Industry evolution

of six

Airports - Evolving the Movement Of People, Equipment, And Products

Evolutions in the equipment moving sector involve technologically advanced asphalt on runways and taxiways alongside specialized electronic tracking of equipment using IoT.

Evolving to deal with the logistics of moving people

  • Companies like SITA and Vision-Box are using biometrics to track passengers from the parking lot at their arrival destination through the airport and to the parking lot or exit of their destination airport.
  • The cost of installation of biometrics is not expensive as it uses existing infrastructure.
  • Additionally, automated baggage handlers can move bags from entry, through screening and to its correct output location
  • However, privacy concerns raised by biometric use are likely to continue in airports.

Evolving to deal with the Logistics of moving equipment

  • Moreover, equipment inefficiencies cause 70% of all Flight Delays at airports.
  • The engineering properties of bitumen are profoundly influencing the high bitumen content results in the deformation resistance of Marshall-designed asphalt as the critical element of the bituminous mastic that glues the coarse aggregate particles together.
  • Honeywell GoDirect Ground Handling improved Swissport through 13% reduction in repair and maintenance costs, and gave a better understanding of driver behaviors and identification of the most commonly driven pathways at airports.

Evolving to deal with the Logistics of moving Products

  • As the southernmost international airport in the contiguous US, MIA handles more Latin American freight than any other airport: 83% of all air imports and 79% of all US air exports to the region.
  • JFK moved 1,350,599 metric tons of cargo in 2017.
  • About 10% of all shipments were stopped at the airport due to errors in Frankfurt's paper systems.

What outcomes are these airports trying to produce?

Research Strategy

We looked into news sources, the websites of industry players, and airport statistics and solutions for various information about the topic. We came along numerous articles that discussed people movement, equipment moving, and products during our search. We then used the information we found from these reliable sources in our research brief.

of six

Airports - Evolving Environmental Impacts

Airports are evolving to deal with environmental impacts by using recycled materials, building green airports, and using energy-efficient ways to ensure carbon neutrality. As a result, 44 airports shave have already achieved carbon neutrality and 200 more are working towards achieving that by 2030-2040.

Boston Logan International Airport, US

  • Boston Logan International airport Terminal A roofing and pavement are designed to reflect heat from the building.
  • It also features a low-flow bathroom fixtures designed to save water.
  • Wind turbines have also been installed. They have been reported to generate around 3% of the energy required by the facility.

Galápagos Ecological Airport, Galápagos Islands

  • Galápagos Islands built the world’s first fully functional ‘green’ airport.
  • 65% of the total required energy comes from wind turbines and 35% is generated by photo voltaic panels.
  • About 80% of the airport infrastructure is built from recycled materials.
  • Seawater is purified at the airport's desalination plant for use in the terminal.
  • Oslo Airport, Norway

Singapore Changi Airport, Singapore

Delhi Indira Gandhi Airport, India

  • The government of India has demonstrated positive support of environmental initiatives at the airport.
  • One of the airport’s terminals has a well-lit departure lounges and it also boosts the use of energy-efficient LCD screens.
  • They make use of rainwater harvested at the airport and have storm drains. (Source 1)

Dubai Airports

  • Dubai Airports has made a pledge to completely ban the use of single-use plastics at the airport by 2020.
  • The airport recycles more than 43,000 tonnes of paper, glass and other waste.
  • They decided to stop the use of 150,000 straws at the airport.


of six

Airports - Evolving Physical And Information Security

Airports are evolving to deal with physical and information security by introducing facial recognition for security checks, remote security screening, blast resilient terminal buildings, having central information security hubs, and refining AI technology at airports. The outcomes these airports are trying to produce include reduced vulnerabilities such as queues and crowds, reducing boarding time, reduced cyber security threats at airports, and predicting future cyber security threats.


