REM Sleep and NREM Deep Sleep
Some factors that can give better REM, NREM, and deep sleep include continuous rocking stimulation, exercise, ketogenic diet, audio hypnosis, body heating, increased sleeping duration, pink noise, among others.
Some factors that can worsen the REM, NREM, and deep sleep include the consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis. Additionally, lifestyle factors like artificial lighting and alarm clocks also affect REM sleep and dreaming ability.
FACTORS THAT POSITIVELY AFFECT REM, NREM, OR DEEP SLEEP
1) Continuous Rocking Stimulation
- A recent study published in Cell Biology states that continuous rocking can shorten the latency to NREM sleep and increase the duration of NREM stage-3 (N3) sleep.
- The study concludes that a continuous rocking motion enhances deep sleep due to the neural entertainment of "intrinsic sleep oscillations."
2) Exercise and Training
- According to a recent review published in the Advances in Preventive Medicine, it is found that exercising for twelve weeks demonstrated an increase in sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep efficiency, sleep continuity, and REM sleep.
- The researchers further reported that engaging in exercises about 1-2 hours before bedtime was associated with an increased incidence of deep sleep.
3) Ketogenic Diet
- According to a recent article in Sleep Review, ketogenic diets have the ability to improve sleep quality, enhance REM sleep, increase deep sleep, reduce insomnia, and mitigate symptoms of narcolepsy.
- Polysomnographic studies suggest that insomniacs listening to music before going to sleep spent more time in REM sleep and improved their quality of sleep.
- Additionally, the studies found that listening to soothing music during sleep shortened the stage-2 sleep, prolonged REM sleep, and improved the rested rating scores.
5) Increased Sleeping Duration
- According to a recent article published by the Journal of Sleep Research, the sleeping efficiency and REM sleep duration were enhanced with the increased length of sleeping time. Alternatively, the episodes of awakening and arousal per hour were decreased with increased sleep duration.
6) Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Titration
- According to a study published in the Journal of Sleep Science and Practice, the CPAP titration led to a substantial increase in REM sleep among adults with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Additionally, the sleep duration was increased by nearly 57% among study participants.
7) Body Heating
- According to the American Sleep Association, body heating with prolonged exercise, hot tub bath, or sauna can contribute effectively to increase slow-wave deep sleep.
- Additionally, studies have shown that slow-wave deep sleep is enhanced when the brain temperature exceeds a certain threshold. Circadian rhythm and homeostatic processes regulate the threshold.
8) Pink Noise
- According to a study published in the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Journal, listening to pink noise might enhance the deep sleep and lead to a better memory function.
- Pink noise is random noise comprising low-frequency components.
9) Philips SmartSleep Headband
- In 2019, the Translational Research Institute for Space Health selected Philips SmartSleep Headband to study the effects on deep sleep.
- The preliminary research has demonstrated the beneficial effects of deep sleep band on restoring brain function, during slow-wave deep sleep. The deep sleep headband showed increased energy and alertness during awakening.
10) Audio Hypnosis
- A new study by the Sleep, suggests that listening to hypnotic music just before sleeping may help individuals to reach the state of deep sleep and remain for in the state for a longer duration.
- The study reported an increase in the duration of a deep sleep by up to 80%.
FACTORS THAT NEGATIVELY AFFECT REM, NREM, OR DEEP SLEEP
- Alcohol use can disrupt sleep and diminish the quality of sleep. Studies have found that acute alcohol withdrawal leads to a reduction in REM and NREM sleep. Additionally, a significant increase in wakefulness, insomnia-like symptoms, and impaired sleep homeostasis is noted with the use of alcohol.
- According to sleep scientist Dr. Daniel Gartenberg, the duration of deep sleep decreases with age. Additionally, he states that that people aged 20 years get around 20% of deep sleep while older adults over the age of 80 years get around 7.5% of deep sleep.
- A recent study published in the Journal of Sleep Research, reveals that consumption of caffeine negatively affects the relative duration of a deep sleep, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency.
- According to a recent study published in the Current Psychiatry Reports, the effects on REM sleep was altered with the dose of CBD. The high-dose CBD increased REM sleep latency while mid-range dose CBD decreased REM sleep and REM sleep latency.
- Additionally, the researchers found that cannabis use was associated with a decrease in sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset (WASO)
5) Artificial Lights
- According to Psychology Today, lifestyle factors like increased exposure to artificial light at night leads to diminished REM sleep and dreaming.