Radio Usage

Part
01
of four
Part
01

Mass media access: Asia

South Asian countries have a larger percentage of population that are unreachable when compared to China and Indonesia. Although there isn't much variance observed in the percentage of population covered by radio broadcast services, there is a significant difference in the number of people that can be reached. The primary reason for a substantial proportion of the population being unreachable in South Asia is the inability of that part of the population to afford a radio set. Please find below our a deeper analysis of the subject.

ASSUMPTIONS

We assume that the percentage of people with access to mass media will be equal to the highest percentage of coverage among the three mediums: radio, television and internet.

For the purpose of determining the proportion of the population that can be reached during an emergency or crisis, we assume that people who can be reached have a radio or a television or an internet enabled device in their household. We do not account for access to a device owned by a person who does not belong to the individuals household.

The accessibility of radio in a country is assumed to be equal to the reach of the state-owned radio broadcaster in the country. The basis of this assumption is that the private operators only operate in areas (with greater population densities) where it is economically viable to do so; whereas, it is a social mandate for a state run operator to reach out to as many people as they can.

FINDINGS

INDIA

Indian domestic radio broadcasting is done either on medium wave (MW) or using Frequency Modulation (FM) technology. All India Radio (AIR), which is the state-owned broadcaster uses both FM and Amplitude Modulation (AM) technology. Medium wave is a type of AM radio carrier.

Radio broadcast done on MW in India has a coverage of 98.02% of the Indian population and 88.92% of the geographical area.
FM is a more expensive technology to use for broadcasting and is therefore limited to clusters with high population densities. AM (medium wave) has a wider coverage than FM and can be received with simple equipment.

Therefore, we assume that 98.02% of the Indian population has access to mass media and correspondingly 1.98% of the Indian population does not have access to mass media.

Most of the recent articles and reports we came across gave us statistics on how many people own television, radios, etc. We cannot use this information to triangulate the proportion of people that do not have a television, radio or internet enabled device as many consumers own more than one type of device.

However, we came across a report from 2012, which puts the number of people without a radio or television or internet enabled device at 200 million. The population of India in 2012 was 1,235,990,000; the population at this moment is approximately 1,348,000,000.

Therefore, the increment in the population is approximately 112 million since 2012. For simplicity and for the lack of recent data we will assume that the increase in population is the same as the increase in the number of people who own a mass media device.

Therefore, the number of people who cannot be reached during an emergency = 200,000,000 *100/ 1,348,000,000= 14.84%

The world bank estimated that 21.2% of the Indian population lived Below the Poverty Line (BPL) i.e. less than $1.90 a day. This is probably one of the reasons for not owning a radio. Also, the people who cannot be reached via radio (1.98%) are either located in very sparsely populated areas, hilly terrain or strategic border areas.


CHINA

The 2015 census data puts the national coverage of TV programs at 98.77%, which is greater than its radio coverage of 98.17%. This is the only exception in terms of the population having greater access to television compared to radio services.

It is possible that some regions in China receive greater radio coverage than TV coverage. However, we have not done that level of detailing, as the number will be fairly insignificant in percentage terms. We will assume that the percentage of television broadcast coverage is the maximum possible media coverage in China.

The television coverage has increased from 97.62% in 2010 to 98.6% in 2014 to 98.77% in 2015. We observe that the rate of increase in coverage diminishes as the coverage percentage approaches the 100% mark.

Therefore, we estimate that the increase in coverage percentage in China over the last 2 years would be roughly 0.25%, which would make the total percentage of population receiving television broadcast as of today equal to 99.02%.

The percentage of households that own a TV in China was 99.52% as of 2010, which is higher than the TV broadcast coverage percentage of 99.02%. However, another source put the percentage of household television ownership at 95% in 2010. We will consider the latter for our calculations.

