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Millennial Women - Professional Mentors

Based on information found in website articles, company research, credible blog posts, and women's foundation sites, we discovered that as low as 5% of millennial women in the workforce actively seek professional mentors, although those that find a mentor benefit greatly. Having the guidance of both male and female mentors is important, even though 72% of the women interviewed for a Georgetown research article expressed their desire for a female mentor.

Benefits of a Mentor for both business and individual

Millennials make up a majority of the US workforce, of which women make up almost 50%. According to one study, millennial women come with unique challenges that make traditional mentoring programs ineffective: They prioritize meaningful work over how much they are paid, they change jobs frequently, and believe companies must practice what they preach in order to gain their loyalty. As a result, however, the same study finds that these traits make women millennials more likely to desire and benefit from mentorship.

Being a millennial woman in the workforce also comes with identity problems. They are found to have higher levels of stress due to this, but can benefit from having professionals to look up to. Finding support via an elder in their work profession isn't easy as the professional women of old tended to model men in their effort to climb the corporate ladder. This would include issues like balancing family life and work life. If millennials can balance their appreciation for their women mentors while also scrutinizing aspects of them that don't hold up to their ideals, they can take from them important details that could evolve the standards of the working woman. This, according to Elizabeth Kelan of London's King College, will develop the millennial woman's ability to critically think and develop into the authentic leaders they aspire to become.

Millennial women desire mentoring. Organizations who provide formal mentoring programs saw an increase employee engagement, retention, and high-potential employees. Another study showed 68% of millennial employees planned to stay at their job for more than 5 years when being mentored versus the 32% who did not have a mentor.

Qualities of a Mentor

Forbes identifies millennials as having certain attributes based on the time period they were born and as such, they desire certain qualities in a mentor. Some of these attributes are being surrounded by stimuli, the ability to multitask, not valuing monetary gain, desiring recognition, and wanting to work for companies with a strong culture and ideals that mirror their own. As such, the following list are qualities and characteristics millennial women seek in a mentor.

- They seek guidance and support from people who have more rounded experience and perspectives, as opposed to those who don't. They desire a web of professional relationships with a wide variety of people who offer multiple perspective on life.

- They seek mentorship that constantly evolves. They want someone who relates to their needs and who can form a deep relationship on a personal and professional level.

- They want myriad of feedback, but they don't just want to be told exactly what is and isn't working. They want to be appreciated for what they're doing well, and trained on how to improve. They don't like anyone breathing down their neck, but they appreciate a mentor who will chime in on what they need to improve.

- They want less boss and more mentor in people with higher positions. Bosses and managers should be more approachable, and have the ability to encourage and guide. Millennials want their respect earned and don't want to feel like they have to respect higher-ups on account of authority alone.

- They want someone who sees potential in them, even if they are unable to see the potential within themselves. Someone who believes that they can do better is a driving force for improving performance. They want a mentor who can push them to evolve in the company they work for.

- They want time invested in them to develop genuine relationships in order to earn a mutual trust before opening themselves up to a mentor.


While the millennial women in the workforce have recognized their need for a certain level of TLC that has not been fully developed or implemented, the need for mentorship and the professional nurturing mentors supply has displayed a promising future for both women in the workplace and the businesses for which they choose to work.
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Millennial Women - Disrupting Male Dominated Industries

Millennial women, those between the ages of 28-35 are entering the US workforce in record numbers. These women are the most highly educated female generation to enter the workforce, and as such, are defining themselves with confidence by focusing on career progression within their chosen industries. Based on industry data and economic projections, many employers are seeking to attract needed talent from this group by developing hiring strategies and inclusive corporate cultures, and Millennial women are responding by entering previously male-dominated industries.

Male-Dominated Industries

Certain industries have been assumed to be more masculine and have become defined as male-dominated. A common thread among male dominated industries is the physical labor, hours, or perceived danger involved. Construction, machine or vehicle operation, mining, logging, and other industries are consistently seen as male-dominated; STEM-fields, law, and trades are also male-dominated, based on industry reports and census data.

Disrupted Industries

There are approximately nine industries that have historically been male-dominated that Millennial women are successfully disrupting:

1. Law Enforcement
2. Legal (attorney)
3. Technology
4. Accounting/Finance
5. Culinary
6. Plumbing
7. Auto Mechanics
8. Aviation
9. Science

These industries are being sought by women for employment based on a need identified by Millennial women to be included. With greater education and confidence, women are choosing to follow their passion, rather than the status quo, which often takes them to male-dominated industries.

Employment trends

While women, especially Millennial women, are seeking employers with a reputation for being inclusive, Millennial women are being pursued simply for the fact that they make up roughly half of the Millennial workforce. With close to 60% of college students being female, and 2/3 of Millennial women in the workforce, the talent pool among college-educated, entry level workers is becoming more gender-equal.

Additionally, many of the most in-demand job fields are being staffed by women rather than men. Millennial women are often paid more, and are landing more jobs, than their male generational counterparts. Men are seeing incomes slipping as their job competition increases, whereas the increasing share of the total workforce is increasing the average wage of female workers.

Women themselves are being their own advocates, selecting employers with proven inclusive practices, starting their own businesses and offering other women strong examples of female success. Very few Millennial women have waited to break into an industry based on its practices, but have instead nurtured a more diverse and inclusive workplace as they climb the corporate ladder.

Employment Challenges and Solutions

In more traditionally male occupations, women can often feel outnumbered, but still encourage other women to pursue opportunities. Some industries, particularly construction and transportation, are still strongly biased against women, and show the lowest percentages of women in the industry. In construction, for example, just 9.1% of the workforce consisted of women of any age.

With a reputation for being hostile to women, the trades are facing a worker shortage due to retirement and the focus on college versus skills education. With a growing number of Millennial women entering the workforce, the trades are changing their attitudes toward women by offering progressive leave policies and addressing gender bias.

