Electric Tuk-Tuk vehicles

Part
01
of five
Part
01

Electric Tuk-Tuks: Pakistan

As of 2018, there were no electric vehicles in Pakistan, however, the government is taking initiatives in this regard and seeks to convert fossil-fuel-based vehicles to electric vehicles over the next 5 years. Some details for the state of the electric vehicle industry in Pakistan are given below.
  • There were no electric vehicles in Pakistan as of 2018 and all of the vehicles depend on the use of fossil fuels. Since there are no electric vehicles, it implies that there are no electric tuk-tuks in the country as well and their absence also means that there are no manufacturers in the country.
  • Although the number currently stands at zero, the government is taking measures and has set targets of introducing 100,000 electric cars as well as 500,000 two-, three-, and four-wheeled electric vehicles in the next 5 years.
  • The total number of tuk-tuks (non-electric) in the country is not available. There were 105,684 registered rickshaws in the largest metropolitan city in Pakistan, Karachi, as of December 31, 2011. The number of unregistered rickshaws may be higher.
  • The total number of private rickshaws in Lahore, one of the largest cities in Pakistan, is close to 500,000. Faisalabad, which is another large city in the country, has close to 70,000 motorcycle rickshaws, also known as 'Qingqis'.
  • Three-wheeler sales in the country were 156,497 units in June 2018, which rose from 129,342 units in June 2017.

Research Strategy

We started our research by trying to locate the number of tuk-tuks in Pakistan, however, the total number of tuk-tuks in the country cannot be determined. We went through credible media sources, e.g. The Express Tribune, Geo News, etc., in an attempt to find news relating to the use of tuk-tuks in the country. However, this strategy did not yield any results besides some numbers for some of the large cities in the country.

Alternatively, we decided to look through industry reports to find out the number of tuk-tuks in the country. Through this strategy, we found a report from an institute, which reported that the number of electric vehicles in the country was 0% in 2018. This implied that the country had no manufacturers of electric tuk-tuks and the number of electric tuk-tuks is also zero.

As a final attempt, we decided to look through government reports but did not find any fruitful results. We found some reports that provided insights into the automobile manufacturing companies operating in the country but those reports primarily focused on cars. An example report can be found here.

Since the government has only recently announced plans to increase the number of electric vehicles, no details could be found, specifically for the programs supporting the acquisition of electric tuk-tuks in the country.
Part
02
of five
Part
02

Electric Tuk-Tuks: Sri Lanka

Merely half of the 1.1 million to 1.2 million registered non-electric tuk-tuks in Sri Lanka are available for hire.

Total number of tuk-tuks in Sri Lanka

  • There are between 1.1 and 1.2 million registered non-electric tuk-tuks in Sri Lanka. However, only half of them are available for hire. The first electric tuk-tuk three-wheeler launched in the country is the Mahindra Treo, which is manufactured by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

Number of electric tuk-tuks

  • The minister of development strategies and international trade, Malik Samarawickrama, launched Sri Lanka's first-ever electric three-wheeler tuk-tuks in March 2019. As the product is still new, there is no report available on the sales or number of lease of these electric tuk-tuks.

The lifespan of Electric Tuk-Tuks

Top Manufacturers of Electric Tuk-Tuks

  • The Mahindra Treo electric tuk-tuk is the first-ever electric tuk-tuk on three wheels launched in Sri Lanka. It is manufactured by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

Electric Conversion Kit

  • Sasiranga De Silva, an Automobile Engineer and a lecturer at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, has recently invented electric conversion kits for tuk-tuks. His initiative is supported by the UN Environment.
  • The conversion kit uses a lithium-ion battery that has a lifespan of five years.

Government Programs Supporting Electric Tuk-Tuks

  • The government is offering a low-interest rate loan to drivers to convert their tuk-tuks into electronic tuk-tuks.
  • Sri Lanka's diesel and petrol vehicles have a higher tax rate. With the introduction of electronic tuk-tuks for rental, switching to hybrids and electric vehicles make more sense for tuk-tuk drivers in the long run.
  • The government targets to convert the country's entire tuk-tuk fleet to electronic tuk-tuk by 2045

Research Strategy

After in-depth research on the tuk-tuk market in Sri Lanka, the research team has learned that electric tuk-tuk is still a very new market.

