CBD Processing Equipment for Hemp

Part
01
of two
Part
01

CBD Processing Equipment: Frequently Asked Questions

Answers to questions CBD Processing Equipment: Frequently Asked Questions have been addressed in detail below. In general, machinery and its costs, shipping time and instructions regarding cleaning and maintenance depend heavily on the manufacturer and the production size of the facility.

3) DOES THIS MACHINE REQUIRE A LICENSE TO OPERATE IT

Explain if CBD extraction machines typically require an operation license and list, if any, examples of machines that do require an operation license.

  • Different states have different extraction laws, licensing processes, and regulations. According to manufacturers and industry guides, research is crucial to identifying a municipality that is likely to grant an operation license.
  • Licenses depend on the type of operation run and not on the type of machinery owned. More specifically, a business will need a different license if it is focused on growing hemp and another one if it's focused on extraction.

4) WHAT IS THE MACHINE YIELD

a. Explain why is it important to understand how much product comes out of a machine.

  • Extraction yield is the showcase of how much of the end product is obtained as a percentage of the hemp used in the extraction process. The higher the extraction yield, the better the utilization of hemp.

b. The buyer needs to consider how much hemp plant material they need to produce a specific quantity of CBD oil.

The amount of hemp plant material needed to produce a specific quantity of CBD oil differs based on the extraction method used. The yields for different extraction methods are as follows:

c. The buyer needs to understand how long it takes to process all hemp plant material.

Processing time for hemp material differs based on the extraction method used:

d. The buyer needs to understand machine yield to determine if he/she can scale hemp processing.

  • As explained above, the yields for different extraction methods depend on the method rather than the machine. The yields for each method are listed above.

5) WHAT IS THE SHIPPING COST AND TIME TO SHIP

a. Explain if there are any industry standards of free shipping or fast shipping or does it vary based on manufacturer.

b. List shipping cost ranges for ethanol extraction, CO2 extraction machines, Butane/Propane extraction machines, ice water extraction machines, and Water vapor extraction machines.

c. List shipping time ranges for ethanol extraction, CO2 extraction machines, Butane/Propane extraction machines, ice water extraction machines, and Water vapor extraction machines.

6) DOES THE MACHINE REQUIRE ASSEMBLY

a. Explain if it is common for machines to arrive fully assembled, partially assembled or in pieces.

  • Industrial machinery comes as a modular plug and is partially assembled. Most companies offer the service of assembly within their extraction machine package.

b. List examples of machines that come fully assembled, partially assembled or in pieces.

7) WHAT CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED FOR CBD EXTRACTION MACHINES

a. Explain if there is little cleaning or frequent cleaning required for ethanol extraction, CO2 extraction machines, Butane/Propane extraction machines, ice water extraction machines, and Water vapor extraction machines.

  • Cleaning is needed either between runs or on a weekly basis for all extraction machines. The frequency of cleaning depends on the production volume for each machine.
  • Machines come equipped with instructions for cleaning as part of the instruction manual, and the process usually involves cleaning the following parts: extraction and separator vessels, solvent supply tanks, lines and connections, temperature controllers/chillers, and compressor pumps.
  • Oil level and running oil pressure for the extractor should be checked and recorded each week.

b. List if any cleaning supplies come with machines.

  • We found no mention of any of the machines or manufacturers listed previously providing cleaning supplies with machines.

c. Explain if there is little maintenance or frequent maintenance required for ethanol extraction, CO2 extraction machines, Butane/Propane extraction machines, ice water extraction machines, and Water vapor extraction machines.

  • Generally, maintenance is recommended weekly for all machines.

d. List if maintenance can be performed by owner or does it need to be performed by a third party.

  • Most maintenance can be performed by owners. As part of the training provided by manufacturers that offer complex machines, maintenance procedures are taught by the manufacturer.

8) HOW LONG HAS THE COMPANY BEEN IN THE BUSINESS

Explain benefits of buying from a company that has been around for some time / explain drawbacks of buying from a newer company.

  • According to Precision Extraction, buying from an established company allows for the owner to be safe and not spend more money on further maintenance and potential issue fixing.
  • A typical cost of setting up an extraction facility is between $400,000 and $800,000 and due to such large set up costs, established companies can provide a better overall service, including training and assembly.

9) WHERE IS THE MANUFACTURER LOCATED

Explain why location is important (IE. It is easier to buy replacement parts or get support from US based manufacturer vs one that is overseas).

