Moen Project

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Water In the Home, Key Conversations

The common issues discussed about water in the homes in the US include drinking water quality, water quality, and water contamination. The conversations are done through traditional media, surveys, town hall meetings and social media platforms. For instance, drinking water quality was discussed mainly in social media, while water contamination was done through traditional media, surveys, town hall meetings, and social media.

DRINKING Water Quality

  • Results of a survey conducted for NSF International, reveal that more than half (55 percent) are concerned about contaminants in their drinking water or don’t know what’s in the water
  • Further, the Survey by NSF maintains that nearly half (42 percent) do not take steps to filter or treat their home’s drinking water.
  • From the national consumer surveys, of 1,106 American adults found that parents are more likely to be concerned about impurities in their drinking water (61 percent), compared to those who do not have children in their household (53 percent).
  • From the surveys, it comes out clearly that nearly three-quarters (71 percent) of individuals understand that water treatment units such as filters, reverse osmosis (RO) systems, and other technologies reduce different contaminants and that some home treatment units work better than others (72 percent).


  • Many people are talking about water quality and they do so through town hall meetings.
  • By 2025, 25% of town halls will offer Minnesotans an opportunity to discuss the water quality challenges facing their communities and the state, learn from experts, and engage with policymakers. The town hall meetings built on the momentum from Governor Dayton’s “25 by 25” Water Quality goal proposal was announced February 2017
  • The town hall meetings will further the important conversations already happening across Minnesota around water quality. Through them, strategies and solutions that work for all the communities can be developed.
  • The town hall meetings offer a chance for people to discuss issues of interest in the “common good” of maintaining a community in which everyone thrives, and such a community needs water that is “safe and clean.”


  • According to a survey done by Applied Research-West, Inc. on behalf of the Water Quality Association, awareness of water quality issues and contaminants that might affect water quality has risen over the past two years, while the number of Americans who identify lead as a possible contaminant increased significantly.
  • In regard to perceived contaminants in water, the number of people who identified lead rose more than twice since the last survey (from 15% in 2015 to 33% in 2017).
  • Regarding water treatment dealers, talked about in surveys, when Americans were asked in surveys regarding water treatment dealers and who the water quality expert in their area was, 38 percent cited water treatment dealers, technicians or certified water specialists. That’s up from 24 percent in 2015.
  • There has been an increase in the number of those who learned about health contaminants of water from the media. The number of respondents who said that they got information about health contaminants from the media increased from 27 percent two years ago to 43 percent this year.
  • The news coverage of the Flint, Michigan lead crisis likely played into the rise of awareness of water quality issues from the news media.
  • The coverage might have also contributed to the increase in the number of respondents who identified lead as a possible water contaminant.
  • After an analysis of nearly 2,700 different search terms that are associated with the water crisis in Flint, Michigan, it is evident that online searches can be a good proxy for the public’s interests, concerns or intentions.
  • The data revealed that residents of Flint were searching for information about their water before the government recognized the contamination and before local and regional news media coverage intensified beyond a few stories related to the initial switch of the water supply.
  • The issue of water contamination and water crisis in Flint was discussed at town hall, a meeting that was called by the mayor at one of the churches in the North side of Flint. Others present included General McDaniel, Mark Durno from the EPA, the mayor was present, and members of the community who had questions, or concerns, or doubts in regard to the water issue.
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In Home Water Technology

Three technologies released within the past year to two years that enhance how people experience water in their homes in the US are; home water security systems, weather-aware smart sprinklers, and machine-learning water softeners.

Technology 1: Home Water Security Systems

  • Home water security systems offer remote, smartphone-connected monitoring of water usage in the home.
  • Leaks account for an annual average of 10,000 gallons of water per home.
  • Preventing leaks can save up to 10% on an average homeowner bill.
  • Machine learning technology learns about daily water use patterns to help track leaks and offers a remote shut off from smartphones.
  • It tracks usage, offers proactive maintenance alerts and remote shut off, and performs daily tests. (source 1).
  • Some systems monitor and watch for floods, freezer leaks, and sump pump leaks.

Technology 2: Weather Aware Smart Sprinklers

  • Smartphone sprinkler systems are now aware of the weather forecast and can tell if it is already raining. They can also help schedule when the water is least likely to evaporate or build up to help reduce evaporation waste and water runoff.
  • 13.5 million homes already have an in-ground irrigation system ready for the weather aware smart sprinklers.
  • About 50% of the 9 billion gallons of outdoor residential water used each day in the United States go to waste, due to inefficiencies that can be prevented by smart watering systems.
  • Smart sprinkler systems integrate with smartphones to allow homeowners to use, activate, and control the sprinkler system remotely; they do not require homeowners to unroll or re-roll hoses daily.
  • Smart sprinkler systems offer custom zones so you can choose which areas need more care than others and wireless monitoring of the water flow.
  • It offers homeowners convenience, water savings, and financial savings. Many of them are EPA WaterSense certified and so offer rebates to owners.

Technology 3: Machine Learning Water Softner Software

  • The technology is added to a home's water softener and learns the home's water usage patterns over time
  • Water softeners can use an annual household average of 10,000 gallons of water in the regeneration process, which flushes the old ions out of the system.
  • As the machine learning technology learns about the home's water usage, it can adjust the amount of salt and regeneration water used to reduce waste and make the house more efficient.
  • Homeowners have access to soft water when they need it, but the machine is not overworking when they do not need it. This system saves money, waste, and provides convenience to the homeowners.
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Thought Leaders, Water in the Home

While we were not able to fully answer the question, here are a few helpful insights that could help clarify a few aspects of what the home water market would look like in the future:
  • According to the Water Council, the next frontier in water utilization improvement would be measurement and tracking of internal industrial usage within enterprises.
  • According to WaterWorld, Henry Charrabe, Patrick Decker, Cindy Wallis-Lage and Sally Gutierrez were the top global water leaders in the US.
  • Based on another report by WaterWorld, the future growth of decentralized water will be highly dependent on the wastewater market.
  • In Bloomberg, Patrick Decker, CEO of Xylem Inc., discussed the logical steps that are being taken to solve the global water crisis and climate change but there was no mention of what the next frontier of water would be for home consumption.
  • Rebekah Eggers, one of the thought leaders present in the World Water Congress and Exhibition 2018, discussed how the digitization of water utilities will impact, re-imagine and transform the future of water.
  • In News Deeply, we were able to identify the twelve most prominent water technology start-ups that focus on innovation around water data.
  • According to Global Water Summit 2019, one reason to attend the event is to understand the different innovations presented by the industry's leaders.

Research Strategy:

First, we looked through several industry reports in order to identify what thought leaders think about the frontiers of water for household and residential consumption. We also looked for articles on news sites like USA Today, US News, the Water Leader Summit, the World Water Congress and Exhibition 2018 to see if there were any mentions about the future developments in the water industry specific to home consumption. While we were not able to find any information about the future developments in the water industry, we were able to gather a few insights from the World Water Congress, held in Japan, regarding the sustainability of the water supply in the future.

The, we tried to identify the top leaders in the industry in order to identify their opinions about the future use of residential water. We were able find the top 25 global water leaders on Waterworld. We searched for any statements by the US leaders but we were only able to find vague opinion-based articles from Henry Charrabe, CEO Fluence Corporation, and Patrick Decker, CEO of Xylem Inc., both of which have been included in our analysis.

As a final effort, we tried to search for the top innovative companies that serve water to households and residential areas. We also looked for companies that promote sustainable water supply in individual or residential houses. Unfortunately, we were only able to identify the twelve most prominent water technology start-ups that focus on innovation around water data, with no additional information on the future developments in the water market that would significantly impact the way water is being consumed in residential areas.

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Brand Conversations, Water in the Home

The brands that were identified to be dominating conversations around water in the home topic were Colgate-Palmolive, Levi's and The Home Depot. These companies were primarily found to work towards the cause of water conservation and reduction of water wastage at homes.