  • Airports have mechanisms in place to ensure that when people drive into the airport area their vehicles are slowed down and are unable to park too close to the terminal building. Terminal buildings now also have different types of blast resilience protection.
  • Insider risk from compromised employees is a security concern and is being addressed by the introduction of pre-employment screening, vetting and ongoing security management of employees. Training programs for management and supervisors ensure they are equipped with skills to identify, manage and resolve insider threats.
  • Biometric technology is being used for security screening and facial recognition at airport security centers. 15 US airports are currently testing the biometric screening technology.
  • British Airways says that by using biometric boarding gates in Los Angeles it can get 400 passengers onto a plane in 22 minutes, which is half of the usual time.
  • Fingerprinting, facial recognition, and retinal scans are expected to become increasingly implemented for security purposes at airports.
  • Dubai airport is adopting biometric technology such as a new "automated form of passport control in which people’s identity will be checked as they walk through a sort of virtual aquarium that has cameras disguised as fish".
  • 77% of airports are reported to be planning major additions in biometric ID management over the next five years. Facial recognition is a mainstay since it's already in use at some major airports like the Hartsfield-Jackson Airport in the US.
  • Remote security screening is also gaining ground with airports such as Ljubljana Airport in Slovenia. They recently started trialing biometric boarding in partnership with Amadeus, where passengers enroll by taking a selfie on the Amadeus smartphone app. The photo goes alongside their passport photo on a remote server and another photo at the gate, which will be verified with those in the remote server before boarding.


of six

Petrochemical/Refining industry - Evolving the Movement Of Equipment And Products

After an exhaustive search through credible reports, we were unable to determine how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with the logistics of movement of equipment and products, as well as what outcomes those petrochemical/refining companies at the forefront of the evolution are trying to produce. It is possible that the requested information is unavailable in the public domain.


Research Strategy:

Our research began by scouring for existing industry reports from Mckinsey, We Forum, Science Direct, Logistics Viewpoints, and PwC, among others. We wanted to identify the trends, evolution, and research conducted to overcome challenges and ways to deal with them, but no such information was present regarding the logistics of movement of equipment and products. All the data we came across concentrated on shifting patterns and the future of the chemical logistics industry, the environment, and climate change. Afterward, we searched for scholarly reports published by sources such as HBR, and Wharton. However, the publications were focused on the end of oil's boom-and-bust cycle and the supply chain.

We also searched through government/energy agencies like the International Energy Agency (IEA), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the World Petroleum Council to identify the missing information. Nevertheless, the reports mainly concentrated on the following:
  • The movements of crude oil and selected products by rail, east coast, and gulf coast transportation fuels markets
  • The effects of removing restrictions on U.S. crude oil exports
  • What impacts the price of crude oil
  • The Rocky Mountain and Midwestern transportation fuels markets
  • Transportation fuels from the West coast
We wanted to observe if any agency reported on new trends, evolution, and game-changing schemes that are currently being implemented or will be implemented in the future regarding the logistics of movement of equipment and products. However, this strategy also failed to yield the desired results.

Next, we tried to find the requested information by searching for alternative data points to triangulate an answer through calculation. To do this, we examined petrochemical/refining companies such as Saudi Aramco, Shell, ExxonMobil, and the Shell Strategic Report, among others, along with their investor presentations, annual reports, and news/press releases, to see if they shared any relevant information. However, the articles and press releases concentrated on climate change according to what transportation will resemble in 2040, as well as liquidity and capital resources, environment and society, and climate change and energy transition.

We then attempted to broaden the scope of our research and reviewed the petrochemical supply chain and logistics conferences to find the requested information. We examined sources such as Oil and Gas Drill, the Allan Lloyds Conference, and CHEMLOG India 2019. Our goal was to see if any speaker, company sponsor, or exhibitor presented concepts on the evolution in the logistics of movement of equipment and products. Nonetheless, this strategy did not yield the results we were. The data available focused on a forecast for the global downstream industry, the impacts of tariff and trade deals, the value of E2E supply chain visibility, challenges and opportunities for the supply chain, the petrochemical supply chain in the United States, new technologies and industry developments that will influence the sector. Also, we tried finding the information by searching for sources older than 24 months to check if they presented any relevant information, but no such data was available.