  • Location is important with regard to manufacturers of extraction machines based on the fact that international shipping can be expensive when it comes to heavy machinery and bulky parts.
  • Additionally, having a manufacturer that is US-based allows owners to contact them in case of emergencies or to provide additional professional services.
Part
02
of two
Part
02

CBD Processing Equipment: Should Ask Questions

Answers to the eleven questions titled "CBD Processing Equipment: Should Ask Questions" have been answered above. The most common extraction methods explained in detail below are ethanol extraction, CO2 extraction, butane/propane extraction, ice water extraction, and water vapor extraction.

WHICH PROCESS SHOULD I USE

a. Explain different CBD end products in bulleted list.

  • CBD extract is an "oily substance that ranges from a dark black paste to a honey color and consistency."
  • CBD isolate is a crystalline substance that "comes in either slab or white powder form and contains 99%+ potency of the single cannabinoid compound."
  • Cannabidiol is a substance used in beauty products, including moisturizing gels/creams/lotions, masks, serums, cleansers, toners, bath bombs, soaps, beard oil, shampoo/conditioner, and lip balm.
  • CBD capsules are a pill-form of CBD extract and work as a supplement.
  • CBD concentrates are "high potency extracts of the hemp plant which contain a high level of cannabidiol."
  • CBD oil is an "oil-carried form of CBD that is consumed sublingually by placing it under the tongue."
  • CBD vape oil is "the liquid content that is heated, turned to vapor, and inhaled when vaping."
  • Water-soluble hemp extract powder is a product which allows consumers to mix CBD into almost anything.

b. Explain what extraction methods are best for consumable or inhalable CBD products.

  • The three most common methods for consumable or inhalable CBD products are solvent extraction, olive oil extraction, and CO2 extraction.
  • Solvent extraction involves using ethanol, butane, propane, isopropyl, or alcohol to extract the CBD. It is considered to be one of the least expensive options as well as one of the fastest way of extraction.
  • Olive oil extraction is the oldest method of extracting CBD. The process entails "the raw plant materials being decarboxylated (heated) to the desired temperature for a specific amount of time so that the chemicals in the plant are activated."
  • CBD companies have recently started using the CO2 method of extracting CBD as it is the most advanced but also the most advised way of completing the extraction. It is a big investment and involves a complex procedure but allows for the creation of a potent, safe and chlorophyll-free extraction.

c. Explain what extraction methods are best for products like creams or other.

  • The combination of CO2 and solvent extraction is recommended for extracting waxes and oils that go into creams.

DOES THIS MACHINE REQUIRE EXPERTISE

Explain what expertise is required for each of these methods:

a. Ethanol extraction

  • Using ethanol extraction involves heating the hemp plant material to "achieve decarboxylation (or the removal of carbon atoms from a carbon chain) and then soaking that plant material in ethanol for a period of time."
  • As it can be done at home, there is no specific expertise required.

b. CO2 extraction

  • CO2 extraction requires specialized equipment in order to cool the CO2 below -69°F and under 75psi of pressure, which creates a supercritical state. After that, a chamber "containing the cannabis plant material is filled with this CO2 where trichomes and terpenes dissolve into the carbon dioxide — the CO2 then passes through a separator, and CBD oil is left behind."
  • There is no specific expertise required but specialist equipment is necessary.

c. Butane/Propane extraction

  • Butane/propane extraction is commonly known as solvent extraction and can involve using ethanol, butane, propane, isopropyl, or alcohol to extract the CBD. It is considered to be one of the least expensive options as well as one of the fastest way of extraction.
  • It can be done at home by adding the liquid to the plant. No expertise is necessary.

d. Ice water extraction

  • Ice water extraction "creates a powdery resin extract often referred to as hash. First, finely-chopped plant trimmings are mixed with either ice or dry ice."
  • Second, water is added to the mixture, which is then is strained through a mesh bag. Finally, excess water is drained and the extracts are left to dry.

e. Water vapor extraction

  • Water vapor extraction is done purely by a machine which vaporizes or combusts the raw hemp material. Heating elements first deliberately target vaporization points of hemp which results in different cannabinoid combinations that can be utilized when developing products.
  • Secondly, vapor is processed to "recapture the activated cannabis molecules, then passes to the solubilization unit, where it is dissolved into a liquid and stored for further processing."
  • This method requires a specialist machine but specific knowledge of how to handle the machine.

f. Describe how the above knowledge applies to machines for each extraction method. Do any machines perform certain scientific steps for you?