Assuming that the percentage increase in television ownership between 2010 and the present will be the same as the percentage increase in the television broadcast coverage, the percentage of population in China that owns a television as of today will be approximately 96.4%. This is lower than the radio broadcast coverage percentage.

The current radio broadcast percentage coverage in China can be calculated in the same way as the television broadcast coverage percentage. Therefore, the radio broadcast coverage percentage in China as of today is 98.42% (98.17+0.25), which means 1.52% of the Chinese population do not have any access to mass media.

Since the rate of TV ownership in China is high, we may assume that every person who gets radio coverage in China can afford a radio, and therefore owns a radio. Hence, the total percentage of population in China that can be reached during an emergency or crisis is 98.42%. Correspondingly, the percentage of population in China that cannot be reached during an emergency or crisis is 1.58%.

The media broadcast in China is stringently controlled by the state and serves as a medium of propaganda to its large population; most of whom own TVs and radios (similar to developed economies). Therefore, we infer that the only possible constraints for media coverage would be either geographical or extremely thinly populated areas.


PAKISTAN

The state-owned radio broadcaster, Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC), had a coverage of 97% of Pakistan's population as of 2012. As this is the most recent report we found, and because we don't have any other statistic to extrapolate from, we will assume that the percentage of radio coverage in Pakistan would have increased over the last five years to the same value as India's current radio broadcast percentage coverage (98.02%).

According to a 2014 Gallup report, around one in six Pakistanis (16.5%) listen to the radio at least once a week. However, this is not indicative of ownership of a radio. We will triangulate the ownership rate by assuming that it is correlated to poverty.

The World Bank indicates that approximately six percent of Pakistanis are below the poverty line (earn less than $1.9 per day).

We estimated that 12.86% (14.84% - 1.98%) of people in India do not have a radio primarily because they can't afford one. Given that the percentage population below the poverty line in India is 21.2% as against 6% in Pakistan, we estimate that the percentage of population in Pakistan that doesn't own a radio because they can't afford it is 28% (6%/21.2%) that of India.

Therefore, percentage of the population that doesn't own a radio because they are too poor to afford it is 3.60%. Add to that the percentage of population (1.98%) that doesn't have radio coverage and we get the percentage of people that can't be reached in a crisis or emergency as 5.58%.

Like in the case of other countries, sparsely populated areas and hilly regions are unlikely to have coverage. These regions are mostly rural areas of Pakistan.


INDONESIA

As of 2012, 94.1% of Indonesian households had a TV, which is the dominant medium of mass media in Indonesia; only one in four Indonesians tuned into radio at least once a week. This was the most recent data published.

There was no specific data found on radio coverage. Given that about one in twenty Indonesians have a TV in their household, it would be fair to assume that it would be no lesser than any of the countries listed above.

Since the TV ownership rate is similar to China, we will assume that the percentage of the country's population that cannot be reached during an emergency or crisis is the same as that of China (1.58%); and similarly the percentage of the population that does not have any access to mass media will be 1.52%.


BANGLADESH

According to AC Nielsen, two out of three Bangladeshis living in rural areas (73% of the total population), watched television. However, many households in these areas have no access to electricity and could not afford a television even if they had electricity. The only alternative for them is to listen to radio.

The Nielsen survey also indicated that one in five Bangladeshis in rural areas did not even have access to radio despite the state radio network having coverage of the entire country.

Number of people reachable today in the case of an emergency or crisis would be higher than it was in 2011. We need to estimate the percentage of people who are unreachable as of today.

Considering that the percentage of people below poverty line fell 6% (by 24.49% in 5 years) from 24.5% to 18.5% between 2005 and 2010, we assume that it would have fallen at the same rate between 2010 and now.

Therefore, in 2011 the BPL percentage in Bangladesh would have been 17.59%, and as of today it would be approximately 12.15%.

Twenty percent of Bangladesh's rural population (73%) is 14.6% of the total Bangladeshi population. We will assume that the city population is above BPL and everyone in the city at least owns a radio.