Colgate Palmolive


  • Topic discussed: Reducing water wastage while washing.
  • The company promoted its new product Water<Less™ as it requires less water during creation and also less number of washes during the lifespan. By this promotion, Levi's asked its consumers to wash their jeans less often. To support the promotion, Levi's also launched a quiz titled "Are You Ready to Come Clean?". Further, the efforts Levi's made in convincing Americans, to wash their jeans only every five times they wear them supported the promotion the company made.
  • The company's CEO, Chip Bergh, himself promoted Levi’s® 501 jeans series made using special cotton and special techniques that requires fewer washes to stay clean. In fact, the company insisted that the best way to care for jeans is not to wash them frequently.
  • The campaign named Levi’s Water<Less is well promoted by the company to help consumers understand the concept and its benefits.

The Home Depot

  • Topic discussed: Water conservation and wastage reduction at homes.
  • The company itself helped save their customers about 77 billion gallons of water. They have supported EPA’s WaterSense program because of its track record of guiding the industry towards a mindset of water conservation and water efficiency innovation.
  • Various products through which the company helped save water at homes are:
    • Toilets - THD was the first retailer to offer a toilet which used less than one-gallon water per flush and the entire in-store assortment currently meets the EPA’s WaterSense standard thus meaning that the customers save approximately $100 a year in water expenses for every toilet they replace.
    • Faucets - Every bath faucet that the company sells, operates out of 1.2 gallons-per-minute of water which is a standard more rigorous than the EPA’s WaterSense standard of 1.5 gallons-per-minute. This initiative helps in saving an enormous amount of water during bathing.
    • Showerheads - As per a survey, showers account for the second greatest appliance that uses water the most in the home. Thus, the company helped in conserving water by only offering showerheads that use 1.8 gallons-per-minute, which is even more efficient than the EPA’s WaterSense standard of 2.0 gallons-per-minute.
    • Multiple Campaigns run by THD towards home water conservation - #WhatTheFlush campaign, Sonoma-Marin (California) Saving Water Partnership, Plano City of Excellence.


The research was initiated by searching for direct examples of brands that dominated the talks related to Home water. However, we looked through various governmental and environmental portals/sites in the US such as the EPA, NAP, and, it was evident that the requested brands were not mentioned.
Thus, the focus was shifted to look for award-winner companies in the water in the home category. However, this methodology also failed as most of the results identified lacked "key brands" and only surfaced some water purification companies.
Hence, we focused on trying to locate the causes which affected water in the home within the US. It was found that water conservation and wastage reduction are some major concerns that are being fought at a large scale. Focusing on this idea, then brands were identified which had specifically produced effective work in this field through campaigns and other partnerships.
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Wellness Water Trends

The health and wellness sector in relation to water is continually changing, with new trends emerging every now and again. Current trends around wellness that involve water include birch water, 'raw water' health trend concern, enhanced waters, sparkling waters and thermal water therapy for wellness. The identified trends are related to water quality, water-based health concerns, new water-related products, and the general health and wellness space.





Thermal Water Therapy for Wellness.


In determining the listed trends, we reviewed various sites that focus on health and wellness such as the Global Wellness Institute, Sage Journals and Boomer Natural Wellness among others. While we found general health and wellness trends, we focused on those that are related to water. We also ensured that the trends we identified are those that have been a topic within the past year and focused on health and wellness. We picked the listed trends upon the determination that they have gained popularity in the recent past and seen a sharp increase in their demand. To corroborate our findings, we included statistics and data or credible study results for each of the listed trends.

It is important to note that while it is not usually the case for water products to be trending at the same time, we were able to determine that birch water and sparkling waters were trending for different but related reasons. While people prefer birch water for its health and wellness benefits and low-calorie content, individuals are inclined towards sparkling waters because they can get the feel of natural sugars and still get the feel of a carbonated product.

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Water's Impact on Mood & Well Being

Not drinking enough water can have a negative effect on the mood of individuals. Therefore, it is important that people stay well hydrated. Every person is different but it is recommended that individuals should try to drink around 1.5-2 liters of water a day.


  • Dehydration affects the brain and alters how people think and feel by slowing down the circulation. Dehydration lowers blood flow, which means less oxygen traveling to all parts of the body, including the brain.
  • As dehydration worsens, cognitive function is further impaired leading to delirium, hence affecting the mood.
  • When one is dehydrated, they get thirsty, hence affecting the mood and function of an individual.
  • Increasing water intake has "beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood." The deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction, and positive emotions.
  • Low water intake disrupts cognition and mood.
  • Eight glasses a day improves energy, mental, and physical performance and helps in losing weight.
  • Mild dehydration can result in a change of one's moods. When an individual gets slightly dehydrated, one ends up experiencing more tension or sink into a funk.
  • When a person reduces their fluids by heat, exercising or drinking too much caffeine, they can get dehydrated and that affects their mood and health.
  • Mild dehydration among persons can cause fatigue, difficulty concentrating, headaches and alterations in mood and mental function. Dehydration makes people more prone to feeling angry, anxious and irritation.
  • In healthy young adults refraining from drinking or participating in dehydration protocols, it was found that mild dehydration had impairment on mood.
  • Water deprivation had deleterious effects on several mood aspects and that these effects were observable only after a few hours of fluid deprivation. The effect is seen in sleep/wake parameters.
  • There is also increased sleepiness and fatigue during the fluid deprivation condition. They were also less vigorous and less alert, more confused, less calm, and less happy during the fluid deprivation condition.
  • Drinking water makes individuals feel refreshed, hence improving the overall state of mind. Mild dehydration has been shown to negatively impact moods.
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Future Role of Water in Wellness Space

The trends on the horizon for the role of water in the wellness space is that office buildings are creating spaces that incorporate the seven concepts of the WELL Building Standard which includes providing good quality water through water stations and periodic testing. Other office wellness spaces are looking to encourage hydration by hosting drinking challenges using apps.

Drinking Water Quality

  • There are state-of-the-art systems being introduced into homes where drinking water can be purified through a step by step water purification system.
  • In addition to healthier food choices and high-quality lighting, offices also consider water as a factor to energize the surroundings.
  • The Well Building Standard requires that in order for a building to be WELL certified, the building's water source and its filtration system is tested to check for quality and continued water testing is encouraged.
  • The WELL Building Standard is meant to preserve and enhance the quality of drinking water in a building. WELL certification evaluates the building's water source, filtration system, and suggests periodic water quality testing.
  • A WELL certified building should also encourage its occupants to drink water frequently.

Water-based Health Concerns

  • Some other health-rated water activities that hotels are beginning to provide include floating meditations and cleansing ceremonies in healing waters.
  • In hotels, guests are beginning to request for healing and relaxing effects of thermal and mineral waters.
  • The estimated market for relaxing and healing effects from thermal and mineral waters demand by guests is $64,600,000 with a growth rate of 4.8% by 2020.
  • Heated springs are also available to provide guests of all ages an authentic opportunity to be one with nature and its healing properties through the water.
  • As part of the WELL Building Standard, offices are looking to host water challenges using apps to encourage their employees to drink more water to prevent dehydration.
  • Woman prefer warm water therapy to release stress in Wellness Spaces.


  • The AquTru is a device which does not operate like the traditional water purification systems. You only need to put in water and the AquaTru filters the water through reverse osmosis.
  • The Miami-based Muse Residences come with advanced water purification systems.
  • The Mobot is a water bottle which can be rolled out into a foam for working out purposes.

Research Strategy

We started our search by looking at what Wellness Spaces are and how these spaces have been changing since their inception. We realized that Wellness Spaces were not only indoors like in spas and offices but also could include outdoor spaces like pools and gardens. The trends that we chose to report on appeared in most of the credible sources we came across during our research. We also assumed that since the request focused on drinking water quality, we should focus on purification and filtration systems and how new buildings have incorporated these into their Wellness Spaces.