The trade industries themselves find women, in particular, to be more reliable in both performance and attendance, and as Millennial women are representing such a large talent pool, companies are focusing efforts on retaining journeywomen. Recruiting efforts by transportation companies are focusing on changing the perception early, by offering Girl Scout badges to show that trucking can be for girls. Above all, the trade industries are declaring, "Women belong here."

Millennial women are believing the hype. As companies need more qualified workers, and Millennial women are increasingly becoming those qualified workers, companies and women are adapting to the demands. Women see a chance for steady employment with good pay; companies see employees with keen attention to detail, risk-management capabilities, reliability, and loyalty. Millennial women that are following their passions into traditionally male-dominated industries are confident, speaking up and knowing their value in face of potential hardship. Persistence is critical for continued success for Millennial women in these industries, which have already seen dramatic increases in representation.

Non-Traditional Opportunities

Even though women have made headway over the last decade in fields such as STEM, law, business, and public safety, and the trade industry has been working to recruit more Millennial women by meeting employment demands, some industries still remain extremely underrepresented. Bricklaying, stone masonry, and other construction related jobs are expected to have a robust pattern of growth. However, women currently are so underrepresented that there very examples of women in the field, especially among Millennial women. In fact, electrical line work is over 99% male-dominated. These industries support roles, such mechanics and heavy machine operators, that are seen as exclusive to men due to the physical nature of the work. However, as more women are given the confidence and education to pursue their passions, and continue to increase their overall employment representation, Millennial women will be tapped to fill many of these future positions in these traditionally male-dominated construction industries.


Millennial women are disrupting traditionally male-dominated industries by being increasingly better educated than their male counterparts. Additionally, Millennial women are increasing their overall participation in the workforce, leading to the majority of qualified applicants, even in previously male-dominated fields, to be female. Given that employers are now having to actively compete for female employees due to their increasing qualifications, many employers are developing and implementing inclusive practices, often by hiring women to blaze a trail. By being the best applicants within an industry, Millennial women are able to demand industry changes by choosing progressive companies for employment. As their collective job force representation increases, Millennial women have the confidence to continue disrupting male-dominated industries that are hungry for qualified workers. Simply put, Millennial women have, through education and persistence, made themselves the best candidates for a job, with previous gender-bias being seen as a challenge rather than a barrier to success.
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Millennial Women - Partnerships with Organizations

Below you will find a list of 5 organizations that offer mentoring to Millennial women, as well as information regarding each organization and its program. The organizations listed are: The Chatman Women's Foundation, Trellis Consulting LLC, The Millennial Women Network, WINGSforGrowth, and The Brave Millennial.

Chatham Women's Foundation

This is an organization of community leaders led by Shantera Chatman, who come together in order to develop women professionally and personally, as well as develop our society as a whole. TCWF try to encourage the development of an environment which is fit for personal and professional growth.
Through enrichment seminars and events TCWF mentors and teaches both professional and non-professional women every year. There are 3 main ways in which the Chatman Women's Foundation helps women, these are: PowHer Play, the Annual Women’s Empowerment Conference and TCWF Awards.

PowHer Play

This is a mentoring program that is both multicultural and cross-generational. This program is for women to interact with one another, as well as share their goals of empowerment. The most discussed topic is relevant to business as they network and share. According to a survey done by Deloitte in 2016:
"94% of millennial women felt that their mentors were providing them with good advice."
"68% of the employees planned to stay with the organization for five years, versus 32% who had no mentor."
The PowHer Play Mentoring Circle is a session with industry leaders and professionals in order to provide "knowledge, lessons, and accountability to participants."

Annual Women’s Empowerment Conference

Provides an experience helping women in ways such as networking better,living better, and feeling better. This event is aimed at bettering women, both professionally and personally.

TCWF Awards

This is a program aimed towards providing financial aid to women who are in need. This financial aid is for women who want to build a business, further their education, or just to get out of a shelter.

Trellis Consulting LLC

This is a firm who helps other organizations build a culture of high trust which leads to a workspace that is safe and inclusive. Trellis have an approach which is designed in order to help organizations in developing competitive advantages. This approach consists of:


Designed directly for women and their organizations, Trellis’ Individual Millennial Coaching Program is essential to ensure a competitive advantage, as well as ensuring healthy margins and workplace sustainability. This coaching program consists of 12, 1 hour, monthly video conference sessions containing small groups of people who will here from experts regarding topics designed to help Millennial women steer and succeed in the workplace. Trellis' team provides:Mentoring, coaching, and real-world information and solutions. This is to help guide the younger generation of women climb, achieve, lead and thrive.

The Millennial Women Network

The Millennial Women Network is a group for Millennial women to share stories with one another, as well as motivate each other. The organization is passionate about sharing stories of Millennial women who are outstanding, in order to inspire and empower one another. This organization is open to women born between the years 1985 and 1995, making the ages between 22 and 33 years old.

Big Sister/Big Brother Program

The Millennial Womens Network provides a 6-month mentoring program called the Big Sister/Big Brother Program. The program provides young Millennial women entrepreneurs the opportunity to connect with more experienced entrepreneurs, both male and female. According to the organization "a Big Sister/Big Brother is there to help you thrive and believe you can achieve your dreams and that they are possible". This program is done by meeting once a month with your big sister/big brother in real life to:
"Identify the mentee's goal." "Identify the necessary resources." "Create an action plan." "Connect with your big sister's network." "Take the first steps together."
"Reflect on what you achieved and identify further goals."

WINGS for Growth

WINGS which stands for Women's Initiative to Nurture Growth and Success is dedicated to inspire, enable, and empower talented young women transforming them into future leaders.
This is done by: Impactful mentoring, coaching, and "networking with visionary, successful, and caring leaders and role models."
WINGS offer a mentoring program with a consistent mentoring process which consists of "measurable outcomes, highly qualified mentors, champions, high potential mentees and a framework that is designed for success."