The unreachable population corresponding to the BPL population (17.59%) is 14.6%. Therefore, the percentage of the unreachable population corresponding to the 12.15% BPL population will be 10.08%.

The percentage of population in Bangladesh that does not have access to mass media is zero and the percentage of population that will be unreachable in case of an emergency or crisis is 10.08%.

Please note that there could be minor discrepancies in the findings given that these values are triangulated based on some assumptions.

CONCLUSION

We have found the percentage of the population that does not have access to mass media (television, internet and radio); and the percentage of population that will not be reachable in case of an emergency, for the following countries: in India 1.98% don't have access and 14.84% are unreachable; in China 1.52% don't have access and 1.58% are unreachable; in Pakistan 1.98% don't have access and 5.58% are unreachable; in Indonesia 1.52% don't have access and 1.58% are unreachable; in Bangladesh everybody has access and 10.08% are unreachable. The primary reasons for a part of the population in any country not having coverage are that they live in sparsely populated areas or hilly regions. The remaining unreachable population is unfortunately too poor to afford a radio. We have reported the most recent data available.

Part
02
of four
Part
02

Mass media access: South America

Media penetration across South America is widely varied. Some countries, such as Colombia, have very high rates of non-access to television and internet, while others, such as Argentina, have extremely high rates of media and electricity access. We have researched mass media penetration in Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia, along with Venezuela, and Uruguay, and presented the findings for each country under the relevant header below.

Statistics on radio ownership or access in these countries simply are not available. This may be due to information-sharing practices within the country or the competitive marketplace. What scant figures do exist are more than twenty years out-of-date. Therefore, we have chosen to focus on television as the key metric of mass media penetration—this makes particular sense as television use may in fact be higher than radio use in many of these countries. In Brazil, for instance, just 80% of people report listening to the radio, while we found that 97% of households had televisions. It should also be noted that some data is less recent than what Wonder would usually report, since large scale research of this type is difficult, particularly in rural areas, and therefore is conducted infrequently.

We were not able to find direct statistics on the number of inaccessible or difficult to access people in each country, however we noticed that the World Bank often uses lack of electricity access to measure inaccessibility, so we followed their lead and have provided figures on electricity access in each country as a way of approximating the number of people inaccessible in a crisis.

colombia

Colombia has the highest rate of no-internet access among the five countries studied. Only 58.1% of the population of Colombia have internet access, which leaves 41.9% without it. When it comes to TV, penetration is much higher with 84% of Colombian households possessing a TV set. If we compare these figures with the total number of households in Colombia (14 million) by multiplying that total number of households by (1-0.84) or 0.16 we find that there are about 2.24 million households in Colombia without access to TV. Finally, according to the most recent available data from the World Bank, 97.8% of Colombia's total population has access to electricity, but that figure falls to just 90.5% in rural areas.

brazil

In Brazil, media penetration is quite a bit higher than in Colombia. Sixty-eight percent of households have Internet access, leaving 32% without. Fully 97% of Brazilian households have a TV set, leaving just 3% without. There are 64.8 million households in Brazil, so this means that there are about 1.94 million without television access. Finally, 99.65% of Brazil's overall population has access to electricity, falling to 97.8% among the rural population. This leaves about 2.2% of the rural population who are left inaccessible in a crisis.

argentina

In Argentina, 78.6% of the population has internet access, leaving 21.4% of the population without it. 96.97% of Argentina's population has access to television, leaving 3.03%, or about 1.33 million of Argentina's 44.27 million people, without media access. Finally, according to the World Bank, though in 2012 4.25% of Argentina's rural population still lacked electricity, by 2014 Argentina had achieved electricity access for 100% of its population.

venezuela

In Venezuela, 60.0% of the population have access to the Internet, leaving approximately 40% without it. Just 91.5% Venezuelan households have a television, leaving 8.5%, or 726,750 of their 8.55 million households without it. Finally, while 99.11% of Venezuela's overall population has access to electricity, that figure falls to 92.04% of the population in rural areas.