We also focused on what employers and corporations were looking to overcome by incorporating Wellness Spaces in their offices to know trends in water-related issues pertaining to human health. We also considered new technology relating to water purification and filtration and how water was being considered for therapy in hotels and spas. Our research took us through sources like Forbes, water purification company websites, Google scholar, spas, health institutes, among others. The data we came across was about how much the Wellness industry, in general, was forecasted to grow in US dollars in the coming years but there was no hard data to determine growing trends.
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Brand Conversations, Water & Wellness

The key brands that dominate the conversation around water and wellness include Palm-olive by Colgate, the Protex soap, and Nestle. For instance, Nestle had a promotional campaign dubbed, "Pure Life Begins Now™". Through the campaign, Nestle aimed to highlight its new purpose and values by raising awareness on the importance of quality drinking water for future generations. As part of a wellness program in the US, Colgate Palmolive organizes the Colgate Women’s Games, which helps girls and young women develop self-esteem, health, well-being, and academic success.


  • Nestle had a promotional campaign dubbed, "Pure Life Begins Now™". Through the campaign, the Nestle brand aimed to highlight its new purpose and values by raising awareness on the importance of quality drinking water for future generations.
  • The promotional campaigns aired in every major metropolitan area in the US on September 12, 2018.
  • The Nestle Pure Life Campaign encourages drinking water as part of its healthy lifestyle initiative. The campaign aims to illustrate how Nestlé® Pure Life® is "acting for water to help inspire a bright future" by illustrating a 12-step quality process that outlines the brand high-quality control system.
  • The Nestle Pure Life Campaign also looks to educate consumers on the benefits of hydrating the human body. They encourage drinking water as part of a healthy lifestyle and help to improve the collection of recyclable plastic.
  • Nestlé Waters also aims to better educate consumers on the link between nutrition, health and wellness. They did that by sponsoring high profile running events in 2016 to highlight the importance of exercise and healthy hydration.
  • An example of this is their Poland Spring brand, which became a partner of the New York marathon for the 20th time on 2nd November, reinforcing its "commitment to healthy hydration and promoting a healthy lifestyle not just to the local, but also to the global community." The Nestlé Waters brand’s activities covered the whole week preceding the Marathon, beginning with the Poland Spring 5-mile kick-off race for joggers in Central Park and following on its promise for healthier life style by distributing thousands of bottles from Mile 17, its official Poland Spring Hydration Zone during the week of the marathon in Manhattan. Nestle was also present at the Marathon Health and Fitness Expo.


  • As part of its wellness program in the US, Colgate Palmolive organized the Colgate Women’s Games, which became the nation’s largest amateur track series for girls and young women. The track program helps girls and young women develop self-esteem, value teamwork and discover the importance of education.
  • Colgate Palmolive also runs the promotional activity Give Kids A Smile. It has partnered with the ADA Foundation in support of Give Kids A Smile. The program provides free education along with preventive and restorative care to more than 5.5 million underserved children that do not have access to dental care.
  • In 2018, as part of the support of World Water Day 2018, Colgate asked people to join their efforts to reduce water waste by turning off their faucets while brushing their teeth. The brand has since continued its campaign to raise awareness of water scarcity and to help preserve this natural resource.
  • Regarding water issues, Colgate Palmolive has partnered with Michael Phelps to promote its sponsorship of the #RunningDry initiative.
  • Colgate also took over several billboards in Time Square from 11:30am to 2:30pm on World Water Day, showcasing “Save Water” reminders.
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Key National Water Crises

According to several experts that talk about the issues of water shortages, some of the water crises in the United States include contaminated drinking-water in the American rural areas, the disputes between the western states over access to fresh water, and the unavoidable water shortage in the near future. The crises have forced the current Trump's administration to look for ways to reinvigorate technologies in the industries that were dismissed as expensive with the aim of solving the current water crisis. Compared to other countries around the world, the United States is fortunate enough to have ample water resources, nonetheless, water conservation and protection remains important as no place is immune from drought. The following are some of the notable national water crises that United States is facing.

Contaminated Drinking-Water Crisis in the American rural areas

  • Millions of rural Americans from the Appalachian Kentucky to the Texas borderlands are subjected to unhealthy water, which sometimes has high levels of contaminants from agricultural products, coal mining and old pipes.
  • The ever-growing economic gap that separates rural America from the urban and suburban areas has resulted in inequality in the distribution of the fresh water supply.
  • The crisis of drinking water in rural America is well illustrated by a policy analyst from the Natural Resource Defense Council who stated that many people living in Kentucky are forced to get their water from wells that are sunk into flooded, abandoned mines.
  • The water from the abandoned mines is loaded with heavy metals, which are very bad for the human body.
  • Nitrogen-based fertilizers, used in farmlands, have also been reported to leak into the freshwater supply.

the unending water disputes in the western states

  • Water issues in the western states have also recently become a national issue, as many of the states in this region continue to fight over water supplies and conservation.
  • For instance, Texas has sued New Mexico and Colorado over the amounts of water that was drawn from the Rio Grande River, while Arizona and California have squared off over water rights to the Colorado River.
  • The distrust between these states has also turned the population within these neighboring states against each other. Slogans such as just out to steal all out water" are becoming a common phenomenon.
  • The Colorado River, which many states look for water supply, is also among the most stressed waterways in the world and is entering its 18th year of drought.

Water shortages in the next ten years

  • A majority of water resources in the United States come from the Colorado River and the Ogallala Aquifer. Unfortunately, these rivers have consistently experienced decreased water levels due to the rising human demand, which has outspaced the natural availability and created drought throughout the regions these rivers cover.
  • A report by the Natural Resources Defense Council and Tetra Tech found that 70% of US counties in the High Plains regions could face water shortages by 2050 due to climate change, economic growth, and the population increase.
  • Another report by GAO revealed that 40 out of 50 states expect water shortages in the coming 10 years, regardless of drought conditions. This is expected to have a major impact on the water distribution system in the country.
  • America's water supplies also face pollution problems, unprecedented droughts and rainfall patterns, outdated infrastructure, and climate changes, which is causing the rise of the level of costs.

Conservation and sustainability efforts that will make water more expensive

  • The crises have forced the current Trump administration to look for ways to reinvigorate technologies in the industries that were dismissed as expensive with the aim of solving the current water crisis that have occasioned drought in the American West and have contributed to the sparking of deadly wildfires and legal battles over water supply.
  • In December 2018, the Energy Department stated that it would be spending $100 million over the next five years to create research on desalination, which will translate into a higher water bill for the America citizens.
  • Most Americans have been paying 50 cents per cubic meter of freshwater. However, for the desalinated water they will be forced to pay as much as $2 per cubic meter.
  • The development of a research hub comes at a time when water shortages have become perennial and the pressure from the American communities has forced policymakers to rethink how residents get freshwater.
  • The state of California is working on rules that will permanently ban water-wasting actions as a measure for better conservation and water sustainability.

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Key Global Water Crises

The current global water crises includes water scarcity, water insecurity, accessibility to clean water, and water pollution whereas future crises may be attributed to climate change. Sustainable development goals have been put in place to address these challenges.


  • Water is a basic commodity influencing each and every aspect of human life. However, in a population of about 844 million people in the entire world, 1 in 9 lack access to it.
  • Access to safe water can turn problems and challenges that society faces into potential positive opportunities such as unlocking education, economic prosperity, and improved health.
  • Successful water management will serve as a foundation for the achievement of many of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially to ‘Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’.
  • Water has become a pressing societal and geopolitical issue in the world. In some regions water is a critical national concern, up to 40% of the world’s population will be living in seriously water-stressed areas by 2035 if sustainable water practices are not put in place.
  • Poor management has resulted in unethical practices, poor accountability and corruption in the water sectors of many countries resulting in water crises.



