Science Landscape

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Science Landscape

Key Takeaways

  • The most common science majors are chemistry, biology, biochemistry, biophysics or molecular biology, physics, pharmacy, chemical engineering, biotechnology, environmental science, electrical engineering, geology, cell biology, and anatomical science, medicine, business, computer science, psychology, mathematics, ecology, genetics, population biology, and epidemiology.
  • Science is a broad career field with many specialties and areas of study that entails investigating the organic and inorganic matter of the earth and universe. Social science, formal science, applied science, and natural science are the four main branches of science.
  • A degree in a science-related field can be used for career options such as meteorologist, land planner, oceanographer, geologist, paleontologist, environmental scientist, marine biologist, pharmacologist, forensic scientist, agricultural scientist, virologist, computer scientist, cosmologist, astronomer, chemist, quantum physicist, physicist.

Introduction

  • This report covers the answers to eight of the nine questions that were posed. We were unable to provide data on the number of enrollments per field of study due to a lack of data in the public domain. Our strategy is outlined in the project's "research strategy" section.

Categories of Science

  • Science is a broad career field with many specialties and areas of study that entails investigating the organic and inorganic matter of the earth and universe. Social science, formal science, applied science, and natural science are the four main branches of science.

Social Science

  • Human societies from all over the world, as well as human relationships with their social environments, are studied in the social sciences.
  • Major branches of social science include psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, archaeology, history, geography, law, politics, education, development studies, criminology, cultural studies, sociology, international relations, business, and management.

Formal Science

  • The main objective of formal sciences is to characterize abstract structures that are described by symbolic systems. It helps the natural and social sciences by supplying data on the structures used to describe the world and the inferences that can be drawn from them.
  • Branches of formal science include mathematics, logic, computer science, data science, statistics, systems science, artificial intelligence, and information technology.

Applied Science

  • Applied science is a branch of science that focuses on using existing scientific knowledge to create more practical applications, such as technology or inventions.
  • Biochemistry, geophysics, biostatistics, astronomy, environmental science, engineering, and health science, are areas of applied science.

Natural Science

  • "Natural Sciences are a group of disciplines that study the physical world and all the phenomena in nature." There are three main branches of natural science which are: Physical science, earth science, and life science.
  • Physical Science

    • Physical science is the branch of science that deals with inorganic materials, or non-living materials. It covers topics such as heat, magnetics, acoustics, optics, energy, and analytical chemistry, to name a few.
    • Sub-fields of physical science include physics, chemistry, planetary science, astrophysics, oceanography, polymer science, geology, and meteorology.

    Earth Science

    • Earth science is a branch of natural science that studies the earth's materials and atmosphere. It is concerned with the study of the earth, air, and water, or more precisely, the geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric sciences.
    • It covers a wide range of topics, including rock and mineral dating, rock types, landform analysis, and fossils, among others. Earth science is divided into four branches: geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy.

    Life Science

    • Life science is a branch of science concerned with the study of organic organisms or living things. Life science, which includes plants, animals, and human biology, can assist people in better understanding the world.
    • Life science is a broad field with many sub-branches; it encompasses not only biological branches but also cross-disciplinary topics such as Biophysics and Biochemistry.
    • Biology, zoology, neuroscience, genetics, biochemistry, microbiology, taxonomy, marine biology, morphology, biotechnology, ecology, and entomology are all sub-fields of life science.

Conclusion

  • The four main categories of science are natural science, formal science, applied science, and social science. Natural sciences are further sub-divided into three main categories: Physical science, life science, and earth science.

Fields Of Study At University

  • According to a survey, the most common science majors are chemistry, biology, biochemistry, biophysics or molecular biology, physics, pharmacy, chemical engineering, biotechnology, environmental science, electrical engineering, geology, cell biology, and anatomical science, medicine, business, computer science, psychology, mathematics, ecology, genetics, population biology, and epidemiology.
  • According to a survey by Zippa, 27% of scientists major in chemistry, 21.2% major in biology, and 11.9% in biochemistry, biophysics, or molecular biology.
  • 5.2% in microbiology, 4.4% in physics, 4.1% in pharmacy, 3.9% in chemical engineering, 3.1% in biotechnology, 2.4% in environmental science, 2.2% in electrical engineering, 1.8% in geology.
  • 1.7% major in cell biology, and anatomical science, 1.6% in medicine, 1.4% in business, 1.3% in computer science, 1.3% in psychology, 1.3% in mathematics, 1.3% in ecology, population biology, and epidemiology and 1.3% of scientists major in genetics.

Conclusion

  • Data found by analyzing 14,847 scientists resumes to investigate the topic of scientist education by Zippa shows that the most common science majors are chemistry, biology, biochemistry, biophysics or molecular biology, physics, pharmacy, chemical engineering, biotechnology, environmental science, electrical engineering, geology, cell biology, and anatomical science, medicine, business, computer science, psychology, mathematics, ecology, genetics, population biology, and epidemiology.