WINGS for Growth mentor program

WINGS for Growth provides a 10 month structured mentoring program focusing on early career women, millennials, and women in middle management. In this program experienced mentors guide and support other less experienced individuals in order to help them achieve and reach goals which were agreed on. During this program women will be provided with:
"Personalized manual pairing of a mentor."
"Mentors who are committed to mentee’s growth."
"Dedicated program management support."
"Additional support provided by Champions(Engagement manager and secondary mentor)."


Founded by Laura Youngkin in 2015, The Brave Millennial is a place created to safely and openly discuss challenges facing Millennial women in the workplace, as well as come up with solutions to make a change. The Brave Millennial helps Millennial women in the American workplace by supporting and promoting them with great dedication.

They do this by hosting several events around the US for Millennial women and creating lasting local communities of Millennial women by "building rapid trust, forging new relationships, taking on tough topics, and having fun," as well as partnering with companies and employers helping improve performance regarding Millennial talent. During these events Millennial women engage with each other regarding similar experiences from different perspectives.


Provided is a list of 5 organizations that offer mentoring to Millennial women, these organizations are: The Chatman Women's Foundation, Trellis Consulting LLC, The Millennial Women Network, WINGSforGrowth, and The Brave Millennial. Also, included is information regarding each organization and its program.
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Millennial Women - Organization and Brands Celebrating Millennial Women

Mattel, Viacom/MTV, and Samsung are three brands that are actively celebrating millennial women who are breaking through the glass ceiling and going against gender bias. Over the past few years, women’s concern about gender bias has been at the forefront in the United States, with significant progress being made. Numerous companies have been developing advertising campaigns that feature women in general, going against gender bias, however, not all of them feature millennial women specifically.


To celebrate this year’s International Women’s day, the company created a product line of Barbies that resembled various famous women role models. This was done based on a survey conducted by Mattel with over 8,000 respondents (mothers) from around the globe. The survey revealed that most mothers (86% of respondents) were concerned with the type of role models that their daughters look up to. In view of this issue, Mattel came up with a way to encourage young girls to be inspired and educated through their ‘Inspiring Women’ series of products. Each product provides information on the various achievements and contributions made by the female role model to society. Mattel’s aim is to inspire as many girls as possible by “shining a light on empowering female role models”.
The company created 17 Barbie dolls that represent real women role models. Among them, the following are the millennial women who have made their mark in the world for ‘breaking through the glass ceiling’,

Nicola Adams Obe — Boxing Champion, UK (35 years old)
Ibtihaj Muhammad — Fencing Champion, USA (32 years old)
Hui Ruoqi — Volleyball Champion, China (28 years old)
Ashley Graham — Body Activist and Model, USA (30 years old)
Misty Copeland — Principal Ballerina, USA (35 years old)
Sara Gama — Soccer Player, Italy (29 years old)

Viacom — MTV

Viacom and MTV partnered with ANA to actively engage in their #SeeHer campaign. They joined together to create one-minute videos that highlight the various accomplishments made by famous women around the world. Many of these women fit the criteria of being millennial women and have contributed greatly towards the fight against gender bias. The campaign called ‘A Woman Did That’ features women including Laurie Hernandez the Olympic Gold medalist, singer Rihanna, fashion designer Lucy Jones, activist Gina Rodriguez, Inventor Keiana Cave, and author Amani Al-Khatahtbeh. Of the listed women, Rihanna, Gina Rodriguez, and Amani Al-Khatahtbeh satisfy the criteria given of being millennial women who have contributed to the fight against gender bias. The campaign was designed primarily to celebrate ‘Women’s History’ and are actively working towards eliminating bias against women in the industry of media and advertising by the year 2020, which will mark the 100th anniversary of women’s suffrage.
According to Viacom’s executive VP, Amy Hyland, the one-minute videos of “A Woman Did That” is just the beginning for the company’s commitment towards “advancing the #SeeHer movement” and building awareness for the cause of eliminating gender bias.


According to ABC News, Samsung created an advertising campaign that features three women who have been successful in breaking the gender barriers in the field of show business. Samsung has taken an active stand in “tackling female empowerment” by featuring Dee Rees, Rachel Morrison, and Issa Rae in their advertisement campaign. Issa Rae is the only one among the three who fits the criteria of being a millennial woman. Issa Rae (33 years old) is the creator and star of HBO’s “Insecure”. She plays the content creator and influencer in the ad campaign to inspire people to “make something” using the Samsung’s Galaxy S9 and S9+ phones. The message that she wants people to hear is “That I can do it. I have a voice. I can empower myself with the tools around me.” Issa Rae intends to inspire young content creators around the world to be true to one’s own “unique voice”.
There are numerous other brands that have created motivational advertisement campaigns that celebrate women who are breaking the barriers in their fight against gender bias and empowering women in every field. We have found two lists, “6 Empowering ad campaigns for women” and 9 Ads Empowering Women and Breaking Stereotypes” that can provide additional reference since they feature women who are trying to make a difference. Please note that most of the ad campaigns in these lists do not fit the provided criteria of celebrating millennial women, as they celebrate women in general (all ages).


To wrap up, we have identified three brands that are actively celebrating millennial women who are breaking through the glass ceiling and going against gender bias. The three brands identified are Mattel, Viacom — MTV, and Samsung. Each of these brands has developed advertisement campaigns or product lines that feature millennial women role models and are working towards eliminating the gender bias experienced by most in various industries.

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Millennial Women - The Glass Ceiling Perception

Research conducted in 2017 by Nielsen indicates that millennial women from the US believe that there is more gender equality in the workplace compared to women that belong to previous generations, such as baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964).

