Salmonella in Cocoa Beans

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Salmonella in Cocoa Beans

The roasting time and temperature required for safe eliminations of salmonella risk from cocoa beans is 20 hours at 71° C (160 F) with dry roasting and when moisture is introduced, four hours is required at 71° C (160 F) to safely remove salmonella bacteria from cocoa beans

THE ROASTING TIME AND TEMPERATURE REQUIRED TO REMOVE SALMONELLA RISK FROM CACAO BEANS

  • The effectiveness of the elimination of salmonella risk from cocoa beans is usually expressed in a log kill. A log kill has the ability to reduce the risks associated with salmonella bacteria by at least 90%.
  • The roasting process is typically assessed and validated by an independent source to determine the ideal time/ temperature that is appropriate to ensure the successful elimination of salmonella from the beans.

Ideal types of roasting Process

  • Since, salmonella bacteria is resistant to heat, the type of the roasting process to be used determines the amount of heat and time required to safely inactivate salmonella. This can be determined by factors that include the strain and serotypes tested, food composition, the growth and the conditions of storage, and test media, as well as the media that will be used to recover the cells damaged by heat damaged cells.
  • The two ideal types of roasting processes that are effective in the removal of salmonella risk from cocoa beans include dry roasting and moist roasting.[1]
  • Each individual type of roasting process determines the ideal time and temperature that are perfect to ensure successful elimination of salmonella bacteria from the beans.
  • Since salmonella bacteria is known to thrive better in a dry environment, the wet roasting process proves more ideal for faster and effective removal of the bacteria at lower temperatures.
Sources
Sources

Quotes
  • "The effectiveness of a destruction method is typically expressed in terms of log kill. A log kill is a 90% reduction in bacteria"
  • " During roasting, cocoa beans are exposed to high temperatures for a pre-determined period of time to achieve both flavor development and pathogen reduction. Processors usually design their roasting process to achieve an adequate reduction of Salmonella spp. "
  • "To determine the time/temperature profile needed to achieve an adequate pathogen reduction, each roasting process be independently assessed and validated"
  • "One of the most essential factors in determining an appropriate time/temperature profile is whether the beans go through a dry or moist roasting step"
  • "Since Salmonella survives better in a dry environment, a wet roasting process will achieve a faster and greater kill at lower temperatures. For example, the dry roasting time/temp profile described in a study sponsored by the Chocolate Manufacturers Association found that a log kill took 20 hr at 71 C (160 F), while the introduction of moisture achieved the same kill at the same temperature in just 4hrs"