Due to the absence of relevant data, we were unable to provide details on how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with the logistics of the movement of equipment and products. As a result, we also could not present information on what outcomes the petrochemical/refining companies at the forefront of the evolution are trying to produce. A probable reason is that most of the data we came across concerned climate change. It could also be due to the focus on the chemical industry rather than the petrochemical/refining industry. Another probable reason is the lack of brand-new progression within the petrochemical/refining industry regarding evolution in the logistics of movement of equipment and products and the focus on climate change and distribution.

of six

Petrochemical/refining industry - Evolving Environmental Impacts

The research team could non find useful insights into how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with environmental impacts and the outcomes that these companies at the forefront of this evolution are trying to produce. Research on the Department of Energy website of the United States government reveals that progress is needed to achieve a scalable, affordable, and sustainable production of aviation biofuels to enhance its environmental and sustainability benefits.



  • Recently, over 100 bio-energy industry stakeholders held an Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop in Macon, Georgia. Participants from the public and private-sector organizations included national laboratories and academic institutions working to promote bio-refinery technologies.
  • In 2014, Petrixo Oil & Gas declared its intention to invest $800 million in a bio-fuel refinery for the production of cleaner aviation fuel and other bio-products at the capacity of about one million tons per year.
  • In 2017, a Rocky Mountain Institute report admonished the Port of Seattle (the Port), known to be the operator of the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac), to leverage its unique position as a link between "airlines, fuel suppliers, governments, and communities" to promote the scaling-up of SAF. The report further admonished the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) to strive to be the first airport in the world that would advance climate solutions for aircraft through the reliable supply of low-carbon passengers and airline fuel.
  • As of 2014, aviation leaders revealed that government and major oil companies had not done enough to develop alternative aviation fuels and called on them to up their efforts.
  • As of 2019, Chevron Lummus Global (CLG), a venture jointly owned by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. and McDermott, claimed to be leading a process technology licensor for the production of alternative source fuels.
  • In 2019, the British Petroleum (BP) and Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) announced a three-year commitment to strategically advance technologies and practices aimed at reducing methane emissions from the "global oil and gas supply chain."
  • The commercialization proposal of Chevron Lummus Global, the Applied Research Associates, and Blue Sun Energy for the manufacture of alternative aviation fuels (AAFs) is contained in the "working paper."
  • The commercialization proposals of Shell, Syntroleum, Amyris, Total, among others, for the manufacture of alternative aviation fuels (AAFs), approved as annexes to ASTM D7566 are contained in the "working paper."
  • A review of the top oil and gas companies based on production, refining, marketing, and distribution capacity reveals that Shell, Total, BP, among others, are some top petrochemical refining companies in the world.


  • Chevron has revealed its commitment to protecting air quality through the management of emissions from its operations. The air emissions Corporate Core Environmental Aspect of Chevron involves monitoring criteria pollutants such as "oxides of nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and particulate matter (PM)," volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and numerous hazardous air pollutants. However, the definition of air emissions of Chevron does not cover greenhouse gases (GHGs) or methane.
  • Insights obtained from a 2019 Chevron website reveals that Chevron is a significant operator in the petrochemical/refining industry.
  • In 2018, Chevron claimed to be one of the largest producers of hydrocarbon. Chevron’s four refineries located in the United States have a combined capacity of refining 932,000 barrels of oil per day, and its products are sold in over 7,800 Chevron and Texaco retail outlets in the United States.


  • Chevron continues to collect data on its air emission, which enables it to make informed business decisions aimed at protecting air quality.


  • In Singapore, a refinery in which Chevron holds 50% interest implemented a capital intensive project in 2017 to reduce SOx emissions. The $500 million project retrofitted existing furnaces to utilize/burn cleaner fuel in support of the Singapore government’s goals for a cleaner environment and a dynamic energy industry.
  • The partly owned Chevron refinery is now producing and supplying higher-quality, cleaner-burning fuel to markets in Singapore as well as Malaysia.