As far as the comparison of women's post-election opinion towards the "glass ceiling" is concerned, it appears that while research conducted in 2016 had similar results with surveys that took place in 2017, there was a significant difference in the opinion of millennial and baby boomer women back in 2013, when both groups felt less gender-discriminated compared with the contemporary workplace situation.

Gender disparity

Even though women of all ages still believe that gender disparity remains strong and perceive it as one of most pressing issues of the American society, millennial women appear to be more satisfied with their current status, as well as more optimistic about both the future of their careers and the realization of their professional dreams and expectations.

Furthermore, millennial women believe that they experience an increased equality in professional development and are more positive about their ability to grow, whereas baby boomer women are negative regarding the treatment of women, payment and gender equality in general.

Salaries and financial position

When asked about their salaries, 20% of millennial women stated that they consider their payment sufficient and fair for the work they do. On the other hand, only 10% of baby boomer women are satisfied with their salaries.

What is more, 62% of millennial women believe that their personal finances can improve in the next 12 months, while less than half (46%) of the baby boomer women share their optimism.

Treatment towards women

Regarding the position of women over the past 10 years, 27% of millennial women believe that treatment towards them has improved, while a mere 16% of baby boomer women agree with them.

Workplace gender equality

20% of millennial and 25% of baby boomer women agree that females are less likely to be considered for senior-level roles in a corporate setting and yet again millennial females appear to be less dissatisfied. Moreover, 66% of both age groups state that when women are promoted, they have to work harder than men to prove that they deserve their leading role.

Millennial women perceive a more equal treatment in the workplace as research shows that millennial men are more aware of gener inequality than other generations. Their identification of barriers and problems were far more in line with their female counterparts than those of older generations. Interestingly, fatherhood did not impact the results, either, leading to the conclusion that the thought process is generational, rather than life-stage-induced.

Millennial men are also more willing to identify a bias in themselves and agree to undergo training. They are more willing to be flexible to accomodate female co-workers. All of these factors combine to a different perception of workplace equality between the different generations.

Societal gender equality

When asked whether men and women are equal in society, millennial women again seemed to be rather more satisfied; 21% of them stated that it is whereas only 10% of baby boomer women replied affirmatively. Some hypothesize this perception is down to different experiences during childhood. Millennials were far more likely to have had two working parents growing up - 46% had a working mother by agr three, compared to only 25% of baby boomers. Millennials also saw their mothers have more earning equality with their father, with around half saying their female parent earned as much or more than the father, but only 16% of baby boomers said the same.

Post-election changes

The findings of Nielsen's research (2017) do not seem to differ much from the results of the survey conducted in 2016, before the latest American presidential elections, by the venture capital firm Accel Partners.

According to their data, 41% of millennial women believe that men and women are judged by the same criteria in the workplace and 21% of them felt discriminated at work due to their gender.

Even though the differences between surveys that took place in 2016 and 2017 seem to be minimal, that is not the case with the findings of the 2013 research conducted by Pew Research Center.

Their survey shows that female professionals felt less discriminated back then as the percentage of women that experienced gender discrimination at work is 15% for millennial women and 23% when women of older generations are concerned. On the other hand, even then, millennial women appeared to be more satisfied with their status than women belonging in the baby boomers age group.


While women of every age group agree that the corporate environment is still dominated by men and perceive "the glass ceiling" as lower salaries, fewer opportunities and unfair treatment for them (compared to their male coworkers), the age group of millennial women appears to be more satisfied with its current position. Furthermore, millennial women believe that the situation of female professionals has improved and they tend to be more optimistic than women belonging to previous generations.

Research indicates that even though both baby boomers and millennial women felt less gender discriminated back in 2013 (3 years before the latest presidential election), their approach was the same; millennial women were more satisfied back then as well.
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Overview - A Day in the Life of a Mid-Level Industry Person at New York Fashion Week.


Many mid-level industry people prepare for New York Fashion Week at least a month in advance and do more than one show a day. These individuals all mention how intense New York Fashion week can be, and one thing they have in common is meeting models and celebrities, and talking to designers about the shows. They also describe the show as exciting, but frenetic.


Hair stylists like Frank Rizzieri of Fourteen Jay Salon describe New York Fashion Week as chaotic, mundane, and absolutely absurd. In an interview with InStyle, he revealed what a typical day was like during the 2017 New York Fashion Week, when he styled the hair for the Tibi show.

Rizzieri revealed his day started with an early morning workout session in order to keep his head straight. To make the 10:30 "call time", which is the time stylists or make-up artists need to be at the venue for the show they're doing, he left at 10am so he could be at least fifteen minutes early. He described "call times" as usually being three hours before a show. A meeting with the designers and casting directors took place after his arrival, so that he could find inspiration for the show and find out which models would be arriving late. A test was then done to determine whether the look would work for the show, and Rizzieri then guided his team in creating the approved looks. Rizzieri checked each model after they were done before sending them on to make-up. After the show, Rizzieri explained that his day usually wasn't over as he had to leave for another show, meeting, trip, or job.


Make-up artists like Grace Lee and her team typically do two or more fashion shows a day during New York Fashion Week. To accomplish this, they follow a strict schedule to make sure everything is done on time.
While it is difficult to find information on what a typical day is like for a make-up artist, in an interview with Forbes, Grace Lee did reveal what her last day was like during the 2016 New York Fashion Week. She woke up at 8am, but Lee mentioned that she's usually already up by 6am. Since there is no time to eat during the show's preparations, Lee has a meal before heading to the venue. She met up with her team at 2pm and worked with the designers to create the make-up look from the face chart and sketches she did the day before the show. At 3pm the backstage opened up to the press, and Lee and her team did a few interviews. The show started at 5pm, and the make-up team would usually wait with the models backstage. By 6:30pm, Lee was done with her part of the show and heading to the airport to return to Toronto.