  • Increase in water use has resulted in high environmental costs, including loss of biodiversity as well as affecting natural water systems such as rivers and aquifers. Half of the world ’s wetlands have disappeared over the last century with some rivers now no longer reach the sea. It has been proposed that when annual per capita renewable freshwater availability is less than 1,700 cubic meters, countries begin to experience periodic or regular water stress. When water levels are below 1,000 cubic meters, water scarcity begins to hamper economic development and human health and well-being.
  • A fifth of the world’s people, more than 1.2 billion live in areas of physical water scarcity, where there is simply not enough water to meet all demands, including environmental flows. More than 1.2 billion people live in areas of economic water scarcity, where human capacity or financial resources are likely to be insufficient to provide adequate water resources.
  • In 60% of European cities with more than 100,000 people, groundwater is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished.
  • Water resources development is approaching or has exceeded sustainable limits whereby more than 75% of river flows are withdrawn for agriculture, industry and domestic purposes. On the other hand, if more than 60% of river flows are withdrawn, these basins will experience, physical water scarcity in the near future.
  • According to the UN Report, water scarcity affects more than 40% of the global population and is projected to rise. Over 1.7 billion people are currently living in river basins where water use exceeds recharge.
  • Excessive withdrawal from surface waters, for instance, the demise of the Aral Sea was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar’ya and Syr Dar’ya rivers to irrigate water-intensive cotton and rice crops.
  • Excessive withdrawal of water from underground aquifers where excessive freshwater abstraction has allowed seawater to enter aquifers, thereby making the water so saline that it is unfit for human use.
  • According to the Guardian News, water scarcity largely affects the poor who in the end are subjected to polluted water resources. The poor are the worst hit, competing for demands for water means that those who are poorer or marginalized find it more difficult to get water than the rich and powerful. Many governments and privatized water companies concentrate their provision on wealthy districts and prioritize agriculture and industry over poorer people while turning a blind eye to polluters and those who over-extract water from underground sources. Sharing access to water equitably requires good governance, tight regulation, investment and enforcement, all qualities in short supply in some worlds poorest and most water-scarce areas.


  • Water pollution is one of the most urgent issues for the global community needs to address. Water resources are polluted because so much wastewater does not get collected or treated, thereby having adverse negative impacts on the society.
  • According to a UN report, 80% of global wastewater goes untreated, containing everything from human waste to highly toxic industrial discharges. The nature and amount of pollutants in freshwater determines the suitability of water for many human uses such as drinking, bathing, and agriculture. In addition, pollution of freshwater ecosystems can impact the habitat and quality of life of fish and other wildlife.
  • Pollution in freshwater ecosystems can include pathogens (largely from human and animal waste), organic matter (including plant nutrients from agricultural run-off such as nitrogen or phosphorus), chemical pollution and salinity (from irrigation, domestic wastewater and runoff of mines into rivers). Plastic pollution, and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, also increasingly to put the world’s waterways at risk.
  • Rapid industrialization has been a major factor in contributing to global water pollution. According to the BBC report, a lot of saline effluents and other contaminants from industries are being drained on the sea has resulted in water pollution by increasing salinity. High salinity and reduced dissolved oxygen levels have profound impacts on benthic organisms, which can translate into ecological effects observable throughout the food chain.


  • According to a UN report, 3 in 10 people lack access to safely managed drinking water services and 6 in 10 people lack access to safely managed sanitation facilities.
  • According to the World Bank report, across the world, today 2.1 billion people lack reliable access to safely managed drinking water services and 4.5 billion lack safely managed sanitation services. Of the 2.1 billion people who do not have access to safely managed water, 844 million do not have even a basic drinking water service. Of the 4.5 billion people who do not have safely managed sanitation, 2.3 billion still do not have basic sanitation services. As a result, every year, 361,000 children under 5 years of age die due to diarrhoea related to poor sanitation and contaminated water, which are also linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and typhoid. These issues have been a greater challenge of posing in global water crises.
  • Lack of clean and easily accessible water, have impacted negatively on women and children. Children drop out of school and parents struggle to make a living. Children become more vulnerable to diseases due to dirty water.
  • Many cities in the world would be facing a crisis in accessing clean drinking water. For instance, official regulatory bodies in Russia, admit that 35% to 60% of total drinking water reserves in Russia do not meet sanitary standards.
  • Increasing amounts of untreated agricultural and residential waste in Cairo's R. Nile has facilitated pollution which according to World Health Organization figures show that Egypt ranks high among lower-middle-income countries in terms of the number of deaths related to water pollution.


  • The World Bank reports, states "Water security is among the top global risks in terms of development impact in the world''. It is also an integral part of the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The world will not be able to meet the sustainable development challenges of the 21st century — human development, livable cities, climate change, food security, and energy security — without improving management of water resources and ensuring access to reliable water and sanitation services.
  • Complex water issues have contributed heavy challenges on water security. The threats to water security may be attributed to population and economic growth which have placed unprecedented pressures on water resources.
  • Estimates show that with current population growth and water management practices, the world will face a 40% shortfall between forecast demand and available supply of water by 2030.
  • To address water security, most communities tend to rely only on "grey infrastructure" to deliver water security, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, and treatment plants, however, experience shows that natural infrastructure, such as the healthy forests, wetlands and river ecosystems from which we source our water supplies, also delivers value, thereby enhancing water security concerns.
  • The widespread degradation of watersheds around the world is leading to impaired downstream water quality and diminished and less reliable flows. The deforestation, poor agricultural practices and other unsustainable land uses have caused moderate to high degradation in 40% of the world’s urban watersheds. These practices have had negative impacts on water resources and therefore have contributed to global water crises.
  • According To Researchgate, water insecurity can be exacerbated by drought. More people are affected by drought than any other disaster type. In 2016, 411 million people in total were affected by disasters and 94% of those were drought affected. Droughts are also the costliest disasters, with significant impacts on agriculture in particular; droughts cause an average US$6–8 billion worth of losses in agriculture in the USA annually.
  • According to a BBC report, England's Environment Agency warns the country is facing water supply shortages by 2050 unless rapid action is taken to curb water use and wastage. Population growth and the impact of climate change are expected to add to supply pressures in the country valuable resource.


  • Climate change has been a predominant factor in contributing to global water crises. For instance, higher temperatures and more extreme, less predictable, weather conditions are projected to affect availability and distribution of rainfall, snowmelt, river flows and groundwater, and further deteriorate water quality. Low-income communities, who are already the most vulnerable to any threats to water supply are likely to be worst affected. Changes in water availability will also impact health and food security and have already proven to trigger refugee dynamics and political instability.
  • Climate change contributes to water scarcity and this could cost some regions up to 6% of their GDP, spur migration, and spark conflict. Consequently, water will become scarce in regions where it is currently abundant — such as Central Africa and East Asia — and scarcity will greatly worsen in regions where water is already in short supply — such as the Middle East and the Sahel in Africa. These regions could see their growth rates decline by as much as 6% of GDP by 2050 due to water-related impacts on agriculture, health, and incomes.
  • According to the New York Times, Britain which is a rainy city would be short of water by 2050. The reasons behind this are attributed to climate change and population growth which piles pressure on the existing water resources therefore, proposed sustainable measures are needed and a call for a change of attitude toward water conservation practices to help tackle the problem.
  • In Central Asia, rising temperatures have contributed to the rapid melting of glaciers due to climate change. This means less water for people and crops in the near future.
  • Smaller glaciers in places like the Rockies and the Andes have also disappeared. Even if greenhouse gas emissions were sharply curtailed immediately, there has already been enough warming to continue shrinking glaciers around the world.