uruguay

In Uruguay, 69.4% of the population has access to the internet, meaning that about 30.6% do not. When it comes to TV, 92.9% of the Uruguayan population has access, leaving 7.1%, or about 245,660 of Uruguay's 3.46 million people without media access. Finally, 99.66% of Uruguay's overall population has electricity, however that figure drops to 97.04% in rural areas.

conclusion

As you can see, while most people in these five countries do have mass media access, there is a substantial number who don't, presenting a large potential market. The countries with the largest percentage of the population without media access are Colombia, which has 84% TV penetration, and Venezuela, which has 91.5% TV penetration. The country with the largest percentage of inaccessible people is Colombia, where 90.5% of rural households have electricity.
Part
03
of four
Part
03

Mass media access: Africa

Introduction

While mass media access across Africa is hard to quantify, one of the more accurate ways to investigate TV, radio, and Internet access is via census data. According to the most recent census data from 2014 to 2016 supplied by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the countries that have the most complete data in terms of media access are Egypt, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, South Africa, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. According to the research criteria, the percentage of households that could not be reached in a crisis are 2.3%, 35.6%, 68.7%, 40.2%, 19.2%, 1.3%, and 39.3%, respectively. These percentages would drop, however, if the calculation were to include factors such as cell phone or landline access or access to media at work or at a friend’s house. This data can also be found for most countries in the census data from ITU. Overall, the access to media in Africa via TV, radio, and Internet is limited in comparison to the rest of the world, and though each country has its unique challenges. Below are my calculations, individual summaries of each country, and a total summary section.
The sections are sorted by country, as requested in the criteria.

Egypt

Egypt’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 97 million people, but 2.3% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 17.3% of households have access to a radio, 97.7% of households have access to a TV, and 46.1% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 2.3%.
Additionally, households with landline and cellular phones make up 18.7% and 98% of all Egyptian households. Should this data be taken into account, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis drops to 2%.
According to the World Factbook, Egypt is the third most populous country in Africa, but 95% of its population is concentrated in only 5% of the country’s land area. This area happens to be closest to the Nile River, as the rest of the country is arid desert. Natural hazards include droughts, floods, earthquakes, landslides, “khamsin” windstorms, and sandstorms, among others. A population boom of 46% in 10 years (1994 – 2014) caused stress on infrastructure, government resources, and natural resources. The urban population is 43.3% and rising about 2% each year, and the population overall is very young; both of these facts indicate higher household media access percentages in the future.

Mali

Mali’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 18 million people, but 35.6% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 64.4% of households have access to a radio, 33.6% of households have access to a TV, and 8.9% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 35.6%.
Additionally, households with landline and cellular phones make up 1.7% and 82.7% of all Malian households. Should this data be taken into account, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis drops to 17.3%.
According to the World Factbook, Mali is characterized by its sandy northern plains, southern savannas, and rugged, northeast hills. Malian culture has been rooted in most of the population’s migratory lifestyle that coincides with the seasons. Rural Malians are driven to villages and towns during the dry season due to poverty, conflict, food insecurity, or drought. Natural hazards in the area include dust/haze during the dry season, droughts, and occasional flooding on the Niger River. The urban population is 41.4% and rising about 5% each year, and the population overall is very young; both of these facts indicate higher household media access percentages in the future. Additionally, Mali’s population is set to double by the year 2035.

Niger

Niger’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 19 million people, but 68.7% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 31.3% of households have access to a radio, 11.4% of households have access to a TV, and only 0.6% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 68.7%.
Additionally, households with landline and cellular phones make up 0.8% and 68.2% of all Nigerien households. Should this data be taken into account, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis drops to 31.8%.
According to the World Factbook, Niger is almost entirely desert and sand dunes, though some plains and hill exist at the edges of the country. It is considered to be one of the hottest countries in the world. The majority of the population lives along the southern border, and the major natural disaster in droughts. The urban population is only at 19.3%, but it is rising about 5% each year.