BACKSTAGE Photographers

Backstage photographer Alyssa Greenberg begins preparing for New York Fashion Week a month in advance. Greenberg mentioned that her schedule will sometimes only be finalized a few days before the Fashion Week starts, and she's often expected to handle last-minute jobs. Before the week starts, Greenberg will make an inspiration folder of what photographers shot in the past years. This helps her determine how to go about shooting the show.

Greenberg described her typical day at Fashion Week as "a lot of running around", and she mentioned that she usually photographs two or three shows a day. She likes to arrive early, so she can check in and prepare for the shows and figure out when she will have time to edit her work. She also revealed that if she's shooting in-house, she'll edit throughout the show so that she can post in real time. If she can't edit right away, Greenberg will then do it right after while the shows are still fresh in her mind. Usually Greenberg will only get home at around 9pm, after which she will spend the rest of the evening finishing up the edit of the day.


No matter the mid-level job, New York Fashion Week is often described as crazy and unpredictable. Often these individuals will do two or more shows a day, and their schedules are often only finalized a few days before Fashion Week starts.

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Overview - Most-Talked about New York Fashion Week Events from 2017

Design creativity, celebrities, and buzz were all part of New York Fashion week in 2017, and a snow storm on the opening day did not seem to hamper the festivities. There was dramatic secrecy and anticipation about the new directions that established lines might take. Perhaps the biggest trend of New York Fashion Week in 2017, was that of social activism messages. In the design choices that social activism platforms for many of the designers.

Calvin Klein's show was packed with celebrities, including Jake Gyllenhaal, Lupita Nyong'o, Trever Noah, and "former Klein icon," Brooke Shields. They were the first to view the classic line's new direction at the hands of Raf Simons', who previously designed for Dior and Jill Sander. The Pitsburgh Post Gazette describes the show as one of a week "filled with make-it or break it moments." Raf Simons used "sporty touches" added to traditional pieces, and "inventive outerwear in clear vinyl" to try to reinvigorate the company, which is now almost 50-years-old.

Tom Ford's show opened New York Fashion Week and according to the New York Times, Ford "transformed the Park Avenue Armory into a slick lounge, complete with moody lavender lighting." The Times described his pieces as "seductive, with crystal-embellished panties, power-shoulder suiting, and gauzy bandage evening dresses." An affection for the color pink and 90s nostalgia were evident in the designs. Ford's show was a hit, with attendees sharing pictures on social media before it was through. The after party featured a D.J set by Virgil Abloh of Off White, and shirtless waiters.

Phillip Plein
A German designer of America's Next Model fame, Phillip Plein's made his debut at New York Fashion Week with a show at held at the New York public Library. Plein received plenty of celebrity attention with front row attendance by Madonna, Kylie Jenner, Nicky and Paris Hilton, Tyga and Tiffany Trump. The show featured the "hot mugshot guy," Jeremy Meeks, who became internet famous for being exceptionally good-looking in a mugshot from a 2014 arrest for a gang-related crime. Meeks was apparently released just in time to appear in the show. Beyond his novelty and physical beauty, Meeks' appearance may connect to a larger social message intended by the designer. Plein also invited Rapper Nas to perform his song "If I Ruled the World," which as Essence Magazine describes, "captures the frustration and desires of Black men in America." Plein's collection also included pieces that featured the iconography of American money.

The New Yorker calls Rihanna's Fenty x Puma show "the week’s most talked-about event." The show featured motor cycle tricks, and was, as The New Yorker describes it, "shrouded in the kind of secrecy that attracts attention." It was so secret, apparently, that the motor cycle stunt performers did not even know what gig they were participating in until they arrived for rehearsal. Rihanna's 2017 collection was a departure from her earlier collections. The New Yorker describes it as "an array of anoraks in purple and acid green with swimsuits that would have looked athletic were it not for their corset-stitched leg holes." Models wore "helmet heads and sweaty looking ponytales," which added to the rebel/bad girl mystique with a finale of Rhianna's riding onstage on the back of a motorcycle to take her bow.

In 2017, designers expressed diversity and social awareness by using transgender models, and models with a range of body types, and ages . There was an effort to use models of diverse backgrounds. Social commentary featured heavily in several shows at 2017's fashion week, and was an unmistakable trend as described in Essence Magazine's piece,"The Wokest New York Fashion."

Designer Anniesa Hasibaun, for instance, featured an all immigrant cast of models in her show, and dressed them in headscarves as a protest against "immigration policies, and President Trump's Muslim ban." Hasibaun believes that fashion can be a positive force for encouraging peace and says, " Difference is not something to be afraid of."

Essence Magazine calls Prabal Gurang's show a "celebration of feminism," with clothing that featured feminist slogans such as "our minds, our bodies," and "the future is female." Gurang furthered his social message chose models with a range of body types and diverse backgrounds.

Partnering with New York non-profit, #Cancerland, AnaOno Intimates used their show as a platform for raising breast cancer awareness by featuring women "who are fighting and living with several stages of breast cancer.

As mentioned previously, Phillip Plien highlighted the plight of African American men in America at the end of his show with a performance by Nas. At the end of his show, Naeem Khan also spoke to issues of race, when he featured a black model wearing an ornate regal gown with a long train, and a gold crown. As the model walked down the runway, Khan played a recording of Maya Angelo reading the poem "Human Family" which discusses how people are more alike than not. The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette calls it one of the week's "most emotionally stirring momments"

In 2017, New York Fashion week featured moments of drama, and surprise. It had the expected elements of design creativity, celebrity attendees, fun and of course, glamour. The biggest trend in fashion trend of the New York Fashion Week in 2017 seemed to be that of designers aligning with social messages. Through there choices of models, dramatic presentation, and in some instances, their clothing, designers added an element of social commentary.