  • The global society has put dedicated efforts to ensure the importance of sustainability of water resources as a political agenda. One of such efforts is to establish Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) — with an aim to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Building on the relevant Millennium Development Goal, SDG 6 addresses the sustainability of water and sanitation access by focusing on the quality, availability and management of freshwater resources.
  • SDG 6 recognizes that social development and economic prosperity depend on the sustainable management and sharing of freshwater resources and ecosystems. SDG 6 acknowledges that ecosystems and their inhabitants, including humans, are water users and that their activities on land can compromise the quality and availability of fresh water. Water-related ecosystems addressed in SDG 6 include wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes, which sustain a high level of biodiversity and life.
  • If water resources are well-managed, water-related ecosystems would contribute to addressing competing demands for water, mitigate climate change risks and help build community peace and trust. They are therefore essential for achieving sustainable development, peace, security and human health and well-being.


  • To address water scarcity is to effect sustainable development goals. According to the World Forum, the UN officially recognizes equitable, safe drinking water and affordable sanitation as human rights, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ambitiously challenges the world body to provide this right to all, however, international attention has not translated into what is required — thoughtful, sustainable investments to address water scarcity.


  • Global water crises arise from issues such as no global governance system for water. Since, water is managed at a local level they are often poorly managed. The technology needed to help us use water efficiently and equitably exists, but often is not implemented. “In many instances, proper management of known technology [such as pumps, rainwater collectors, storage cisterns and latrines] rather than new technological solutions is sufficient to ensure users receive adequate services,”. For instance, in many remote parts of sub-Saharan Africa, “there may be sufficient supplies of groundwater but there has not been enough investment in service delivery and service management to ensure that people can access this water”.


To determine the key issues affecting water globally, we opted to search credible reports from the World Bank, United Nations, Non-Governmental Organizations and other institutional reports on global water crises. We found very interesting facts relating to global water issues and realized that this area is diverse and greatly discussed. Several issues such as climate change, pollution, water scarcity and water security came out as crises affecting water in a global context.

To identify the top news stories revolving around global water crises, we looked for the most recent publications, journals, news articles from BBC, CNN, New York Times, and the Guardian. This research proved to be fruitful as major issues reported in regard to water crises were found to be water pollution, water security, accessibility to clean water, water scarcity. During our search, pollution, water scarcity, accessibility to clean water, and water insecurity are the most current issues while climate change is an issue projected to occur in the next few years. From our research, sustainable development goals are measures that have been put in place to combat global water crises.

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Products to Tackle Water Crises

LifeStraw, Unilever, VICI labs, Loockhead Martin, Sawyer, Janicki Bioenergy, and Waterseer are companies that have released new products that tackle water crises in the past two years. An overview of their products has been outlined below.







  • Company: LifeStraw
  • Water Crisis: Contaminated drinking-water crisis in the rural areas of America.
  • How it addresses or impacts the key crises: It is a compact, lightweight water filtration system that protects water against heavy metals including lead, bacteria, parasites, microplastics, and organic chemical matter like pesticides and herbicides with expanded protection.


  • Company: LifeStraw
  • Water Crisis: Contaminated drinking-water crisis in the rural areas of America.
  • How it addresses or impacts the key crises: This is an ultralight, versatile, and long-lasting filter with expanded protection and collapsible squeeze bottle to protect water against heavy metals, bacteria, parasites, microplastics, and organic chemical matter such as pesticides and herbicides.

Love Beauty and Planet

  • Company: Unilever
  • Water Crisis: Water scarcity.
  • How it addresses or impacts the key crises: It uses a fast-rinse technology in its conditioners that give great results while being quicker to rinse out to save enough water and meet all the water needs of half a million people for that year.

Comfort One Rinse fabric conditioner

  • Company: Unilever
  • Water Crisis: Water scarcity
  • How it addresses or impacts the key crises: It cuts the volume of water needed for hand washing clothes by up to half per wash to help save water.


  • Company: VICI labs
  • Water Crisis: Water scarcity, insecurity, accessibility to clean water, and water pollution.
  • How it addresses or impacts the key crises: WaterSeer uses the surrounding environment to extract water from the atmosphere.

Graphene filters

Mini Water Filtration System

The Janicki Omni Processor


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Global Water Crisis Initiatives

These are initiatives that address the key global water crises, namely water scarcity, water pollution, access to clean water, water insecurity, and climate change.


Water scarce cities initiative.
  • It is an initiative by the World Bank Group.
  • Its objective is to intensify the awareness of the management of water and its delivery in cities with low water supplies.
  • It will be achieved by spreading knowledge on water management approaches, easing multitask holder dialogue and supporting actual commitment to help the cities in need.
Global water scarcity project.

Water pollution initiatives.

UN Environment- Tackling water pollution.
International Initiative on Water Quality.


Global water challenge.
  • It is an alliance between global organizations, such as Ford and CocaCola, devoted to achieving universal access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene in a sustainable manner.
  • Their goal is to convince leading companies and governments to accelerate the distribution of drinking water.
  • Over one million people have been granted access to potable water through the efforts of the campaign.
Clean water — Across the globe.


Water and security.

climate change.

Climate is water.
  • It is an international initiative that pushes organizations to take actions against climate change and water shortage issues.
  • This initiative was launched in 2015 under the premise that the connection between water and climate change has been ignored for a long time.
  • Their goal is to elevate the visibility of water issues within the climate change discussions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by using the #ClimateIsWater.
  • They have also developed a platform where members can share information and cooperate in the production of campaigns and movements that would raise awareness for water issues.
Water and Climate change.
  • It is an initiative by the World Water Council.
  • In collaboration with the Co-operative Program on Water and Climate, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and International Water Association have published a series of 18 reports during the 5th World Water Forum in Istanbul.
  • They have participated in many key climate-related conventions including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • Recently, they have came up with an extensive study called Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Change: The Role of Infrastructure and Governance in the Context of Adaptation".
  • Their strategy is to raise awareness for the role of water issues in climate change.
  • They are committed to finance multipurpose infrastructures and to produce research that challenges conventional thinking in order to be able to move forward with the adaptation of solutions to critical water issues.

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    National Water Crises Initiatives

    The initiatives that exist to address the National Water Crises include Elevate Rural CA initiative, Rebuild Rural — Water, WaterSMART, Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI), Water Savings Initiative, and Clean Water Initiative.

    National Water Crises Initiatives

    1. Elevate Rural CA initiative

    2. Rebuild Rural — Water

    3. WaterSMART

    • WaterSMART is an initiative and program by Bureau of Reclamation that addresses local water conflicts in the American West, and the unending water disputes in the western states as well as the water shortage that is expected to increase in the coming ten years.
    • To address those issues, they continue to support plans and action to improve water supply, and they work cooperatively with states, tribes, and local entities for the implementation of these plans. They help them with investments for modernizing and improving the available infrastructure and also resolving the regional water conflicts.
    • They provide several grants such as WaterSMART Water grant and Energy Efficiency Grants for the conservation of water and for increasing the production of hydropower in the state.

    4. Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI)

    • Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) is an initiative of Department of the Interior which helps in addressing the increasing water shortages in the coming ten years by analyzing the 16-year drought and its effects on the Colorado River Basin.
    • Open Water Data Initiative helps in improving the availability of water supply and eliminating the possible risks to the national water resources. It also has an impact on addressing issues related to water shortage, since having an open database with information about the current water deficits can help develop future solutions.

    5. Water Savings Initiative

    • Water Savings Initiative is an initiative by Better Buildings of the U.S. Department of Energy, and it addresses the issue of expensive water. They help in lowering operating costs that will assist in resolving national water crises which makes the water expensive.
    • By promoting efficient use of water, they are attempting to address the increasing prices of water and also helping in the conservation and sustainability efforts for natural water resources.

    6. Clean Water Initiative

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    Brands and Water Crises Initiatives

    The US company Kimberly-Clark Corporation, the US mining company Alcoa, the Indian company ITC Limited, the Taiwanese technology company AU Optronics and the global corporate companies, Colgate Palmolive Company, Nestlé S.A., Unilever, Diageo Plc, Microsoft, and Danone, are the brands championing to resolve key global and national water security issues. ITC Limited invested nearly $9 million in water interventions across India. Taiwanese technology company, AU Optronics, invested $49.7 million in improving its water use efficiency by increasing water recycling to 90% and aiming for zero discharge. Colgate Palmolive Company uses the True Cost of Water Toolkit to assess the real price of water they use, and US mining company, Alcoa, invested $115 million in their Australian operations for a water filtration system.

