Social Capital

Part
01
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Part
01

Social Capital - Primary Research Studies: Part One

10 primary studies conducted on the topic of social capital include "For Good Measure — Advancing on Well-being Metrics Beyond GDP", "How's Life? 2017 — Measuring Well-Being" and "International Migration Outlook 2019", among others. Our findings have been outlined below.


1. RESEARCH STUDY

  • Author: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Yann Algan.
  • This study analyzes how trust influences personal and social relations and how trust is a part of social capital as society's well-being.

2. RESEARCH STUDY

  • This study examines changes in certain social capital indicators, featuring a range of studies and analyses on the topic of social capital, indicators and ways to measure the people’s well-being.

3. RESEARCH STUDY

4. RESEARCH STUDY

  • For the purposes of this study, social capital is defined as social interactions such as political activism, religion status and community involvement.

5. RESEARCH STUDY

  • Title: Migration And the Value of Social Networks .
  • Publication year: 2019.
  • Social network is defined as social capital for the purposes of this study.

6. RESEARCH STUDY

  • Title: Migration, Social Capital, Financial Capital: How Migrants' Family Relations Serve Internationally.
  • Publication year: 2017.

7. RESEARCH STUDY

  • Title: The Downside of Social Capital in New Industry Creation.
  • This study is based on a hypothesis that social capital defines the development of new industries. In this study, the authors argue whether the established beliefs surrounding the gaming industry are true and if so, how prevalent they are.
  • In this study, social capital is defined as regional characteristics, dominant social norms, rules, and codes, as well as civic responsibility.

8. RESEARCH STUDY

  • This index measures the global social capital across regions, on the basis of personal and social relationships, social norms and civic participation.
  • This study defines social capital as the ''contribution of social networks as an asset that produces economic returns and improves well-being''.

9. RESEARCH STUDY

  • Publication year: 2017.

10. RESEARCH STUDY

  • Publication year: 2018.
  • Authors of this study are the Toronto Foundation, Environics Institute for Survey Research and Toronto's Vital Signs.
  • This survey was conducted on 3000 citizens of Toronto of different demographic backgrounds, addressing social capital dimensions such as civic participation, social trust, social networks and neighborhood support. The study determined an increase in interpersonal and institutional trust indexes, community network strength, increased interest in civic engagement such as volunteering and group affiliations as well as politics.
  • For the purposes of this study, social capital is defined as social trust, political engagement, civic participation, social networks and neighborhood support.

Part
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Part
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Social Capital - Primary Research Studies: Part Two

A review of ten additional primary research studies on social capital revealed that there are many variations in the definition of social capital used within academic research, as well as that social capital is considered a meaningful dimension within a variety of contexts.

SOCIAL NETWORK SITES, INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HAPPINESS

  • Efstratia Arampatzi, Martijn J. Burger and Natallia Novik published this primary research study on social capital in 2018 within the Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as the volume of social interactions and potential feelings of loneliness.
  • Ultimately, the study found that there is an inverse relationship between happiness and the hours spent on social network sites, and that social capital does not appear to have a moderating impact on this correlation.

FINANCIAL REPORTS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

  • Anand Jha published this primary research study on social capital in 2019 within the Journal of Business Ethics.
  • For the purpose of this research, social capital was defined at the country level, and in a manner consistent with the definition used in Rupasingha et al. (2008).
  • Ultimately, the study found that firms located in countries with high social capital are less likely to commit fraud by misrepresenting financial data.

THE ROLE OF WEBSITE QUALITY AND SOCIAL CAPITAL IN BUILDING BUYERS' LOYALTY

  • XiayuChen, QianHuang and Robert M. Davison published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within the International Journal of Information Management.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as the combination of cognitive, relational and structural capital between an online business and a potential customer.
  • Ultimately, the study found that website quality is positively correlated with building social capital and loyalty with customers.