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Millennial Women - Stress and Anxiety Levels

Based on several recent scientific studies, millennial women are definitely more stressed than women of other generations, and are significantly more stressed than their millennial male counterparts. Reasons given for this stress include their jobs, their finances, their relationships, and politics.

In most cases, these studies were not broken down by the requested age group of 28-35. This is largely because millennials are still being defined as ages 22-37, but in some cases, researchers have narrowed their focus to ages 25-34. All attempts have been made to use the older age bracket for the data in this brief; however, in some instances, this wasn't possible because the ages of study participants were not always mentioned, and were instead simply referred to collectively as "millennials." I have included that age groups for each study where available.

Stress levels of millennial Women

The definitive study performed on millennial women and stress was conducted in 2012 by the American Psychological Association. Although this study is older, it actually fits with the requested age group pretty well, since 18-34 year olds in 2012, would now be 24-40 year olds today. It is unlikely that stress levels among this generation have changed much, as the reasons for these levels have not been eliminated and because a newer study continues to find that "millennials and specifically millennial women are experiencing significantly more stress than their Generation X and Baby Boomer counterparts." In addition, many publications continue to use this study as background for their own articles. As such, I believe the study has continued relevance for this request.

Overall, the study established that "Millennials are the most stressed generation." On a "10-point scale where 1 is 1little or no stress' and 10 is 'a great deal of stress,' both millennials and Gen Xers reported their stress levels to be 5.4; however 39% of Millennials said that their stress levels had increased over the last 12 months compared to 36% of Gen Xers, 33% of Baby Boomers, and 29% of Matures. Thus, the study concluded that of all the generations studies, millennials experience the highest levels of stress.

However, that is only part of the story, as within the millennial generation, "women are likely to face more pressures compared to men." In fact, the study found that "51% of millennial women reported showing signs of stress like lying awake in bed at night, becoming more irritable, and losing motivation." Only 32% of millennial men report the same. In addition, 14% of millennial women compared to just 9% of millennial men said "that stress has stopped them from making healthy lifestyle changes."

A newer study from Secret showed that "millennial women have high levels of stress an average of four days a week for five and a half hours each day." Although this data wasn't compared to women from other generations or to men, based on the findings of the previous studies, it can be inferred that this was the highest number of days and hours that a generation and gender combination experienced high levels of stress. In fact, the report found that 85% of millennial women say they feel stress "sometimes" or "always" compared to 15% who say they rarely feel stress. These women reported becoming stressed for a variety reasons, most notably their job, their relationships, and their finances. However, recent political issues in the United States have become stressors for millennial women as well. Each of these topics is discussed further below.

Job and work related stress

Research into the reasons behind millennial women's stress indicates that their jobs and workplaces contribute significantly to their high levels of stress. According to a Refinery29 and Secret joint study, 74% of millennial women reported they are stressed out by work, which coincides with the 74% of millennial women that the American Psychological Association found that feel "pressured in their job and the demanding tasks." Only one stressor was higher, which was their looks and bodies at 76%. However, the multitude of articles dedicated to workplace stress and the millennial female suggest that job and work related stress might actually be higher than concerns about their appearance.

Of particular concern for millennial women is their tendancy to burn out in their jobs more quickly than women from other generations. As Chart Your Course indicates, "statistics are showing that Millennial women are hitting the ground running when they launch their careers in their early 20s, but later find that pace is unsustainable." Moreover, the data shows that "commonly believed reasons for women this age opting out of the workforce, like having children, aren’t to blame." Instead, researchers have found that "they’ve simply burned out trying to uphold expectations imposed on them from society from a very early age." Women around the age of 30 begin to "reflect inward and have a hard time seeing a career path beyond their never-ending to-do list."

Brit + Co also made the observation that millennial women tend to burn out more quickly in their jobs than previous generations. In a recent Brit + Co interview, Erin Falconer, author of "How to Get Sh*t Done" explains that millennials are hard workers, but the work they do is often distracted. For instance, Falconer says, "if you’ve set aside an hour to get an assignment done, but during that hour you’ve responded to a couple of emails and texts and scrolled through your Instagram or Facebook a couple of times, you haven’t put in an hour of actual work. So at the end of the day, you feel like you haven’t accomplished all that you could have — and you’d be right." This distracted working style means that millennials put in hours and hours of work without feeling like they've accomplished much at all. This contributes to both stress and burnout. It's also likely why 31% of millennial women find time management at work to be the most stressful aspect of their lives.

Falconer continues, "Furthermore, women, in particular, are far more likely to want to constantly go back and make things better, whereas men are better at compartmentalizing — i.e., when they’re done with something, they’re done done and can move on. So over time, women are carrying around not just their current projects, but are also hanging onto many past projects mentally. Cumulatively, it’s exhausting." This natural tendency to desire continual improvements again contributes to the feeling that they aren't completing their assignments, or are doing so with less-than-perfect results. The stress that results from this desire of perfection is typically not beneficial for millennial women, as 43% feel unmotivated when stressed, compared to just 27% who believe "stress fuels them to do more."

Essentially, millennial women have grown up with the belief that they can have it all, but with that notion also comes the idea that the only way to get it all is to work constantly and continually strive for more. For this reason, "it’s understandable when so many young women respond to the immense amount of paradox pressure around them by constantly pushing themselves to get up and go, even if they’re too dizzy to see the rabbit hole of depression right in front of them."

The desire to uphold societal expectations in their careers isn't the only work related stressor that millennial women are dealing with. With the unemployment rate of millennials at 16.1%, more than twice the national average, many women in their mid-20s who are burning out of one career may find it hard to establish themselves in another. Since job stability has been identified as a condition that staves off depression, millennial women who find themselves out of work are more likely to experience high levels of stress.