    Global Scene: Key PLayers

  • In 2017, Kimberly-Clark Corporation invested $9 million in a new wastewater treatment system at one of its facilities in Peru.
  • The new system allows for more water recycling to reduce water usage and significantly improve wastewater discharge quality to meet new quality limits.
    • In 2017, Indian diversified conglomerate, ITC Limited, invested nearly $9 million in water interventions across India, constructing over 10,000 water harvesting units and using demonstration farms to share best practices in efficient irrigation and soil conservation.
    • In 2017, a Taiwanese technology company, AU Optronics, invested $49.7 million in improving its water use efficiency across all sites by increasing water recycling to 90%. The goal of the investment is to achieve zero discharge of processing water and to secure its supply in case of drought.
    • In 2017, Danone engaged suppliers and spent $59 million on projects to secure sustainable access to key raw materials, such as milk supplies in Sub-Saharan areas and fruit supplies in China. The projects were focused on sustainable agriculture and farmer empowerment.

    Global Scene: Others

  • In 2017, German flavor and fragrance producer, Symrise AG, invested in new equipment and technology to increase synthetic menthol production as an alternative to natural mint oils in order to meet future demands for menthol with synthetic counterparts instead of water-intensive natural mints.
  • Sun International has already exceeded its target to reduce group water consumption by 10% by the year 2020 and has now doubled its target, aiming to reduce consumption by 20% by 2020.
  • Vina Conchay Toro has committed to the protection and conservation of 100% of its 3,200 hectares of native forest in Chile.
  • In 2017, Kellogs asked its plants managers to reduce water consumption through employee engagement, asset care programs, and capital project initiatives.
  • Colgate Palmolive Company uses the True Cost of Water Toolkit, developed with Rutgers University Business School and its Supply Chain Management Program, to help sites quantify some hidden costs of water such as pre-treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment, and thereby increasing both economic and environmental opportunities for reduction.
  • Swiss food giant Nestlé S.A. assigns a theoretical price on water, ranging from around $1 to $5 per m3, depending on a factory’s physical risk score generated by the Nestlé Combined Water Stress Index. Applying a notional price on water helps the company conduct scenario analysis of regulatory and tariff changes at a local level.
  • Suncor Energy Inc. has been working to develop tools that would allow for water valuation, with the aim of including a true price of water for all its projects.
  • Diageo Plc uses an internal total cost of water tool that estimates the full cost of water to a given plant and this helps plants to anticipate and plan for the financial impact of price or tariff increases. It also supports Diageo’s overall goal to improve water use efficiency by 50% by 2020.
  • Colgate Palmolive Company, Nestlé S.A., Unilever, Diageo Plc, Microsoft, and Danone are in both the lists of CDP Global Report 2017 and The UN-initiated CEO Water Mandate as key corporate players championing water security.
  • Unilever also won an Effie award for best regional advertisement for its Kin brand advertisement that is based on the theme of water conservation in 2018.
  • Colgate-Palmolive in partnership with Safeway/Albertsons ran a save water campaign in 2018 in North America and this campaign won an Effie award.
  • The top five influencers/brands that are championing water security are, NowThis, Al-Jazeera America, VICE News and ABC News.
  • US Scene

  • In 2017, US mining company, Alcoa, invested $115 million in their Australian operations for a filtration system that reduces freshwater use by 317 million gallons annually, while simultaneously decreasing discharge.
  • In 2017, US Industrial company, Owens Corning, committed to reducing its cubic meters of water used per metric ton of production by 35% by 2020 compared to its 2010 baseline year.
  • In 2017, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. set a goal to engage with suppliers to help them improve water stewardship, having found that more than 20 times as much water was used upstream in the supply chain than by Nissan itself.
  • US personal care company, KimberlyClark Corporation, has developed a True Cost of Water model to calculate actual costs of water, including procurement, consumption, and wastewater treatment. The model will be used to obtain funding for water reduction and recycling projects.
  • Regional Interventions

  • In 2018, Cape Town, the capital city of South Africa faced a drought that beat all similar ones in the last 300 years in severity and Virgin Mobile took a number of steps to tackle the issue.
  • Virgin Mobile CEO, Richard Branson, visited Virgin Active South Africa (the company’s health club) in 2017 to connect with the Cape Town team and to understand how Virgin Active is conserving water.
  • In 2017, Virgin Mobile turned off sauna and steam facilities at Virgin Active South Africa, an intervention that saved 650,000 liters of water per month in view of the drought. Virgin Mobile then invested the money saved on water bills into water scarcity relief efforts in the town.
  • Virgin Mobile has reduced water consumption by 53% since 2016.
  • Additional General Information

  • The CDP Global Water Report 2017, a report prepared using data collected from 2,025 of the largest global companies about their efforts to manage and govern freshwater resources, revealed that more than 70% of corporations have water security on their board-level discussion agenda.
  • Companies are committing $23.4 billion across more than 1,000 water projects around the world.
  • As against 1432 companies that provided their water management data that was used to prepare the CDP Global Water Report 2016, 2,025 companies provided information that was used to prepare the 2017 report.
  • In 2017, 466 companies (63%) collected exhaustive data on their water withdrawals, discharges, quality, consumption, and the provision of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services across their operations.
  • In 2017, 148 companies (20%) are developing a comprehensive view of their water risk exposure.
  • In 2017, 418 companies (56%) have set water targets or goals but the majority of them remain short-term in nature and do not adequately account for the sustainable thresholds of the basins upon which companies depend.
  • In 2017, 297 companies (41%) engaged with their suppliers, requiring thousands of them around the world to report water management, thereby incentivizing them to behave in a more sustainable way.
  • Research Strategy:

    To find data on key brands championing global and national water crises, our research team thoroughly searched media, organization, and industry reports and databases such as CDP Global Water Reports, UN-initiated CEO Water Mandate, CEO Water Mandate, among others, for companies at the forefront of conserving water and dealing with water scarcity issues in various regions of the world. We relied on data from the most recent report published by on the issue from relevant organizations and we were able to find a number of initiatives which we have reported above.

    Our research team also searched Effie, an organization that assesses marketing communication and advertisement, to find out if there are any recent award-winning advertisement or advertising campaigns that championed water conservation by any brands. The search revealed two such campaigns created by Unilever and Colgate Palmolive in 2018, and we have reported the details above. We also found details on the five influencers championing water conservation issues during our research which we also reported above.