BOWLING FOR FASCISM: SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE RISE OF THE NAZI PARTY

  • Shanker Satyanath, Nico Voigtländer, and Hans-Joachim Voth published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within the Journal of Political Economy.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as the density of social networks in a specific geographic area.
  • Ultimately, the study found that towns and cities in Germany with higher social capital joined the Nazi Party more quickly than their peers, except for those with more stable governments.

SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DEBT CONTRACTING: EVIDENCE FROM BANK LOANS AND PUBLIC BONDS

  • Iftekhar Hasan, Chun Keung Hoi, Qiang Wu and Hao Zhang published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within the Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital in US counties was defined through a variety of proxies, including organ donation and religiosity.
  • Ultimately, the study found that firms with their headquarters located in American counties with higher levels of social capital incurred lower bank loan spreads.

REWARD-BASED CROWDFUNDING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PROJECTS: THE EFFECT OF LOCAL ALTRUISM AND LOCALIZED SOCIAL CAPITAL ON PROPONENTS' SUCCESS

  • Giancarlo Giudici, Massimiliano Guerini and Cristina Rossi-Lamastra published this primary research study on social capital in 2018 within Small Business Economics.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined from a geographic perspective as the social relations among residents and the compliance of those local residents with social norms.
  • Ultimately, the study found that social capital in the form of social relations between local residents increases the positive correlation between local altruism and the likelihood of entrepreneurial success in the form of crowdfunding projects.

THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNAL SOCIAL CAPITAL ON SERIAL CREATORS' SUCCESS IN CROWDFUNDING

  • Vitaly Skirnevskiy, David Bendig and Malte Brettel published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as the interactions between entrepreneurs and their financial backers.
  • Ultimately, the study found that social capital between entrepreneurs and their financial backers is positively correlated with funding success beyond just one crowdfunding project.

SERIAL CROWDFUNDING, SOCIAL CAPITAL, AND PROJECT SUCCESS

  • Vincenzo Butticè, Massimo G. Colombo and Mike Wright published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as the internal connections built between serial crowdfunded entrepreneurs and their financial backers.
  • Ultimately, the study found that while serial crowdfunders benefit from social capital in future projects, there are limits to how long this social capital will translate into improved funding success.

SOCIAL CAPTIAL, TRUST, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: THE VALUE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DURING THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

  • Karl V. Lins, Henri Servaes and Ane Tamayo published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within The Journal of Finance.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as corporate social responsibility (CSR) intensity.
  • Ultimately, the study found that a company's social capital with stakeholders and investors was positively correlated with stock returns, profitability, growth and sales, even during a financial crisis where the overall level of trust in companies was low.

QUALITY OF GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL CAPITAL AS DRIVERS OF REGIONAL DIVERSIFICATION IN EUROPE

  • Nicola Cortinovis, Jing Xiao, Ron Boschma and Frank G van Oort published this primary research study on social capital in 2017 within the Journal of Economic Geography.
  • For the purpose of their research, social capital was defined as the relevance of one industry or company to another.
  • Ultimately, the study found that institutions with social capital help bridge the gap in geographic areas between existing industries and the entrance of companies from different sectors.
Part
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Part
03

Social Capital - Experts

Robert Putnam, Michael Woolcock, Matthew O. Jackson, G. Loury, Nan Lin, Brian J. Jones, David Halpern, and Tom Schuller are some experts in the field of social capital.

Expert 1: Robert Putnam

WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT
  • A blog by Brookings, a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington, D.C., identifies Robert Putnam as "the scholar who put social capital on the map."
  • Stanford University, in its official website, describes Putnam as an expert on social capital who has authored best-selling research on the topic.

HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
  • Putnam has theorized that in the United States, fewer and fewer people are working together as a community or social network, and the social links are declining.
  • With the support of valid data, Putnam showed that "the traditional forms of social connection had declined dramatically in the last third of the twentieth century" in the country.
  • Putnam co-authored a book, 'Better Together: Restoring the American Community,' in which 12 case studies of social capital success stories of varied groups and organizations are presented.
  • Putnam has also put forward valuable suggestions on ways to re-establish social capital in American society, and these include creating physical and virtual community spaces locally.

EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN


Expert 2: Michael Woolcock

WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT

HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN

  • Article: 'Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework'
  • Article: 'Social capital: implications for development theory, research, and policy'

  • Expert 3: Matthew O. Jackson

    WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT

    HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

    EXAMPES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN


    Expert 4: G. Loury

    WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT

    HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
    • Loury has theorized using the concept of social capital to study income distribution.
    • He has theorized that the "location of the family and its neighbhourhood matter for deriving advantage from social capital."
    • He defined social capital as naturally occurring social connections with people that uphold or aid the procurement of abilities and characteristics that are valued within the marketplace. Loury sees it as an asset that could be as essential as financial endowments in accounting for the perpetuation of inequality in American society.
    EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN


    Expert 5: Nan Lin

    WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT
    • Nan Ling is an Oscar L. Tang Family Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Duke University, and in his university profile page, he states that his primary research interests include Chinese societies, the life stress process, particularly social support as resources, social capital and networks, and social mobility and stratification.
    • He has published several scholarly research articles on social capital.

    HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

    EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN


    Expert 6: Brian J. Jones

    WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT
    • Brian J. Jones argued against Robert Putnam's social capital evaluation of American society, claiming that new areas of cohesion are developing in society in the United States.
    • Brian Jones published the book, 'Social Capital in America: Counting Buried Treasure,' to present this argument.

    HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

    EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN


    Expert 7: David Halpern

    WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT

    HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

    EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN


    Expert 8: Tom Schuller

    WHY HE IS CONSIDERED AN EXPERT

  • Tom Schuller has theorized about the connection between social and human capital.


  • HOW HE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FIELD OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

    EXAMPLES OF ARTICLES HE WROTE/INTERVIEWS GIVEN

    Research Strategy:

    While searching for experts in the field of social capital other than those who are already listed in the two previous requests, we adopted a methodology of searching for articles that mention the names of such experts. We were able to identify four experts in this manner. We identified four more experts from the reference lists of scholarly articles and also from book lists on social capital as given by international online book sellers such as Goodreads and Google Books.
    Part
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    Part
    04

    Social Capital - Organizations and/or Companies: Part One

    Two large organizations specializing in social or human capital are the World Bank and UNICEF. The World Bank's primary activity focuses on "investing in people to build human capital." World Bank has developed a social capital index to measure the health of children, youths, and adults. Its social capital index helps in strengthening transparency by providing sufficient evidence to motivate people and policymakers for better services. UNICEF's main focus are initiatives that promote and build social capital promoting positive outcomes in education, social inclusion, child protection, and empowerment.

    WORLD BANK

    • One of the primary activities of the World Bank is "investing in people to build human capital." The significance of this primary activity is evident from the "who we are" page of the World Bank.
    • The central focus of the World Bank is to build human (social) capital by investing in people.
    • The World Bank also promotes its primary objectives of building social capital by demanding for more significant investments in people from various governments across the world.

    SOCIAL CAPITAL: A KEY COMPONENT OF WORLD BANK

    • The World Bank Group is helping countries to prioritize their human capital manner that is sustainable. The efforts of the World Bank seek to deepen the recognition that jobs, as well as skilled workers, are vital to "national progress in countries at all income levels."
    • World Bank has a project dedicated to social capital. It is known as the "Human Capital Project" and aims at delivering progress toward a world where all children attend school well-nourished and are ready to learn. The social capital project of the World Bank seeks to produce children that will eventually "enter the job market" as skilled, healthy, and productive adults.
    • World Bank seeks to make social capital development the key outcome pf its three main objectives. Firstly, it tries to build demand for more significant investments in people.
    • Secondly, the World Bank helps countries "strengthen their human capital strategies" and investments to rapidly improve outcomes.
    • Thirdly, World Bank is working on improving how human capital is measured.
    • World Bank also invests large sums of money in developing social capital. Recently, it partnered with UNICEF to promote education, skills as well as training for young people. World Bank budgets to invest $1 billion in developing human (social) capital in 2019.
    • World Bank believes that through social capital investments in education, actions can be taken to break generational cycles of poverty.
    • The World Bank also focuses on social capital development through skill development, which improves employability to reduce poverty.

    MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT

    • In 2019, the World Bank budgeted $1 billion for the development of human (social) capital.
    • The World Bank has developed a new Human Capital Index, which was due for release at its annual meetings in October 2018. The index measures three objectives and offers a crucial resource for governments and citizens.
    • World Bank's social capital index measures the health of children, youth, and adults. It also measures the quantity and quality of education of a child born today up to the age of 18. This index helps in strengthening transparency by providing evidence sufficient to move people and policymakers to require and create better services.
    • The data measured by World Banks' social capital index is meant to jump-start a conversation in every country about issues that matter most in the future, from the highest levels of government.


    UNICEF

    • UNICEF has programs that aim to develop children all over the world by preparing them for adulthood. One of the social capital development schemes of UNICEF is child-focused sports for comprehensive development.
    • UNICEF has several initiatives that promote/build social capital. One of these initiatives is the S4D initiative/strategy, which aims at promoting positive outcomes in four areas, such as education, social inclusion, child protection, and empowerment. UNICEF helps measure poverty rates in children to advise governments on the dangers of poverty and the need to increase investments in the education of children.

    SOCIAL CAPITAL: A KEY COMPONENT OF UNICEF

    • A significantly popular and effective program of UNICEF known as Sport for Development (S4D) depends on the use of sport, or other forms of physical activity, in providing both children and adults an opportunity to attain their full potential. These opportunities get promoted via initiatives that focus on "personal and social development."
    • The S4D initiative/strategy of UNICEF aims at promoting positive outcomes in four areas, namely: education, social inclusion, child protection, and empowerment.
    • The "what we do" web page of UNICEF reveals that its main activity is implementing a social policy that supporting governments. This support aims to develop more effective and equitable social and economic policies to help realize the rights of all children.
    • To address multidimensional child poverty, UNICEF seeks to break the inter-generational cycle of poverty by focusing on generating evidence as well as advocating with partners in government. It aims to increase funds for health, education as well as social inclusion programs to cover the "most vulnerable children."
    • UNICEF believes the pathway of education leads to employability. The organization has several social capital development projects which train people to give them the necessary skills and improve their employability.

    MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT

    • S4D initiatives improve student engagement in education, positively impacting those facing a high risk of leaving or dropping out of school. The initiatives have been confirmed effective in enhancing the attainment of life skills, including empowerment, leadership skills, and self-esteem. They also create better relationships among teachers and adults.
    • UNICEF measures social inclusion in children by developing ways to "measure and report child poverty."
    • Through the support of UNICEF, in the four years leading to 2018, about 29 additional countries (bringing the total count to 58 countries) established a routine, and national child poverty measurement/reporting techniques. Ten more countries now use child poverty data during policy discussions (as of 2018) when compared to 2017.
    • In 2017, UNICEF in collaboration with statistical offices and national governments produced new child poverty measurement techniques, studies and reports in Angola, Argentina, Botswana, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Iceland, Iraq, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, the Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, State of Palestine, the Sudan, Swaziland, the United Republic of Tanzania, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Ukraine, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
    • These reports contain national measurement (rate) of child poverty as well as support the advocacy efforts of national poverty reduction plans to consider children. The reports also provide detailed and disaggregated analysis of data to strengthen UNICEF's equity-focused programming.
    • In Argentina, UNICEF, partnered with the National Bureau of Statistics, to publish a report on monetary poverty affecting children and adolescents in Argentina.
    • The improved methodology of the Argentina report highlighted that over 6 million children and adolescents (about 50% of the population of children) are living in poverty, this is higher than "previous estimates of 4 million."
    • In another context of Iraq, UNICEF closely collaborated with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). This collaboration produced the "first multidimensional child poverty measure" for east Mosul when it returned under government control.
    • According to UNICEF, every child "has the right to an education," as it can transform their lives. Education can break the generational cycles of poverty that has trapped so many.