We started the search for the number of tuk-tuks in Sri Lanka by exploring various news articles like the News18, Xinhua news, Asian, and a few others. We have learned that Sri Lanka is facing an ever-increasing of tuk-tuk drivers which caused a labor crisis in the country. Many of the country's fresh graduates opted to be a tuk-tuk driver as they can purchase a tuk-tuk with a low deposit and start a business right away. We have also learned the government initiative in going green with the launch of its very first electric tuk-tuk. We have, however, unable to identify the number of electric tuk-tuks in the country.

The research team proceeded to analyze the manufacturer of the electronic tuk-tuk. We looked for press releases, news articles or any related official reports on the company, hoping to find sales reports or figures. This strategy was unfruitful as we only managed to gather information about the vehicle but nothing on revenue.

Lastly, we tried searching more information on UNEP, government websites, travel sites, and news articles to gather more information of the success in converting current tuk-tuks to electronic tuk-tuks, however, we have only managed to identify news articles which highlighted the benefits and challenges of the matter but none of these mentioned the success rate of the initiatives.


Part
03
of five
Part
03

Electric Tuk-Tuks: Thailand

Thailand has about 20,000 non-electric and 58 electric tuks in operation. The Energy Conservation Fund (ECF) has approved a subsidy of 106 million THB, to motivate tuk-tuk owners to move from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to Electric tuk.

Number of Tuk-Tuks in Thailand

The lifespan of Electric Tuk-Tuks

Top Manufacturers of Electric Tuk-Tuks

  • Giving the penetration rate of electric tuk-tuks in the country, E-Tuk Factory is the only manufacturers of an electric tuk-tuk in Thailand.
  • The company has been exporting e-tuks since 2011 with over 800 e-tuks sold. They are the first company in the world to design and manufacture a 100% electric auto rickshaw.
  • In terms of brands, in June 2019, "Grabs has partnered with Nakorn Lanna Cooperative to launch GrabTukTuk Electric service in Chiang Mai." This will make the brand the most popular e-tuks brand in Thailand.

Government Programs Supporting E-tuks



Part
04
of five
Part
04

Electric Tuk-Tuks: Bangladesh

According to a report published by Ernst & Young, there are about 500,000 e-rickshaws in Bangladesh. The average economic service life of e-rickshaws in Bangladesh is 3 years.

1) Total number of tuk-tuks (including electric and non-electric):

2) Number of electric tuk-tuks:

  • According to a report published by Ernst & Young, there are about 500,000 e-rickshaws in Bangladesh.

3) Lifespan of electric tuk-tuks:

  • According to a paper published by the International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), the average economic service life of e-rickshaws in Bangladesh is 3 years.

4) Players (manufacturers/brands) of electric tuk-tuks in the country:

  • Dezhou Zhongya Vehicle Industry
  • Xinxiang Siristar Import & Export
  • Henan Zip Star Motor Tricycle Manufacturing
  • Sichuan Hanfeiyuntu Int'l Trading
  • Guangzhou City Panyu Dengfeng Motorcycle Spare Parts Factory
  • Zhengzhou Lianke Machinery Manufacture
  • Tianjin City Baoge Electric Bicycle
  • Xuzhou Furinkazan Import & Export Trade
  • Sichuan Minghong Vehicle Manufacturing
  • Zhengzhou Lianke Machinery Manufacture

5) Government programs supporting electric tuk-tuks in the country:


Research Strategy:

We started our research by directly searching for any industry reports or market studies on the electric tuk-tuk market in Bangladesh. After going through numerous industry reports and market studies published by CEIC, Ernst & Young, and the International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), we were not able to find the top players of electric tuk-tuks in the country.

We also searched through various news articles and media publications around top players (manufacturers/brands) of electric tuk-tuks in the country. The idea here was to find articles or publications that would include any commentary by companies operating in the market. However, most of the articles published by I am Renew and Dhaka Tribune only provided generic information on the overall electric rickshaw market in Bangladesh.
We also tried to go through various companies offering electric rickshaws in Bangladesh and rank them on the basis of their revenue. However, after going through various online marketplaces such as Alibaba, it was found that there are over 480 companies selling electric rickshaws in Bangladesh. As this would fall outside of the scope of this report, we have provided a list of 10 companies found on Alibaba based on their reviews.


Part
05
of five
Part
05

Electric Tuk-Tuks: India

The Indian government has launched a program called Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles to boost the transition to electric mobility in the country. In October 2019, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd sold 1,900 electrical tuk-tuks. Below are the explicit findings.