    From Part 01
    • "No matter where you live, it’s important to understand what’s in your water so you can make an informed decision about whether or not you need a drinking water treatment device and, if you do, which type of device is most appropriate for your situation"
    • "All Minnesotans have a stake in water that’s safe for drinking, swimming, and fishing. These town hall meetings will further the important conversations already happening across Minnesota around water quality. Together we can develop strategies and solutions that work for all of our communities."
    From Part 05
    From Part 07
    • "Through the state-of-the-art systems that can, for example, introduce and circulate probiotics in the air, diffuse homeopathic scents throughout the home at the push of a smartphone button, coax residents into a natural circadian rhythm and create stepped water purification systems, homeowners can create a space that connects the dots of their attempts at a healthier lifestyle, according to Thorne."
    • "Not only is there a rapidly growing demand for the healing and relaxing effects of thermal and mineral waters by travelers, but the projected market value by 2020 is $64.6 billion, increasing at a growth rate of 4.8% annually."
    • "Our brains are 73% water, so water consumption helps improve sleep quality and energy levels, as well as our ability to focus, our clarity of mind, and our awareness and alertness"
    • "The thermal/mineral springs market, much like the lucrative bath economy, also grows stronger as women turn to warm water for stress relief."
    From Part 08
    • "We partner with local communities where we operate to help co-create social and economic development plans. It's also why we implement water stewardship initiatives across our operations that help focus on sustainability"
    • "Over nearly two decades, Nestlé® Pure Life® has evolved into a leading global brand, and we now have an opportunity to express the brand's purpose in a way that inspires parents and adults. We want to express our belief that the future is full of possibilities, and that there are no limits to what can be achieved"
    • "Mina and I are record-breaking athletes from two different worlds, one on land and the other in water, coming together for one common cause to conserve one of the earth’s most precious resources. Now more than ever, it is important to ask Americans to change this simple habit in their everyday lives"
    From Part 09
    • "Rural America’s drinking-water situation constitutes a crisis of a magnitude greater than Flint, or any individual city."
    • "From Appalachian Kentucky to the Texas borderlands, millions of rural Americans are subject to unhealthy and sometimes illegal levels of contaminants in their drinking water, whether from agriculture, or coal, or plain old bad pipes."
    • "And as the economic gap separating rural America from its urban and suburban counterparts continues to grow, this basic inequality is set to become more entrenched—and possibly more dangerous, as sickness seeps into rural America."
    • "A lot of people in Kentucky actually get their water from wells that are sunk into flooded, abandoned mines,"
    • "As water becomes scarcer, Western states are increasingly fighting over water supplies and conservation. Texas, for instance, has sued New Mexico and Colorado in a battle over water drawn from the Rio Grande River, while Arizona and California have squared off over water rights to the Colorado River."
    • "The distrust has reached such levels, said John Fleck, a water resources professor at the University of New Mexico, that many Arizonans believe California is “just out to steal all their water."
    • "The disputes pit not only state against state but also lawn-watering homeowners against conservationists and irrigation-using farmers against city dwellers."
    • "Western farmers use more than 70 percent of the region's water, and in sparsely populated Wyoming and Montana the use reaches 97 percent."
    • "Competition for water is increasing in the West, where the driest areas currently are in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico and West Texas. An especially important, and contested, water source is the Colorado River Basin. It supplies water to 40 million people in seven Western states, as well as northern Mexico, and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of cropland. "
    • "The basin, however, is entering its 18th year of drought, and scientists consider the Colorado River among the most stressed waterways in the world."
    • "The United States has immense amounts of water. The country has an estimated 4.3 percent of the world’s population yet contains more than 7 percent of global renewable freshwater resources."
    • "Major water resources like the Colorado River and the Ogallala Aquifer that underlie parts of eight states in the High Plains consistently experience significantly decreased water levels because human demand has outpaced natural availability."
    • "In fact, a report by the Natural Resources Defense Council and Tetra Tech found that 70 percent of US counties could face water shortages by 2050 because of pressure from climate change, population increases and economic growth."
    • "Moreover, a GAO report found that water managers in 40 out of 50 states expect water shortages in the coming 10 years, regardless of drought conditions. All of this has major implications for how water is used in the United States."
    • "America's water is under threat from many sides. It faces pollution problems, outdated infrastructure, rising costs, and unprecedented droughts and rainfall patterns as the climate changes."
    • "The Columbia Water Center is helping to analyze and predict these trends, so that Americans will continue to have water whenever and wherever they need it."
    • "The Trump administration is hoping to reinvigorate a technology long dismissed as too expensive or energy-intensive to help solve a water crisis that has seen drought grip swaths of the American West, sparking deadly wildfires and legal battles over supply. "
    • "The Energy Department last month declared that it's spending $100 million over the next five years to create a research and development hub on desalination, a process that converts seawater and brackish inland water into freshwater."
    • "The planned hub comes as once-periodic water shortages have become perennial, if not ever-present, in American communities, forcing policymakers to rethink how residents get freshwater – and reconsider technologies they'd once shelved. "
    • "While freshwater has traditionally cost about 50 cents per cubic meter in an average U.S. market – and sometimes as little as 10 cents per cubic meter – desalinated water costs as much as $2 per cubic meter, and sometimes even more. "
    • "In California, for example, officials are considering rules to permanently ban water-wasting actions such as hosing off sidewalks and driveways, washing a vehicle with a hose that doesn’t have a shut-off valve, and irrigating ornamental turf on public street medians."
    • "Years of studies by government and environmental groups have warned that future demand for water is threatening to outstrip availability, particularly in the drought-plagued West and Southwest, unless policymakers take steps to reverse those trends."
    • "Adding to America’s water insecurity is a decadeslong decline in groundwater resources, which supply half of the nation’s residents and nearly all of its rural population, according to the U.S. Geological Survey."
    • "Sustained groundwater pumping has steadily taken its toll on aquifers throughout the country, lowering groundwater levels by hundreds of feet in some places."
    • "Water levels in the High Plains aquifer system, which underlies parts of eight states, have dropped by more than 100 feet in places, largely as a result of extensive irrigation, according to the USGS."
    • "Urban water supply systems in the United States are increasingly stressed as economic and population growth confront limited water resources"
    • "Cities face increasing challenges to their waters supply because of complex interactions among drought, infrastructure, population growth, land use changes, and other natural and human factor. "
    From Part 10
    • "Water is essential to life, yet 844 million people in the world - 1 in 9 - lack access to it. According to a report by the World Economic Forum, the water crisis is the #5 global risk in terms of impact to society. "
    • "The UN officially recognises equitable, safe drinking water and affordable sanitation as human rights, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ambitiously challenge us to provide this right to all,” she says. “Yet international attention has not translated into what is required – thoughtful, sustainable investments.”"
    From Part 11
    • "LifeStraw: This product removes 99.9% of waterborne bacteria and creates safe drinking water out of dirty water sources – a perfect solution for those who love the outdoors. Through the company’s “Follow the Liters” program, every purchase of a LifeStraw funds safe drinking water for a child in need for an entire school year."
    • "Advanced 2-stage filtration protects against bacteria, parasites and microplastics, reduces chemicals like chlorine and improves water taste"
    • "High performance purification technology removes viruses, bacteria, parasites and microplastics"
    • "The LifeStraw Mission's purification cartridge removes virtually all pathogens found in drinking water. It lasts 4,755 gallons - that's more than 3 years worth of drinking water"
    • "High-capacity, long-lasting water purifier for emergency preparedness, response, and humanitarian work."
    • "LifeStraw Universal Add an advanced LifeStraw filter to your favorite reusable water bottle with this adapter kit featuring a LifeStraw filter and 2 caps that fit most narrow and wide mouthed water bottles."
    • "LifeStraw Universal Compatible with most Nalgene, Camelbak, Hydroflask, and Klean Kanteen, and other water bottle models"
    • "LifeStraw is the original, award-winning ultralight personal “straw” filter for outdoor sports, survival and emergencies."
    • "LifeStraw Removes bacteria, parasites and microplastics"
    • "LifeStraw Flex with gravity bag Compact, lightweight water filtration system with expanded protection and 1 gallon gravity bag"
    • "Next level protection against heavy metals including lead as well as bacteria, parasites, microplastics, and organic chemical matter like pesticides, and herbicides"
    • "LIFESTRAW FLEX WITH SOFT BOTTLE Ultralight, versatile and long-lasting filter with expanded protection and collapsible squeeze bottle for outdoor sports, travel, survival and emergencies."