Top 20 Universities Known For Science

The following are the top 20 best universities for science according to Collegedunia. Harvard University, California Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Princeton University are the top five ranked science universities.

Conclusion

  • The schools mentioned above are from data compiled by Collegedunia on the best science universities in the US. The schools are ranked based on popularity.

Main Science Career Applications

  • A degree in a science-related field can be used for career options such as meteorologist, land planner, oceanographer, geologist, paleontologist, environmental scientist, marine biologist, pharmacologist, forensic scientist, agricultural scientist, virologist, computer scientist, cosmologist, astronomer, chemist, quantum physicists, physicists.
  • Other career applications are clinical technician, forensic science technician, microbiologist, chemist, biologist, researcher, biomedical engineer, epidemiologist, R&D engineer, robotics engineer, psychologist, physician assistant, software developer, nurse practitioner, clinical research scientist, infectious disease physician, dentist, orthodontist, oncologist.

Conclusion

  • There are wide career applications for a science major. Some applications have been provided above and they include forensic science technician, microbiologist, chemist, biologist, researcher, biomedical engineer, epidemiologist, R&D engineer, robotics engineer, psychologist, physician assistant, software developer, nurse practitioner, clinical research scientist, infectious disease physician, dentist, orthodontist, oncologist.

Categories Of Scientists, Titles, Education Required

Categories

Job Titles

  • There are many science job titles spanning industries like academia, government, industrial and non-profit organizations. Some job titles are:
  • Analyst, Environmental Data Analyst, Market Access Analyst, Operations Research Analysis Manager, Pharmaceutical Technician, Research Scientist, Software Developer, and Technical Application Specialist, among others.
  • A full list of science-related job titles can be found here.

Education Requirement

  • For many scientist positions, a four-year bachelor's degree may be sufficient. However, a doctoral degree is frequently required for independent or industrial research.
  • According to Zippa, 60.4% of scientists have a bachelor's degree, while 18.8% have a master's degree.
  • A doctorate degree is held by 16.5% of scientists.
  • Only 2.9% of scientists have an associate degree, while 2% have other degrees such as a diploma, certificate, or high school diploma.

Conclusion

  • Data on the education requirements was sourced from a survey by Zippa on resumes by scientists in the US. There are many science job titles spanning industries like academia, government, industrial and non-profit organizations.

How Many And/Or Percentage Of Each Type, Title (General And By Gender)

  • In the United States, there are currently 20,020 physicists employed. Women make up 16.1% of all physicists, while men make up 83.9%.
  • There are currently 87,198 chemists employed. Women make up 40.4% of all chemists, while men make up 59.6%.
  • There are 1,434 botanists currently employed in the US, 41.8% are women, while 58.2% are men.
  • In the United States, there are currently over 32,000 geologists working. Twenty-three percent of all Geologists are women, while 78.7% are men.
  • There are 1,930 astronomers employed in the US. 88.8% of Astronomers are males compared to 21.2% who are women.
  • There are 665 full members of the PS in the United States, 19.4% of them are women compared to 80.6% are men.
  • There are 689 geneticists employed in the US of which 33.3% are women and 66.7% are men.
  • There are over 18,500 marine biologists employed in the US. Sixty-nine percent of them are female and 31% are male.
  • According to Zippa, 6.3% of seismologists are women compared to 93.8% who are men. There are currently 100 seismologists jobs in the US.
  • 2,706 ecologists are employed in the US. Among them, 35.5% of them are women compared to 64.5% who are men.

How Many Open Jobs Of Each Type?

  • There are currently 696 job openings for a botanist.

Conclusion

  • Job openings for science majors vary per source. Professional networking and job search databases such as LinkedIn, Glassdoor, and Indeed were used to provide estimates of the current job openings for each profession. The current job openings range from 102 job openings for an astronomer to over 426,000 job openings for a computer scientist.

What Are The Most Placed Entry Level Job Titles For Science Majors And By Category?

Conclusion

  • There are over 1,718 job openings for entry-level science majors. The top 10 job openings have been provided.

Research Strategy

To provide answers to the topics/questions, we combed through the most reputable sources which include articles by media sites and educational bodies and universities (such as USA Today, Forbes, US News), government databases (such as Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education, Online Education Database), business databases (such as Zippa, LinkedIn, Indeed, Glassdoor), and third-party publications from reputable sources (such as Education Data, College Factual, HireScholars, MastersPortal, The Balance Careers, Science Council, Career Match).
As most data are not pre-compiled or publicly available, we triangulated the data by combing findings from various reputable sources. Information such as enrollment data and most placed entry science jobs titles for science majors by category is also not publicly-available; we combed through the above-mentioned business, and government databases.

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