Government Programs


Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd Overview

  • The estimated revenue of M&M is ‎₹105,806 crore (US$15 billion).
  • The electric tut-tuks models manufactured and produced by M&M are e-Alfa Mini & Treo.
  • The price of e-Alfa Mini is Rs. 1.12 lakh (US$1,564.89), while the price for Treo is Rs. 1.77 lakh (US$1,634.75) for Treo Yaati SHT and Rs. 2.77 lakh (US$3,171.71) for Treo SHT. (1 Lakh =100,000 R; 1 INR = 0.01397 USD)
  • Last month, October 2019, M&M sold about 2,000 electric vehicle, these were the e-Verito electric sedan and the e-Alfa Mini & Treo electric three-wheelers. Out of these 2,000 units sold, 1,300 units were e-Alfa Mini, 600 units were Treo, and the remaining were e-Verito.
  • Therefore, the total number of electric tuk-tuks sold by M&M in October was (1,300 + 600) about 1,900.

Kinetic Engineering Ltd


Research Strategy

During our search, we could not find the models of electric tuk-tuks, the price of electric tuk-tuks, and the number of electric tuk-tuks sold by Kinetic Engineering Ltd. Their website shows they manufacture automotive parts. We used the following strategies trying to find this missing information.

We began our search by trying to go through the company's website and annual report. However, we could discover that the links to the website and annual report are not working even after tying to open them on different browsers. Also, we could discover that the company's website was last updated in 2017 after accessing it using a phone browser and we could only find an annual report for the year 2017. Here, we wanted to check the products offered by company so that we can see what type of electric rickshaw models are offered by Kinetic Engineering Ltd and their price. On the annual report, we wanted to check the number of electric tuk-tuks that were sold by the company. Unfortunately, we could not access the site and the report.

Next, we went through the platforms that sell products such as Alibaba, Trade India, e-Supplier India, among others. Here, we were hoping to find the models and price of e-tuk-tuks offered by KEL. However, on the Trade India website, we could only find the company sells a 7 seater auto rickshaw. We could not find any relevant information pertaining to models and price of electric tuk-tuks offered by the company.

We started by investigating the directories of the companies in this project, including their websites and social media accounts. This research produced reports with insights into each company's overview, C-suite executives, location, services offered, and others. Also, as per the investigation, all three companies are privately-held entities, meaning they are not obligated to reveal their financial information. Therefore, we proceeded to examine the profile of each company in business intelligence portals such as CrunchBase, Blooomberg, Inc., and LinkedIn. From here, we located data about their revenue and employee estimates, as well as other information required of this request and provided the same as needed.

NOTE: During our deep search, we could find a company called Kinetic Green Energy & Power Solutions that have sold over 20,000 units of EVs including e-rickshaws in India. This year is planning to sell about 15,000 units. Eighteen-months after September 2017, it sold over 10,000 electric rickshaws in India.


Sources
Sources

From Part 04
Quotes
  • "Bangladesh’s Motor Vehicle Registered: Bangladesh: Auto-Rickshaw and Auto-Tempo data was reported at 10,760.000 Unit in Dec 2017."
Quotes
  • "Legalizing electric vehicles: Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) has issued draft guidelines on the electric vehicles, making registration, fitness certificate and tax token mandatory. The draft policy also specifies the lifespan of various modes of electric mobility — two wheelers, three-wheelers, and light and heavy-duty vehicles"
  • "Tax incentives: Recently, government has been promoting hybrid vehicles by providing substantial tax incentives, apart from having various tax exemptions for electric two wheelers and three wheelers"
Quotes
  • "The new government of Bangladesh has moved to legalize around 100,000 electric three-wheel vehicles currently operating on its rural roads. These electric vehicles were running in the country without a permit, said officials."
  • "The three-wheelers in Bangladesh are mainly imported from India and China, operate with only local authority approvals but the Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) plans to bring them under its oversight along with the other 3.4 million vehicles it has on its books."
  • "With such vehicles already often run with some solar power input – according to the head of the country’s solar association – it is believed registering them will raise demand for renewable energy."
  • "Battery-run rickshaws and bicycles will not be part of the new move, according to the guidelines."
  • "The government has established eight solar charging stations across the country, each of which can generate 30 kW of electricity and charge 20 vehicles at a time, according to Sustainable & Renewable Energy Development Authority (SREDA) member Siddique Zobair."
Quotes
  • "Together, we decided to take action against illegal [vehicles which do not have a licence from DSCC], and battery-run rickshaws," he said."
  • "Md Ensur Ali, general secretary of Bangladesh Sarak Paribahan Sramik League, said: “We support the decision of banning illegal, and battery-run rickshaws."
From Part 05