    • "LIFESTRAW FLEX WITH SOFT BOTTLE have Next level protection against heavy metals including lead as well as bacteria, parasites, microplastics, and organic chemical matter like pesticides, and herbicides"
    • "We’re investing in product innovation to cut water use, and we’re exploring options beyond our traditional business model to find new solutions for communities. One priority is to research, develop and launch water-smart products – that is, new products or formulations that work well with less water such as easy-rinse laundry products. We call these water-smart products."
    • "Product innovation in our beauty & personal care ranges can help people to reduce how much water they use in their home. For example, our new Love Beauty and Planet range in the US – launched in 2018 – uses fast-rinse technology in its conditioners. These conditioners give great results while being quicker to rinse out."
    • "We’ve learned that product innovation is often just the first step in getting people to change their laundry habits - raising awareness is equally important. So, when we launched Comfort One Rinse, we began a partnership with the Vietnamese Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment to raise awareness about water scarcity in rural areas, educate people to change their laundry rinsing habits, and show how the benefits of using Comfort One Rinse can help reduce water use. This campaign was particularly resonant during 2016 and 2017, when Vietnam endured its worst drought in 100 years."
    • "The SmartFoam technology is a patented anti-foam molecule, which reduces the number of rinses needed by up to half, by breaking down soap suds more quickly. This saves significant amounts of water - and makes washing easier and quicker. It was first launched in South Africa in 2016 in our Sunlight 2-in-1 Handwashing Laundry Powder and in India in our Rin soap bars."
    • "the WaterSeer uses the surrounding environment to extract water from the atmosphere. It is planted six feet below the surface, where its lower chamber is surrounded by cool earth. Above ground, wind spins a turbine which spins fan blades inside the device. These blades send the air into an internal condensation chamber where, as the warm air cools, the vapour condenses on the sides of the chamber. Water then flows down to the lower chamber and can be extracted with a simple pump and hose. In ideal conditions, it can collect 37 litres of water a day. Developed by in the US, the project is being tested by the National Peace Corps Association and will be piloted later this year."
    • "However, has developed and patented a Perforene graphene filter which it claims would reduce the energy cost of conventional reverse osmosis desalination by 20%, while withstanding higher pressure and temperatures. The perforated, hyper-permeable filter is one atom thick and is said to improve the flow of water compared to conventional methods by 500%. While the technology would be hugely beneficial to the oil and gas sector, which reportedly , the company is also researching other applications for the technology, including in food and energy generation. "
    • "Solar crop - In hot and dry climates, many farmers pump groundwater to irrigate crops, and there has been a growth in the use of solar-powered pumps. A problem arises when farmers view solar energy as free, as it can cause over-irrigation. A part-technological, part policy and management solution by CGIAR’s research programme on water, land and ecosystems, and in partnership with the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), incentivises farmers using solar pumps to sell excess power back to the grid."
    • "Fog Catchers - Vast mesh nets capture moisture from fog, which drips into collection trays after condensation. The largest of these projects is on the slopes of Mount Boutmezguida, a microclimate in Morocco where 6,300 litres of water can be harvested per day. The water is clean, free and instant, which is perhaps why Dar Si Hmad – the non-profit responsible for the project –was awarded the UN’s 2016 Momentum for Change award. First developed in South America, fog catching systems also exist in Chile, , Ghana, Eritrea, South Africa and California."
    • "WaterSeer - While most of the planet is made up of water, the process of creating clean drinking water from salt water has proven expensive, time-consuming, and downright hard. However, VICI Labs has developed a machine that can pull moisture from the air, producing up to 11 gallons of clean drinking water per day in semi-arid conditions. Dubbed WaterSeer, the device blows wind into an underground chamber, which eventually condenses and becomes water."
    • "Mini Water Filtration System - Large scale efforts like WaterSeer are an important step in guaranteeing a future without the threat of a water crisis. However, mass producing individual water filters that consistently work is another way we can be assured that clean drinking water will always be available. And this Mini Water Filtration System from Sawyer more than does the trick."
    • "The Janicki Omni Processor - There’s no two ways about it; this machine from Janicki Bioenergy produces clean drinking water from human feces. I know, I was grossed out too. But when you’ve got Bill Gates drinking from your machine and explaining how it works with adorable, animated words, it’s hard to argue with the viability of the idea."
    • "Variable Electro Precipitator - This process is one of the more effective and affordable methods of water treatment. One instance of the tech, developed and trademarked by F&T Water Solutions, does a particularly good job of producing clean drinking water. Through electrocoagulation, the Variable Electro Precipitator can remove many of the contaminants in water that simple filtration cannot."
    • "SUN: We maximize the water production and minimize the power requirement using our own hydrostatic controls. WaterSeer can use any power source."
    • "AIR: There is 3100 cubic miles of fresh clean water in the atmosphere, more than all the rivers and fresh water reservoirs on the planet. We take the moisture laden air around you and extract the water so you can use it."
    • "GROUND: We use the natural cooling of the ground to bring the ambient air close to the condensation point, then we move this air into an active cooling condensation chamber."
    • "WATER: The water is collected in the WaterSeer ready for use or transfer to a larger storage reservoir. The water is clean, fresh, cool and free of pollutants, particulates, and contaminants. It exceeds the EPA standards for water purity and is cleaner than tap water."
    • "Some of the water crises in the United States include contaminated drinking-water crisis in the american rural areas, the western states disputes over access to water and the future looming water shortage crisis. The crises have forced the current Trump's adminstration to look for ways to reinvigorate the technology that was long dismissed as expensive with the aim of solving the current water crisis that has occasioned drought, but this will not only cost the taxpayers but will make water more expensive."
    • "The current global water crises and have been the current top stories include water scarcity, water insecurity, accessibility to clean water, and water pollution whereas future crises may be attributed to climate change. Sustainable development goals have been put in place to address these challenges."
    From Part 14
    • "Back in May 2017 we made the decision to turn off sauna and steam facilities to reduce water consumption – this intervention has resulted in around 650,000 litres less water being used per month. While some members may think that by using less water we are saving on our water bills, actually those savings are being invested more than 10 times over to tackle the crisis. This drought has required us to look across our business to see where we could reduce water consumption but also at the investment required to use water more efficiently in the long term. I am pleased to say that our efforts have paid off and that we have reduced our water consumption by 53% since 2016."
    • " In Seattle, Microsoft has partnered with the Nature Conservancy, to develop machine learning and geospatial solutions to address pollution from water run-off. And our recently launched AI for Earth program is working with partners like Chesapeake Conservancy to enable precision conservation in the Chesapeake Bay."
    • "CDP launched the concept of water disclosure in 2009, working with shareholders to motivate companies to measure and disclose information on an annual basis. At the time CDP had just 137 investors signing its request for water-related information, and 175 companies responding."
    • "Now in its ninth year, CDP’s water program acts on behalf of 639 institutional investors, representing US$69 trillion in assets. These investors use CDP water data to engage with portfolio companies, inform investment decisions and catalyze change. In addition, 34 purchasing organizations, with a combined spend of US$1 trillion, use CDP water data to drive greater insight, accountability and action throughout their global supply chains."
    • "The CEO Water Mandate is a UN Global Compact initiative that mobilizes business leaders on water, sanitation, and the Sustainable Development Goals. Endorsers of the CEO Water Mandate commit to continuous progress against six core elements of water stewardship and in so doing understand and manage their own water risks. "
    • "At Onalytica we used our proprietary Influencer Relationship Management (IRM) Software to analyse the social media debate around water security, in order to identify a list of influencers and stakeholders who hold critical authority over the conversation on water security. We then quantitatively and qualitatively analysed the conversation drivers, providing insight on thematic issues of importance to top water security influencers and how these key influencers are shaping this important conversation to drive awareness and change policy."
    • "Effie Worldwide stands for effectiveness in marketing communications, spotlighting marketing ideas that work and encouraging thoughtful dialogue about the drivers of marketing effectiveness. The Effie network works with some of the top research and media organizations worldwide to bring its audience relevant and first-class insights into effective marketing strategy."
    • "The Save Water campaign was created by Colgate-Palmolive in partnership with Safeway/Albertsons to spark brand sales growth by leveraging our key insight that shoppers are willing to purchase and spend more on brands with a commitment to social causes. Through a highly impactful integrated campaign during a time when water conservation was socially relevant in drought-ridden Northern California, Safeway/Albertsons experienced category growth. Colgate-Palmolive grew brand market share with minimal discounts available in market."