Other work stressors for millennial women include relationships with colleagues, which 45% of respondents to the Refinery29/Secret study said cause their stress, and work/life balance, which 45% of millennial mothers said was their biggest stress factor. In fact, for millennial women who have children, finding the balance between work and home life is a bigger stressor for them than finances, health, or education. What's more is that "23% of working millennial women find their gender may be the reason why they are not getting ahead in their job which leads to even more stresses and anxiety," which is a stressor that millennial men just don't have.


Along with job and work related stress, millennial women find finances stressful as well. In fact, 87% of women between the ages of 18 and 34 find money and finances stressful. This stress probably decreases as women get older and become more established in their careers, but as mentioned above, with the job high burn out numbers of women approaching age 30, finances are mostly likely still a significant factor in stress levels for older millennials as well. Specifically, 51% of millennial women have noted that their lack of savings gives them stress and they report "uncertainty and stress related to saving enough for a comfortable retirement in far greater numbers than their male counterparts."

Much of financial stress comes from the fact that 61% of millennial women "feel they don’t know what their best 401(k) investment options are, while less than half (44%) of Millennial men feel the same way." Perhaps this is because investments have typically been marketed toward men, but in any case, "full 75 percent of female Millennials wish they had an easier way to know how to choose their 401(k) investments, compared to 59 percent of their male peers."

This discrepancy between how millennial women and men look at finances could also simply be the result of women worrying more about money in their 20s than men. A Charles Schwab study found that "forty-six percent of men and 70 percent of women say having enough money is the greater concern (over being healthy). That means the overwhelming majority of young female workers are already worried about retirement security, even with retirement still 30 to 40 years away." In addition, millennial women generally have more work-related issues to address than men, which translates into more money-related issues as well. For instance, the retirement planning stressors Charles Schwab hear about from young women "include the impact of time spent out of the workforce, financial obligations like student debt, and caring for relatives." Certainly, many men face these stressors as well, but time out from the workforce and caring for relatives often seem fall to women more than men.


Relationships of all types tend to be stressors for millennial women. The rise of social media has contributed to millennial women feeling more stressed than ever about their romantic relationships, their family, and even their friendships. Refinery29 found that "young women in particular are expected to be connected 24/7. From work to social life the pressure is constantly there to be switched 'on'. This relentless, social media perpetuating stress of being your best self, in the best shape of your life at home, at work, in your social life, in your love life, in the world with your family, friends and with every person you encounter, is exhausting. And then we find ourselves in danger, and it's not the fight or flight kind it's the run-down, burnt out kind."

The pressure to appear "perfect" on social media has led to 76% of millennial women to have high stress levels about their looks and their bodies, 57% to feel stressed about their families, and 53% to feel stressed about their romantic relationships. Despite the fact that social media was initially designed to make relationship maintenance easier, millennial women are finding that not to be the case. For example, 49% of women interviewed for the Refinery29/Secret study worry about "how difficult it is to keep in touch with their friends" and 38% of them report that the false realities of social media are a constant source of stress in their lives. Unfortunately, this means that friendship, which should be a stress reliever has now become a source of stress for 31% of women ages 25 to 34.

In addition, it is often the case that "serious romantic relationships often begin to blossom [when people are in their] twenties and life seems to open up." However, while these relationships are often a source of exhilaration, they are also frequently the source of stress, particularly if the relationship ends badly, and "the loss women feel after a break-up can often trigger a depression. Just as [their] world was opening up, it reverts to quietly shrinking around [them]." Stress does not always equal depression, but studies have shown there is a link, and the stress that comes from volatile relationships can certainly deepen into depression, particularly for milennial women.


The November 2016 election of Donald Trump as president of the United States has also increased the stress level for many millennial women. In fact, according to a study conducted by Bustle, "millennials in particular are feeling the burn; many, if not most, of the changes the Trump administration and the Republican-controlled Congress are attempting to push through will affect the younger generations the most." In particular, millennial women don't know if they will "continue to have affordable access to essential health care; whether [their] kids will benefit from a robust public education system or suffer from a failing one; [or] whether all citizens will have equal rights, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, race, or disability status."

The millennial generation is generally very issues-oriented and "are more diverse, read more books than their baby boomer parents and do not pine for the pre-globalized economy. As a generation, they are strongly anti-Trump and don’t seem to be getting more conservative with time, as their parents did." Thus, the continued Trump presidency is clearly a source of stress for millennials in general, and millennial women in particular.

Allyson, a 33-year-old woman interviewed for the Bustle study said, "at this point, I'm certain I'll witness an environmental apocalypse in my lifetime. I was always on the fence about having children, but now I'm definitely not going to. Why would I want to bring a new life into this?" Erin said, "I feel a crushing sense of powerlessness, and paralysis — do I focus on the dangerous health care bill, or his firing of Comey and the fallout of the Russia investigation?" Shruti, an Indian-American 29-year-old woman said, "I've had increased anxiety about what could happen to my family, especially my brother living in South Carolina with Confederate flags in his neighborhood."

These sentiments aren't rare among millennial women. Other older millennials interviewed for the Bustle study mentioned stress related to fear of losing rights, the outlook for their kids' future, environmental issues, the possibility of being deported, finding a job that offers benefits, and the threat of war as significantly impacting their lives. Moreover, as mentioned above, many millennials voted differently from their baby boomer parents, meaning Trump's election has exacerbated the relationship stressors for millennials as well.


Nearly all studies have proven that millennial women are more stressed and experience more anxiety than women of other generations. In addition, their stress levels are significantly higher than millennial males. Research indicates that work, finances, relationships, and politics all contribute to these high levels of stress for millennial women.
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Millennial Women - Engagement behavior with On-Demand Apps

While there is no pre-compiled study available to fully answer your question, we've used the available data to pull together key findings. Most studies and articles on Millennial app engagement are not gender-specific, suggesting that, in most cases, Millennial women engage with their apps much like Millennial men. In general, Millennials want apps that provide immediate gratification but are also price-sensitive. So, for example, they enjoy the convenience of having food delivered by GrubHub, but, when grocery shopping, prefer "click and collect" apps, which allow them to pick up their food at local grocery stores rather than pay additional fees. Convenience apps, specifically targeting women, succeed best if they actually meet a need specific to women, such as virtual testing of makeup or the "What to Expect When You're Expecting" app.
Below you'll find an outline of our research methodology to better understand why information you've requested is publicly unavailable, as well as a deep dive into our findings.