    Part
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    Part
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    Social Capital - Organizations and/or Companies: Part Two

    Doctors Without Borders and Amenesty International are organizations that have social capital as a key outcome/core competency of their business.

    Amnesty International

    HOW SOCIAL CAPITAL IS BUILT
    • Amnesty International builds social capital by focusing on the human resources of underserved, underrepresented, ignored, and minority groups globally. Social capital, in this sense, are the neglected or falsely imprisoned individuals who can contribute to society as well as build up their country's social capital.
    KEY COMPONENT
    MEASURING SUCCESS

    Doctors Without Borders

    HOW SOCIAL CAPITAL IS BUILT
    KEY COMPONENT
    MEASURING SUCCESS

    Research Strategy:

    Our tactic was to build upon the type of organizations listed in the first part of the request. These organizations have social capital as a key outcome or core competency in the same ways as the World Bank and UNICEF.
    Sources
    Sources

    From Part 01
    Quotes
    • "Social capital is a capability that arises from the prevalence of trust in a society or in certain parts of it. It can be embodied in the smallest and most basic social group, the family, as well as the largest of all groups, the nation, and in all the other groups in between."
    • "As with social trust, social networks capital is linked to age, income and race/culture, but to a lesser degree. Once again, residents 55 and older (6.2) have the highest social network scores (and this holds for those living alone and/or in high-rise buildings), while those 25 to 29 have the lowest score among age cohorts (5.4). "
    • "Group membership or participation in specific types have changed somewhat since 2013 (based on the GSS), but not all in the same direction. Involvement in some groups has increased, such as political parties/groups, religious affiliated groups, and seniors groups, while declining for unions/professional associations and sports/recreational groups. "
    Quotes
    • "Social capital is about the value of social networks, bonding similar people and bridging between diverse people, with norms of reciprocity (Dekker and Uslaner 2001[11]; Uslaner 2001[12]). "
    From Part 03
    Quotes
    • "“Social capital” is a protean term, meaning different things to different people at different times. In general, it is seen as a measure of community strength, as well as a measure of prevailing norms and culture. Robert Putnam, the scholar who put social capital on the map, defines it thus in his essay Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital: “Features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit” (Putnam, 1995)."
    • "“The information, trust, and norms of reciprocity inhering in one’s social networks” (Woolcock, 1998)."
    • "“Naturally occurring social relationships among persons which promote or assist the acquisition of skills and traits valued in the marketplace” (Loury, 1992).[ii]"
    Quotes
    • "His work has consistently focused on exploring important social and political issues, including early research on international conflict resolution, best-selling research on social capital, and his most recent research on the changing role of religion in American life. "
    • "Putnam is the Peter and Isabel Malkin Professor of Public Policy at Harvard, and Visiting Professor and Director of the Manchester Graduate Summer Programme in Social Change, University of Manchester (UK). He is widely renowned as an expert on the topic of social capital[3] and has just published American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us, a much-anticipated new book on religious life in America."
    Quotes
    • "Michael Woolcock is Lead Social Scientist in the World Bank's Development Research Group, where he was worked since 1998. For twelve years he has also been a (part-time) Lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. His current research focuses on strategies for enhancing state capability for implementation, on crafting more effective interaction between informal and formal justice systems, and on using mixed methods to assess the effectiveness of "complex" development interventions. "
    • " In addition to more than 75 journal articles and book chapters, he is the co-author or co-editor of ten books, including Contesting Development: Participatory Projects and Local Conflict Dynamics in Indonesia (with Patrick Barron and Rachael Diprose; Yale University Press 2011), which was a co-recipient of the 2012 best book prize by the American Sociological Association's section on international development, and, most recently, Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action (with Matt Andrews and Lant Pritchett; Oxford University Press 2017). "