Mental Health Education Trends

Part
01
of two
Part
01

Mental Health Education Trends

Some examples of trends in education offering for mental health professionals are onsite training components, Improved school-community collaboration to provide integrated and coordinated mental-health care, integrative training programs for mental health care practitioners and Professional certificates.

ONSITE TRAINING COMPONENTS

GRADUATE EDUCATION

  • There is a range of learning and training schemes in the integrated health workforce to assist primary care, mental health, and addiction professionals and others learn more about integration and efficient therapy measures, including opportunities for online learning, certification programs, webinars, and books.
  • The Doctor of Behavioral Health (DBH) focuses on measures in healthcare and leadership which involve healthcare management for integrated behavioral health programs.
  • The American Psychological Association's Directory of Doctoral Training Programs with Training Opportunities in Primary Care Psychology is a list of internships, postdoctoral and doctoral programs providing training for primary care psychology.
  • The Graduate Psychology Education grant program funds schools to establish and run training programs that prepare psychologists to work in a setting that incorporates mental health in primary care.

INTEGRATIVE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR MENTAL HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS

  • Successful implementation of interdisciplinary education and training programs necessary to promote skilled integrative practitioners will involve a high level of collaboration across fields between academic centers, professional societies, and clinicians.
  • Considering the diversity of variables that drive the evolving field of integrative medicine and mental health integration, disparate postgraduate training programs are likely to emphasize different areas of specialization.
  • After finishing formal training, many family physicians and psychiatrists are seeking to continue education and mentorship opportunities in fields such as mind-body medicine, including care-based stress reduction, pain medicine, palliative care, biofeedback, or hypnotherapy, while others are providing acupuncture or nutraceutical prescription training.
  • It is envisioned that residency training programs in family medicine and psychiatry, by including validated Complementary and Alternative Medical (CAM) methods in their curricula, will increasingly emphasize integrative mental health care.

PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATES

  • The Behavioral Health and Integration Training Institute is a 40-hour ongoing training provided in a one-week format aimed at present mental and behavioral health practitioners interested in advancing their skill and knowledge in behavioral health.
  • The Certificate in Integrated Behavioral Health and Primary Care is intended for direct clinical professionals who provide integrated health facilities and serve populations that often have complicated physical health, mental health, and drug use requirements.
  • Behavioral Health Integration in Pediatric Primary Care offered by the University of Maryland supports the efforts of primary care providers to assess and handle their patients' mental health issues from infancy through the transition to young adulthood.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

We began the research by looking into government databases such as SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions (CIS) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). After scouring through these sources, we were able to identify pre-compiled information on examples of trends in education offering for mental health professionals.

In order to determine the listed findings as the mental health education trends, we pulled out the most recent publication from these government databases and identified the trends that have been recently deployed by these governments into the health care field as the government is the major body that oversees the health practice in every country and leads in offering professional healthcare education. Also, It is evident that since these sites are run by the government and are used for service delivery, they are run by reputable organizations and kept up to date. It is at this point that we identified the trends which we listed above in the findings section.
Part
02
of two
Part
02

Mental Health Education: Drivers

Four main drivers for the demand in mental health education for professionals are closing the mental health treatment gap, improving access to services, policy changes and societal changes. Sources of information on mental health education include the Psychology School Guide and HealthGrad.com.

MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT GAP

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the ratio of mental health workers in low-income countries is 2 per 100,000, yet over 70 in high-income countries. The overall global rate is 9 per 100,000.
  • By region, the mental health workforce per 100,000 is 0.9 for Africa, 10.9 for the Americas, 7.7 in the Eastern Mediterranean, 50 for Europe, 2.5 for South-East Asia and 10 for Western Pacific.
  • For clinicians, task sharing is one method proposed to address the gap. Training in knowledge transfer and supervisory techniques for mental health professionals allows for a transfer of some duties to trained lay health workers, thus creating an ongoing supervisory, quality assurance and support role.
  • There is a paucity of mental health researchers trained in mentorship, advocacy, leadership, epidemiological and implementation research methods and knowledge translation and exchange.
  • The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Hubs for International Research on Mental Health is an example of this type of capacity building. Five geographically distributed centers funded by the NIMH provide knowledge and tools to increase research capacity which focus training on hybrid designs and assesses both the implementation and effectiveness of processes to advance intervention techniques.

IMPROVING ACCESS TO SERVICES

  • In low and middle income countries, public expenditure on mental health is low in comparison to high-income countries. For low and middle income countries, less than US$1 per capita is spent on mental health by governments however, in high income countries that figure rises to US$80 per capita.
  • In two-thirds of the 177 countries providing data for the WHO's Mental Health Atlas 2017, care and treatment of persons with severe mental disorders is not included in national health insurance or reimbursement schemes,
  • The economic cost of lack of access is high as global economic loss of a trillion US dollars is attributable to low levels of recognition and access to care for depression and other common mental disorders.
  • Approximately half of Canadians experiencing a major depressive episode received "potentially adequate care."
  • In the US, 8,300 child psychiatrists are deployed to meet the needs of over 15 million youths with mental health disorders.
  • Citizens in the US travel for hours or across state lines to access services in the over 4,000 areas across the US considered mental health professional shortage areas.
  • Telehealth has been proposed as a potential solution where a face to face consultation is impractical. This the delivery of health and health related services via video conferencing, mobile health apps and remote patient monitoring.
  • Survey data revealed that 45% of respondents who have not tried telehealth would be open to trying it for current or future needs,
  • The largest telehealth program in the US providing services to over 700,000 veterans is operated by the US Department of Veterans Affairs.

POLICY CHANGES

  • A lack of public mental health leadership and integration within primary health care, how mental health services are organized, its absence from the public health agenda along with inadequate human resources, have been identified as the five key barriers to increasing mental health services availability.
  • In the UK where 79% of British parents agree with mental health education being part of the curriculum in schools, government guidelines now specify its introduction of into the school curriculum.
  • New York and Virginia legislated mental health education as a mandatory requirement in public schools and Florida has also introduced similar programs without the legislative requirement.
  • No formal plan has been effected to meet the training demands the introduction of this type of education in schools however the need to properly trained professionals to deliver this content has been noted.

SOCIETAL CHANGES

  • Substance misuse, loneliness, homelessness, financial hardship and universal credit and benefit changes have been identified as drivers of demand for mental heath services.
  • In comparison to five years ago, 57% of Canadians believe that the stigma associated with mental illness has been reduced. However, even if 70% believe attitudes about mental health issues have changed for the better, in Ontario 64% of workers expressed concern about the impact on work when a colleague has a mental illness.
  • In Nepal, a program has been introduced to increase social contact between mental health services users and non-specialist healthcare workers integrating mental health services into primary healthcare.
  • In the US, recommendations were made to increase training opportunities, reduce unnecessary barriers to practice and improve enrollment of students from diverse backgrounds

SOURCES FOR MENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION COURSES.

  • The Psychology School Guide provides details on the different types of mental health counseling degrees, requirements for entry and what careers are available upon graduation.
  • Health Grad.com provides information on the types of mental health degrees, requirements by profession and what type of mental health degree is needed.



Sources
Sources

From Part 01
Quotes
  • "Current treatments and the dominant model of mental health care do not adequately address the complex challenges of mental illness, which accounts for roughly one-third of adult disability globally. "
From Part 02