  • The ASTM committee currently managing the D7566 approval process intends to review the production of jet/aviation fuel from alcohols and isobutanol (production from isobutanol is already approved as ATJ-SPK)
  • Shell, Total, BP, Chevron, among others, are contributors to the ASTM committee efforts for the manufacture of alternative aviation fuels (AAFs).
  • According to the International Civil Aviation Organization working book, Shell, Total, BP, Chevron, among others, propose to commercialize the production of alternative aviation fuels (AAFs).
  • Dubai-based Petrixo Oil & Gas has plans to become a leader in the production of bio-fuel (cleaner burning fuels) in the Middle East.


Detailed research on the energy industry reports, refining company websites such as Shell, Chevron, and African Petrochemicals, among other resources for helpful insights into how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with environmental impacts failed to unearth any useful findings. Also, a look at what outcomes these companies at the forefront of the evolution are trying to produce failed to uncover any helpful insights. Information obtained from a Chevron web revealed that Chevron commits to protecting air quality. There were no insights uncovered regarding the environmental impacts petrochemical/refining industry are evolving to deal with nor outcomes petrochemical/refining companies are trying to produce.

Research on professional association/trade websites such as a Green Air Online, and a Danish Eco Council web for insights into airport pollution revealed failed to uncover helpful insights into how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with environmental impacts around airports. We embarked on a triangulation attempt by researching the risks associated with the use of petrochemicals at the airports and efforts to curtail the risk of using petrochemicals in public places. Insights obtained from the Danish Eco Council web publication revealed that people working near the exhaust of aircraft engines, auxiliary power units and diesel engines (vehicles, handling, loading equipment, among others.) in airports are frequently exposed to complex mixtures of potential health-damaging air pollutants but did not reveal any evolution petrochemical companies are trying to produce. We reviewed sources older than the 24-month usual credibility range due to the limited availability of information to the public regarding the topic. Further insights obtained from the Green Air Online web publication revealed that in 2014, aviation leaders called for major oil companies to develop alternative aviation fuels to reduce pollution around the airports. A 2014 Advanced Bio-fuels USA web article also revealed that in 2014, Petrixo Oil & Gas declared its intention to invest $800 million in a bio-fuel refinery for the production of cleaner aviation fuel, we assumed this to be one of the impacts petrochemical companies at the forefront of this evolution are trying to produce (cleaner aviation fuel).

We also researched through academic publications such as Science Direct web publication and a University of Birmingham research on airport pollution but failed to uncover how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with environmental impacts, and what outcomes the petrochemical/refining companies at the forefront of these evolutions are trying to produce. For another triangulation attempt, we researched through scientific articles such as a credible Science Direct web among other resources for insights into significantly known petrochemical companies and how individual petrochemical companies in the industry are evolving to deal with current environmental impacts (to use the data to generalize for the industry). Insights obtained by researching through a Science direct web report revealed that the major oil and gas companies of the world are also large petrochemical producers and are known to be at the leading edge of several technological developments across the industry. We assumed that since most oil and gas companies are also petrochemical/refining companies, their efforts in dealing with environmental impacts across the airports as well as the outcomes they are trying to produce are similar or same to those of the petrochemical/refining industry. We researched for insights relevant to the oil and gas industry as reported above in a triangulation attempt due to limited availability of precompiled insights pertinent to the petrochemical/refining industry.

Detailed researched through "working papers," conference reports, among others, such as the working paper/conference report of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for insights into how the petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with environmental impacts. Insights obtained from the white paper revealed that several companies in the petrochemical industry such as Chevron, Shell, Syntroleum, Amyris, Total, among others, are researching and developing methods of manufacturing of alternative aviation fuels (AAFs) to for cleaner combustion and use in airplanes. Further insights revealed that Shell, Total, BP, Chevron, among others, propose to commercialize the production of alternative aviation fuels (AAFs) and we assumed this to be an impact the companies in the petrochemical industry intend to achieve from the manufacture of AAFs.
of six

