieving economic, social, cultural and security benefits at the national level in accordance with the Digital Development for Economy and Society Act B.E. 2560 (A.D. 2017) promulgated on 23 January 2017."