3) WHAT FILTRATION PROCESSES ARE REQUIRED TO FURTHER PURIFY CBD AFTER COMPLETING A RUN OF PROCESSING WITH A MACHINE?

a. Ethanol extraction

b. CO2 extraction

c. Butane/Propane extraction

  • Winterization is the "process to remove undesirable elements that were extracted from the plant, for example fats, waxes and lipids which is only needed when the oil was extracted at high pressure/high temperature (supercritical) because this intense extraction pulls everything from the plant, including material you don’t want in the final product." The extracted oil is known as crude oil, which needs filtration to become fine.

d. Ice water extraction

e. Water vapor extraction

4) WHAT IS THE FINAL PURITY OF THE CBD AFTER EXTRACTION.

a. Explain what level of purity comes from each extraction method.

  • Ethanol extraction: 99%
  • CO2 extraction: 98%
  • Butane/Propane extraction: 95%
  • Ice water extraction: 97%
  • Water vapor extraction: 97%

5) DOES THE MACHINE REQUIRE ADDITIONAL PARTS TO SCALE OR EXPAND OPERATION

List machines which require extra parts for the following extraction methods:

a. Ethanol extraction

b. CO2 extraction

  • Different systems are available for different-sized operations. A larger system is needed when scaling the operation.
  • Hi-Flo™ FX2 Series is a commercial Supercritical extractor that is able to processing as much as 107 lbs. biomass daily.

c. Butane/Propane extraction

d. Ice water extraction

e. Water vapor extraction

6) WHAT ARE THE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CBD EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT

Explain what types of safety precautions are required for machines in each extraction method. (for example facility site, monitoring equipment, alarms).

7) WHAT WARRANTIES, IF ANY, ARE INCLUDED WITH PURCHASE?

Explain if manufacturers make and equipment guarantees/ Explain if they offer a warranty free or at additional cost.

8) DOES THE MANUFACTURER OFFER TRAINING?

a. List extraction method that require equipment training.

b. List manufacturers that offer training with extraction machine purchase.

9) HOW MUCH MONITORING IS REQUIRED FOR A MACHINE WHILE IT'S RUNNING?

List machines for each extraction method (2-3) and if monitoring is required and explain monitoring options (for example individual person checking equipment or are there sensors included or available to install on equipment).

  • Ethanol extraction: After ethanol extraction, depending on products — there is sometimes a need for added purification. Personnel would need to check equipment and transfer the product to another machine.
  • Machines used for ethanol extraction are X10 MSE (multi solvent extractor) and PX1 Hydrocarbon Extractor.
  • CO2 extraction: XMOD MSE is a machine which requires no supervision as it allows for a "non-stop extraction operation".
  • Butane/Propane extraction: PX1 Hydrocarbon and PX2 Hydrocarbon are examples of machines that deal with butane/propane extraction. These machines need supervision but not constant monitoring.
  • Ice water extraction: Eden Labs recommend hosting the water extractions in their lab due to the need of constant supervision.
  • Water vapor extraction: Eden Labs recommend hosting the water extractions in their lab due to the need of constant supervision.

10) DOES MACHINE CONSTANTLY NEED TO BE FED HEMP

a. Explain the difference between manual, semi-automatic and automatic machines as it relates to each extraction method.

  • Manual, semi-automatic, and automatic machines are all mainly based on whether the final extraction process ends up being manual or not.
  • According to manufacturers and different industry guides, each extraction method offers all three types of machines which depend on the scale of operation. For small operations, manual machines are recommended and those will involve a completely manual extraction process.
  • Semi-automatic machines involve the use of manual valves and the need to load and unload the machine more often.
  • Automatic machines do everything on their own, including extraction and loading the material.

b. Explain how much hemp a machine can process per run.

  • Machines can process up to 100lbs of hemp daily. However, the most efficient extraction which is able to achieve such speed is the CO2 extraction.

11) DO YOU NEED TO WORRY ABOUT SOLVENT DISPOSAL?

a. Explain which extraction methods use solvents.

b. Explain disposal options.

  • As CO2 and water are natural solvents, they do not require disposal but only require recycling for future uses.
  • Solvents used in the solid extraction process such as butane, propane, hexane, isopropyl alcohol and ethanol can also be recycled and re-used. A machine which offers such a feature is the Maratek's Solvent Saver Batch (SSB) solvent recycling & recovery equipment.

c. Explain if there is a cost of disposal.

Sources
Sources

From Part 01
From Part 02