Petrochemical/refining industry - Evolving Physical And Information Security

The Petrochemical/refining industry is evolving to deal with physical and information security by: 1. Digitization and Convergence of Information Technology and Operational Technology 2. Complex Multi-faceted supply chain. 3. Positive secure people and culture 4. Securing Information Sharing 5. Creating a Well-defined policy on Cloud services
This evolution tries to produce a more proactive, holistic, risk-based, and well-practiced approach that systematically and rigorously assesses the risks and mitigates them across the industry as well as throughout the supply chain. It aims to protect information from reputational damage, business interruption, regulatory enforcement action, and years of costly litigation especially if the effects cause environmental impact and loss of life. The evolution of cyber threats and exploitation of data vulnerability continues to advance at a rapid and increasing pace. Cyber security threats encompass everything from endpoint security to network and perimeter security, security within the data centers, advanced threat protection, identity and access management, application security, security intelligence, and the monitoring of operational technology (OT), Internet of Things (IoT), SCADA and industrial security. "The apparent objective of state-sponsored threat actors is to destabilize economies, undermine trust and disrupt critical infrastructure." Cyber security does not start and end with technology, however. “Effective Identity and access management is 70% people, process and politics and only 30% technology”

1. Digitization and Convergence of IT and OT:

  • Many in the industry perceived cyber security as an “IT” issue that needs to be dealt by IT staff working for the CIO, handled by a combination of passwords and firewalls for the reason that large corporations now recognize that having robust perimeter security is the key to an effective security strategy, as controlling only the end-points of their network is no longer a viable solution.
  • The use of portable devices for remote access to critical systems must be carefully managed. Data must be mapped and tracked from cradle to grave, redundancy and segmentation for security and data integrity must have a place alongside efficiency and cost control.
  • The legal team is also critical in managing breach events by working closely with the Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) and forensics to ensure a successful investigations advantage by monitoring internal communications and reviewing notification requirements to third parties.
  • It is important to "develop comprehensive risk-based “defensein-depth” approaches to cybersecurity similar to industry’s approach to managing the other enterprise risks: robust governance, systematic risk-based management, and multi-dimensional programs based on best-in-class standards and proven frameworks."

2. Complex Multi-faceted supply chain

  • Having clear, risk-based access protocols for all vendors applying least-privilege principles and comprehensive vendor due-diligence should be undertaken prior to contract, during on-boarding and assessments, or at regular intervals throughout the contract to create an efficient communications and ensure that equipment and materials are available and that products are delivered to the right customers.

3. People and Culture

  • A positive security culture is encouraged.
  • Senior leadership needs to set an example in terms of security because they represent the biggest risk to an organization. They travel frequently and may have business-critical or market-sensitive data such as financial results, plans for a new production facility, outlines of mergers or acquisitions, or a new joint venture.
  • Vendors and contractors need to be restricted and monitored to ensure that sensitive data is not at risk of exploitation outside the organization.
  • To enable a more effective support to the industry, an effective deployment of hyper-scale cloud-hosted applications should shift the compliance burden away from in-house IT people.
  • Health and safety practices, transport and delivery compliance, hazardous material handling, and employee access rights must be factored in the security strategy.

4. Secured Information Sharing

  • Lowering the anti-trust and privacy barriers to facilitate information sharing between the private sector and central governments will increase the overall security.
  • Building trust and breaking down information barriers between market participants is key to addressing the shared threat of cyber attacks over the coming years.

5. Security in the cloud

  • In every occasion, the petrochemical industry needs to have a well-defined legal policy on cloud services.
  • Oil and gas companies need to engage early with cloud vendors to ensure that their policies match the reality of the market.
  • One of the best approaches for ensuring secure data transfer between plants, edge solutions, and the cloud environment is the utilization of established standards such as the Industry 4.0-endorsed OPC UA. IoT and edge device remote management and control also plays a key role in ensuring system integrity and business continuity.