Rwanda

Rwanda’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 12 million people, but 40.2% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 59.6% of households have access to a radio, 10.0% of households have access to a TV, and 9.3% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 40.2%.
Unfortunately, landline and cellular phone use was not available as part of the most recent Rwandan census.
According to the World Factbook, Rwanda is mostly grassy hills and mountainous regions, with a distinct rainy season. It is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with most of the population along the Lake Kivu shore or in the central portion of the country. Natural hazards in the area include droughts and volcanic eruptions. Most of the population lives in a rural area.

South Africa

South Africa’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 55 million people, but 19.2% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 55.4% of households have access to a radio, 80.8% of households have access to a TV, and 55.9% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 19.2%.
Additionally, households with landline and cellular phones make up 9.4% and 96.3% of all South African households. Should this data be taken into account, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis drops to only 3.7%.
According to the World Factbook, South Africa is marked by sunny days and cool nights, with coastal plains leading to the ocean in the south and a hilly, plateau-marked central and northern regions. The population sticks mostly to the southern coast, and the eastern half has a higher population density than the western half. Natural hazards in the area include droughts and volcanic eruptions. Most of the population is younger and urban, with 65.8% of the population in a city environment. Notably, the rural areas are marked by the most poverty and least amount of opportunity for mass media access.

Tunisia

Tunisia’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 11 million people, and only 1.3% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 49.1% of households have access to a radio, 98.7% of households have access to a TV, and 30.7% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 1.3%.
Additionally, households with landline and cellular phones make up 13.2% and 94.4% of all Tunisian households. Should this data be taken into account, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis would remain 1.3%.
According to the World Factbook, Tunisia encompasses mountains and coasts in the north, dry plains in the center, and desert in the south as the land becomes the Sahara Desert. As a result, the country’s population is mostly in the northern portion of the country. Natural hazards in the area include floods, earthquakes and droughts. Tunisia’s location in the central Mediterranean makes it a prime candidate for a flourishing commercial and corporate scenes, such as the oil industry along their continental shelf. Most of the population urban, with 67.3% of the population in a city environment.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe’s 2017 estimate boasts approximately 14 million people, and roughly 39.3% of households may not be reached in a crisis due to media access issues with radio, TV, and Internet. 60.7% of households have access to a radio, 40.0% of households have access to a TV, and 33.2% have access to the Internet. The criteria state that assumptions can be made including households with a TV or the internet have enough money and enough electricity to access a radio. Thus, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis is 39.3%.
Additionally, households with landline and cellular phones make up 3.4% and 88.5% of all Zimbabwean households. Should this data be taken into account, the largest possible percentage of households that could have media access issues during a crisis would decrease to 11.5%.
According to the World Factbook, Zimbabwe boasts the largest waterfall in the world: Victoria Falls. The country is mostly mountains in the east and plateau everywhere else. Natural hazards in the area include droughts and the rare flood or thunderstorm. Zimbabwe has two major cities: Harare and Bulawayo. Over time, generations of Zimbabweans have shifted from rural to urban life, with 32% of the population in cities and a 2.5% annual urbanization rate. The rest of the population is fairly evenly spread out throughout the country.

Continuing the Research

It was noted in the directions that only 5-7 country summaries would be necessary to fulfill this request. However, in order to get a better understanding of Africa’s mass media data and electrical information, I have included a section of more detailed explanations of my sources.
In order to access all the data used in this response, the ITU website proved invaluable. Once at the link provided, simply download the Excel version of the “Core indicators on access to and use of ICT by households and individuals” under the “COUNTRY ICT DATA (UNITL 2016)” heading. This spreadsheet will provide information for additional countries around the world, and the metadata packet will provide more information on how the data was gathered and improvements on the surveys. Other insights about the availability of data, especially in the sub-Saharan region of Africa, can be gleaned from a report by Balancing Act, an African mass media company; this source also has an in-depth analysis of the country of Kenya similar to the ones included in this request. Additional data on the availability of electricity in each country can be taken from the World Factbook under the “Energy” tab of each section; the “Population” tab additionally indicates other information about the people as requested in part of the criteria, such as homelessness or indigenous populations.

