Please provide the leading companies in France, Germany and the United Kingdom who are currently operating a fleet of electric vehicles.
Europcar is both, the largest key player and, has the most potential for fleet size within the United Kingdom, France and Germany. The U.K. is by far the smallest key player, but issues the most electric passenger vehicle registrations. The other four rental giants that can afford the high prices of electric vehicles are Enterprise, Sixt, Avis, and Hertz. Amazingly, Autolib, BlueIndy, ADA, Ucar, BlaBlaCar, G7, and Gnewt Cargo already succeed in an industry that does not anticipate new companies. That is, until prices match that of traditionally powered vehicles. Below you can read my findings, insights and outlook.
Fleet size for specific companies are rarely made publicly available. The primary finding is that electric vehicles remains too high a price to compete with traditionally powered vehicles. Autolib, BlueIndy, ADA (Alada), Ucar, (Enterprise) Rent-a-Car (U.K. and Germany), BlaBlaCar, G7, and Gnewt Cargo are discussed in the "Adjustments" sections below. These unconventional operations succeed in providing electric car services amidst high prices. Fleet and financial data indicate their influence is minimal at this time.
The major players in this research are not listed because of their dominance. Rather, they offer insight into who registered the excess of 300,000 (sum of EAFO data detailed below) electric, passenger vehicles in France, the U.K., and Germany.
The consensus among these countries is to ban all diesel and gas car sales. Most European countries already committed to 2040. Germany is among the few countries not specifying a date for a complete transition to green vehicles.
According to the U.S. Commercial Service, rental car companies, car-sharing services, and taxi companies drive the electric, passenger vehicle market in France. Rental companies dominate the larger industry. However, the research shows that each of these segments forecast future growth in the electric vehicle (EV) space. The five major players in France, the U.K., and Germany are Europcar, Enterprise, Sixt, Avis, and Hertz.
The research uses total registrations to measure electric, passenger vehicles. Market share determines the fleet size as a percentage of the overall industry. This method applies to the major players for each country.
REGISTERED ELECTRIC VEHICLES
The European Alternative Fuel Observatory (EAFO) lists the total registrations for plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) for Europe. The PEV data includes battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). As of June 2017, the United Kingdom’s registered passenger cars totaled 111,728. France totaled 101,799 over this same period. Germany is smallest with 92,731 electric passenger cars registrations.
France is the largest market with 5 major players sharing 85% of $2.5 billion euros. The largest key player is Eurocar (15%), then Avis Budget (12%), Hertz (11%), Sixt (5%), and Enterprise (5%).
The five majors players amass 80% of Germany's $2.1 billion euros. Sixt (29%) tops the list, then Eurocar (24%), Avis Budget (11%), Hertz (10%), and Enterprise (5%).
While the United Kingdom has the most registered electric passenger vehicles, it is the smallest key player operating at $1.6 billion euros. Government regulation that forces declining prices is a primary industry factor. The 5 majors control 85% of U.K. rental car industry: Enterprise (30%), Eurocar (23%), Hertz (12%), Avis (12%), and Sixt (8%).
POTENTIAL FLEET SIZE
The maximum number of electric passenger vehicles is a product of total registrations (for fleet size) and market share for each country. This is a maximum number based upon the dominance of rental companies within these countries. The remaining sections of this research provides insight into how percentages might be adjusted downward for growth in electric taxis, ride sharing, modernized passenger ventures, and commercial operations.
Maximum registrations for the largest players in France (101,799 and 2.5 billion Euros) are Eurocar (15,269), Avis Budget (12,215), Hertz (11,197), Sixt (5,090), and Enterprise (5,089).
In Germany (92,731 and 2.1 billion Euros), Sixt (26,891) is the largest rental company, then Europcar (22,255), Avis Budget (10,200), Hertz (9,273), and Enterprise (4,636).
For the United Kingdom (111,728 and 1.6 billion Euros), the 5 majors begin with Enterprise (33,518), then Europcar (25,697), Hertz (13,407), Avis (13,406), and Sixt (8,938).
The largest potential for fleet size for France, the United Kingdom and Germany are ranked by summing these products. Europcar's total is first at 63,221 (25,697+22,255+ 15,269), then Enterprise 43,243 (33,518+4,636+5,089), Sixt 40,919 (8,938+26,891+ 5,090), Avis 35,821 (13,406+10,200+12,215), and Hertz 33,877 (13,407+9,273+11,197).
ADJUSTMENTS: TAXIS AND OTHER PASSENGER VENTURES
Comparison of a case study by the European Commission on taxis and ride sharing with overall statistics illustrates the minimal contribution EVs have outside of the rental space. It is important to note that most EV car-sharing programs fail shortly after market entry.
Autolib and BlueIndy are examples of successes, but do not yet maintain large fleets. Although, Autolib becomes more significant each year. It currently provides Paris with just 2,500 electric passenger cars. While this is a large fleet compared to the other small market companies listed here, its is less than 1% of the 300,000 registrations for France, Germany, and the U.K. The German outlook section below further illustrates this gap. Autolib began official operations in October 2011.
Nissan electric cars is an example of companies grabbing headlines with genuine innovations, but of little significance to the overall taxi space. As of December 2015, the number of Nissan EVs are of no significance to leading companies in the research (UK 134 EVs, Germany 30 EVs, and France 0).
ADJUSTMENTS: COMMERCIAL VEHICLES
France registered the most commercial vehicles (27,534), followed by Germany (7,469), and the U.K. (3,540). The largest and most well-known commercial company in the U.K. is Gnewt Cargo. The entire fleet is electric.
It is not surprising that the major players are established rental companies. Electric vehicles still cost more than traditional cars. This is expected to change and diversify the industry by 2020. Smaller companies and new startups should increase with decreasing prices.
France is a unique market, in that, several independent rental companies succeed on a national scale. Nedrelid's Corporate Advisory on European Car Rentals recognizes ADA (Alada) and Ucar as significant public companies. Rent-a-Car is the only private company recognized as a significant national player. To a lessor degree, growth occurs in the van segment, and car/ride sharing (i.e. AutoLib and BlaBlaCar). France’s largest taxi service (G7) is small but growing with 8,000 drivers and 2,500 electric and hybrid taxis.
Of the three countries, Germany’s current and future market forecasts to be the smallest. This is not surprising considering Germany's hesitation to commit to a date that bans all new gas and diesel sales. According to the Auto Gazette, 3% (9,000) of an available 300,000 rebates were requested by 2017. About half (4,500) went to electric fleets for business use.
The United Kingdom, France and Germany will see continued growth in electric vehicles because of government and industry pressure. The five major players in terms of market share as a percentage of electric passenger vehicle registrations are Europcar, Enterprise, Sixt, Avis, and Hertz. The markets for taxis, ride sharing, commercial vehicles, and other modern ventures forecast growth as prices decline comparable to conventionally powered vehicle. Overall, the growth of leading companies and the overall industry is expected to exhibit consistent growth through 2040.