From Part 01
  • "You’ll move through customs and immigration formalities in a matter of minutes—not hours—via the same facial scanning procedures."
  • " British Airways claims it can board a full plane of 400 passengers in 22 minutes using the biometric boarding gates it’s testing at LAX, about half the time it takes under the regular boarding process."
  • "SITA has been helping airports around the world explore and adopt biometric technology and has developed a Smart-Path Solution which supports continuous biometric identity from the curb to gate, and back again through border clearance."
  • "Vision-Box is also making advancements in biometric ID journey systems at airports around the world and has developed a Seamless Gateway contactless biometric gateway that tracks passengers on the move by recognizing their gait."
  • "Palm vein biometrics deployed to 14 Korean airports"
  • "Facial recognition-powered customer service kiosks reach Chinese airports"
  • "SelfPass trials at Bristol and Dublin airports"
  • "Trials of new biometric systems are launching and continuing at several airports around the world, as airports and airlines seek to increase automation to speed up identification processes."
  • "GPS tags affixed to the equipment function as sensors to create a thread of digital information about the location of a specific piece of the equipment. A network of radios communicates that information back to a central server. The server aggregates the location of one cart with the location, type, and maintenance schedule for all of the other carts."
  • "Inseego’s asset tracking business was traditionally focused on the automotive industry, but the company is broadening its scope and looking to leverage its expertise to new markets. Airports represent the first new market they focus on; a logical choice, according to Mr. Brown, as airports have some very expensive assets that need to be tracked and monitored. In addition to vehicles, however, airports also have non-motorized assets. Rather than duplicate the Ctrack model, Inseego concluded it made more sense to team up with Undagrid, who specialize in solutions for non-motorized assets, which perfectly complement Inseego’s offering."
  • "heir most high-profile joint deployment to date is that at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AMS). With over 58 million passengers per annum, AMS is the fifth busiest airport in Europe."
  • "The partnership has also won additional projects in Germany, Hong Kong and Scandinavia"
  • "he researcher's definition of an airport asset tracking solution covers systems based on various technologies including conventional cellular-based IoT connectivity and emerging low-power wide-area (LPWA) wireless technology as well as proprietary radio, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth."
  • "By applying advanced software, greater positive changes can be achieved."
From Part 05
  • "BP and Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) announced today a three-year strategic commitment to advance technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from the global oil and gas supply chain."
  • "Joint effort focuses on developing technologies and management practices to accelerate reductions of methane emissions across the global oil and gas industry"
  • "The major oil and gas companies are also large petrochemicals producers and have been at the leading edge of many technological developments in the industry."
From Part 06
  • "For over 30 years, the international oil and gas industry has been targeted by cyber attacks — and the attacks are only getting more frequent, more sophisticated, and more aggressive. The world has become increasingly reliant on technology, attackers have become more capable, and geopolitical tensions have risen."
  • "Natural gas pipeline companies account for and manage cybersecurity to protect the use of automated digital controls, or industrial control systems (ICS). ICS are not unique or new to pipelines; they are prevalent across the entire energy landscape, including at coal and nuclear power generation facilities."
  • "Following open standards and industry best practices, applying proven security solutions (e.g., proper encryption, strict access and identity management, defense in depth) and identifying the critical role of security as a process in connected systems, increase an organization’s chances of survival in the era of interconnected systems."
  • "Security, both physical and cyber security, is a top priority for any organization, especially in light of the year-on-year rise in cyber-crime. However, for certain industries, not having the proper security measures in place can put more than just the company’s reputation on the line. The Oil, Gas, and Energy industries are prime examples of such verticals. There is high adoption of ICT and automation in the Energy, Oil and Gas industry, which has made their processes faster & leaner. However, it has also made them more susceptible to Cyber lead attack on the Physical and Industrial asset."
  • "The downstream industry across the region is increasingly adopting IIoT technologies to improve performance, availability, reliability, safety, and security. This is achieved by leveraging connected assets, advanced data analytics and secured cloud-based data, and drives higher productivity and lower costs at oil refineries and petrochemical plants."