We conducted a thorough search of public marketing reports and articles from marketing and tech industry experts on how Millennials, and Millennial women in particular, engage with apps that provide on-demand convenience services, including, but not limited to, the examples of Uber, Lyft, and Seamless. While this produced a lot of data on how Millennials, in general, engaged with these types of apps, we were surprised to find that there was little data on the women of that generation specifically. We suspect that this is because the available survey data does not show significant differences between Millennial men and women, although we are unable to confirm that via any public source. Consequently, our findings below are mostly for Millennials in general, which we have supplemented with information about Millennial women, as available and appropriate to the question.


Amazon is undeniably popular with Millennials, with 35% claiming that the Amazon app is the one that they could not live without. The need for instant (or near-instant) gratification cannot be overstated. As noted in one academic paper, "even Millennials themselves are quick to admit they have a lack of tolerance for delays and ‘their desire for speed and efficiency cannot be overestimated’ (p.3). It has been concluded that instant gratification is the driving force behind these high expectations. It is reasonable to suggest that the Millennial’s expectation for convenience, speed, and efficiency is the result of being born into an increasingly digital world; they have been surrounded by technology their whole lives, the internet itself is instant and convenient in nature."
This need for instant gratification carries over into how Millennials purchase food. More than 40% of Millennials consume food within an hour of purchasing it, and about 2/3 of their food comes from sources other than traditional grocery stores. As noted by Women's Marketing, "Millennials are on the cutting edge of emerging food channels, and most willing to experiment with digital tools, such as in-store apps, alternative delivery methods (Uber Eats, Grubhub, Seamless). Convenience is key and small format stores offer speedy service, but not at the price of their health—Millennials seek high quality, innovative flavor, and nutrient-rich premium foods at an affordable price." This is why GrubHub, the owner of Seamless, grew 27% in 2016 alone.
However, when they do go grocery shopping, 40% of Millennials prefer to use the "click and collect" at their local grocery store rather than pay the additional fees associated with online services like Jet or Amazon. As noted by Millennial Marketing, "Businesses across the board can definitely benefit from having a user-friendly app that provides tracking, in-store pick up and quick delivery."


Experts in marketing note that to attract the Millennial demographic, retailers need to be able to provide a seamless payment experience for the buyer's preferred mobile payment app (e.g., Apple Pay or Samsung Pay). However, simply catering to the most popular payment app may not be enough. One study shows that 52% of Millennials are either "already using or likely to use a non-traditional payment company like Venmo."
In addition to convenient payment apps, Millennials expect their financial institutions to provide mobile apps for their convenience as well. According to Salesforce’s 2017 Connected Banking Customer Report, “nearly one-third of Millennials with a checking or savings account stated that they leverage their bank’s mobile app for most routine transactions such as deposits and transfers, compared to just 17 percent of Gen-Xers and six percent of Baby Boomers.”


While, as noted, the majority of information about how Millennials engage with their apps is non-gender specific, there are apps that cater specifically to women and give us some insight into their specific needs and desires. For example, Millennial women have embraced "virtual makeup" apps to try out different looks and guide their purchases. The MyShade app, for example, saw 250,000 downloads in just its first five months. "Overall engagement is over four minutes per session and an average click-through to purchase per user of 7 percent," which is far higher than the average AdWords clickthrough rate of 2%.
Convenience apps are increasingly being built around specific niches of the market. For example, the Trest app (launched in November 2016) was built to help women with textured hair find suitable stylists based on recommendations of others. Moreover, these specialized convenience apps are not limited to retail purchases or services. The long-time bestselling guide to pregnancy, "What to Expect When You're Expecting," has its own app, which "boasts features like a weekly tracker that shows a baby’s development (measured in fruit sizes) and a 'pregnancy clock' that promises 'actionable tips synchronized to the time of day.'" The app (as well as the website) also gives users access to a community which now includes 18 million women. "Not all the moms are millennials of course, but the diversity and volume of content the community creates is totally in keeping with Gen Y tastes."
However, not all apps seeking the Millennial women's market need be tailored specifically for women; in fact, some have failed. For example, due to at least 50 women reporting being sexually assaulted or raped by Uber or Lyft drivers, Savannah Jordan created an all-women rideshare service called See Jane Go in 2017. However, the company closed down due to financial difficulties in January 2018. This suggests that most women feel secure with existing rideshare services and don't feel the need to one catering exclusively to women where a service already exists for everyone in general.


Understanding how Millennials engage with their apps is important in designing them. For example, Millennials are "the most comfortable using their devices one-handed, in part because they know the tricks of the trade to keep their apps within reach." This suggests that Millennials would be most engaged by apps designed for easy one-handed use. Likewise, the visual design of the app is extremely important: 21% will delete apps just because they don't like the look of its logo on their home screen.
On the plus side, Millennials don't mind shelling out money for useful apps, with 64% buying an app in the last year, 46% having spent at least $5 on an app in the last year, and 20% buying at least one app a month. Outside of the obviously gender-specific apps, we were unable to determine from public sources if the app purchasing habits of women were different from men.


The failure of See Jane Go and the continued success of rideshare apps like Uber and Lyft suggest that women are not generally interested in women's apps for women's apps' sake. However, there is a market for apps that meet specifically female needs, and convenience apps readily convert to sales. Beyond this, the lack of data for the engagement of Millennial women suggests that marketers do not see many points of divergence from Millennial men.


From Part 02
From Part 08