Conclusions

With such diversity in geography and populations, each country in Africa has its own unique advantages or disadvantages to obtaining media access for their households. With the criteria for this request, the percentage of households that could not be reached in a crisis are 2.3% (Egypt), 35.6% (Mali), 68.7% (Niger), 40.2% (Rwanda), 19.2% (South Africa), 1.3% (Tunisia), and 39.3% (Zimbabwe), though it is advised that data such as landline and cellular phone access be included. Data can be accessed through ITU census summaries and other resources listed above.

Part
04
of four
Part
04

Mass media access: North America

The following are percentages of country populations without access to television, internet, and radio: the United States, 3.5%; Canada, 3%; Mexico, 6.9%; and Panama, 6%. It is assumed that these citizens cannot be directly reached during times of crisis.

THE UNITED STATES

In the U.S., approximately 119.6 million, or 96.5% of homes contain at least one television that receives traditional signals so far in 2018. This leaves approximately 3.5% without television access. Consumer age is a huge factor for television ownership, as the younger generation often has no need for a television once they move out of their family home. In 2016, 95% of homes had radio penetration, leaving 5% without access. Internet access is available to around 106.07 million homes, out of a total 125.82 million in 2016. 106.07 million divided by 125.82 million equals roughly 84% of homes with internet access, leaving 16% without access. In the U.S., the major barriers are the cost of internet, with 23% of urban areas without access, and 28% in rural areas. Overall, this means that 3.5% likely has no media access during times of crisis.

CANADA

Canada has a 97% penetration rate for television, leaving 3% of the population without access. In 2016, Canada’s radio access was approximately 89% of the population, leaving 11% without access. Internet access reached approximately 90.9% of the population in 2017, giving them the 14th highest penetration rate in the world. This leaves just over 9% of the population without access. In Canada, the demographics that live without internet tend to be those who did not finish high school, those who earn less than $35,000 combined household income, and those over the age of 65. Northern and remote regions, especially, have little to no internet access regardless of the aforementioned demographics, because of insufficient network capacity. Overall, this means that 3% likely has no media access during times of crisis.

MEXiCO

Television access in Mexico reached roughly 93.1% of the country’s population, leaving around 6.9% without access. The radio penetration rate was only 61.5% of the population, leaving 38.5% without access. Internet access for Mexican citizens reaches a dismal 43.7%, leaving 56.27% without any access. Mexico has a very poor communication infrastructure in many isolated towns, leaving many people in the dark during emergencies. Some parts of the country survive via a rudimentary radio network or makeshift cell signal repeaters. Overall, this means that 6.9% likely has no media access during times of crisis.

PANAMA

The most recent data about Panama’s television penetration comes from 2013 data, stating the penetration rate to be roughly 94%. This leaves 6% without access. Radio access is also gathered from 2013 data, stating that radio reached about 60% of the population, leaving 40% without access. Data about internet penetration in Panama comes from more recent sources, stating that between 69.1% and 70% of their citizens have access. This leaves 30% to 30.9% without internet. Rural areas of Panama are mostly inhabited by poverty-stricken indigenous people. The poverty level reaches over 70% in these areas, leading to poor communications infrastructure on top of unsanitary living conditions. Overall, this means that 6% likely has no media access during times of crisis.

CONCLUSION

In the United States, 3.5% likely has no media access during times of crisis. In Canada, that number is closer to 3%. Mexico sees about 6.9% of its citizens without media access, and Panama has around 6% of its population without media access.

Sources
Sources

From Part 02