Indian Prime Minister Modi Campaign Themes and Products

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Narendra Modi 2014 Campaign Themes

Three main themes of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign are development, corruption, and employment and entrepreneurship. The groups that were targeted for the different themes include the youth, the neo-middle class and rural inhabitants.


  • Narendra Modi capitalized on his image as someone who had brought about a lot of development in Gujarat at a time when the rest of India was experiencing stagnant economic growth, bureaucratic inaction and corruption scandals.
  • Under the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Narendra promised to improve rural and urban infrastructure, build 100 new cities and focus on modernization and sanitation. He would employ some strategies from his Gujarat model including the 'growth experiment' which was successful and "won accolades from both local and global investors."
  • The "neo-middle class" was one of the specific demographics that this theme was attempting to target. The neo-middle class, a demographic dubbed by Narendra Modi, are those who live in rapidly urbanizing areas, "are no longer poor but not yet firmly in the middle class", and are looking for more opportunity and prosperity but are held back by the country's lagging development. Narendra Modi would cater to this group through tax cuts, lower import duties and better urban infrastructure.
  • In addition, this theme was attempting to target rural inhabitants through Narendra Modi's ‘rurban’ vision which would equip rural areas with urban style amenities. He also promised to increase the penetration and usage of broadband, ensure financial inclusion and to generate IT-based jobs in rural areas.


Employment and entrepreneurship

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Narendra Modi 2019 Campaign Themes

The three main themes of Narendra Modi's 2019 election campaign identified are "Improved Economy Again", "National Security", and "Hindutva And Ram Mandir Construction".


Improved Economy Again

  • The party mentioned that the Modi government had consistently reduced their taxes, something that has never happened earlier.
  • The party also focused that like in 2014 they will continue prioritizing low inflation while expanding the tax base, reducing taxes on the middle class and spending money on welfare measures and exercises like "One Rank One Pension".
  • Modi government this time adopted a more inclusive tone, highlighting the notion that their re-election is to continue the country’s economic development and improve the lives of all 1.3 billion Indians.
  • The government also offered more seats in schools to young people but left out any plan for finding employment for the unemployed segment or reaching the segment.
  • The 2019 campaign also highlighted the goal of doubling the size of India’s economy to $5 trillion by 2024.
  • Modi government came to power in 2014 and had promised “Sabka Vikas,” or economic growth for all at the time as well and they campaigned over it again in 2019.
Target Demographic Group
  • Renowned party leader Arun Jaitley mentioned that the focus of the agenda was the poor, the middle class and the neo-middle class.
  • The party also highlighted that the opposition is not focused on the emerging middle class.
How The Theme Was Attempting To Target This Demographic Group
  • Poor women mostly voted for the Modi government, as the government “pledged priority access to 20 million new homes that it planned to build over the next three years.”
  • According to Marshall Bouton, “Younger India has aspirations for a stronger India and a stronger person representing India, and they’re willing to give Modi a second chance.”

National Security

  • Prime Minister Modi made national security a central theme in his election campaign, which was aided in this endeavor by a major terrorist attack in Kashmir in February 2019 for which a Pakistan-based terrorist outfit claimed responsibility.
  • The government officials, including Narendra Modi, cast themselves as “watchmen” against terrorists and neighboring nations like Pakistan.
  • Modi assumed a different avatar and days after the airstrikes by the Indian Air Force in Pakistan, he and his supporters rebranded themselves as chowkidars or ‘watchmen’ and mentioned that will diligently work as a watchman to protect the country.
  • A social media campaign also followed this suit which showed Prime Minister Modi repeating the slogan Main Bhi Chowkidar ‘I am a watchman’.
  • Working further on the campaign, the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, BJP president Amit Shah, and ministers prefixed ‘Chowkidar’ before their names on Twitter.
  • A BJP functionary described the campaign as “highly successful and the single-biggest Twitter campaign done by a political party or company.”
Target Demographic Group
  • The party promoted the idea that every Indian citizen is a watchman.
  • The party officials stated the Main Bhi Chowkidar campaign is a similar strategy to 2014 Manishankar Aiyar’s ‘Chaiwalla’ jibe into a mass campaign.
How The Theme Was Attempting To Target This Demographic Group
  • The party saw 9 k. tweets globally with the new hashtag of Main Bhi Chowkidar.
  • The party promoted national security and its campaign through a video that was shared 1.5 million times on Twitter alone.
  • The party also gained on the ideology of a common man’s patriotism, the party cleverly associated if you are with Modi, you are with India and if you are not with Modi, you are anti-India.

Hindutva And Ram Mandir Construction

  • The focus in its second term was also to pass a Hindu nationalist agenda, including abandoning India’s official secularism and making Hinduism, the guiding ideology of the government.
  • The Modi campaign also promoted the equation of Hindu nationalism with Indian nationalism and is taken for granted by large sections of the Indian population.
  • The campaign was ingeniously carved out as of the identity, which has manifested itself as Hindutva, a nationalistic term used to convey a sense of Hindu identity.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi for his second term made the construction of a Ram Mandir one of its key campaign promises.
  • Ram Mandir in Ayodhya is a key focus for Hindus, as Hindu god, Lord Ram was born there, which is being profited by the emotional agenda of the Modi campaign.
  • Amit Shah, party president also clarified that Ram Mandir Ayodhya was on top of their Agenda.
  • Modi had initially promised that construction would begin in his first term, but it didn’t happen as the Indian Supreme Court controls the property.
  • It is seen as a similar action to the U.S. President Trump’s campaign promise to build a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border.
Target Demographic Group
  • Hinduism religion is practiced by about 80% of the Indian population.
How The Theme Was Attempting To Target This Demographic Group
  • 69% of people are in favor of the campaign and want that a Ram temple should be constructed at the disputed site in Ayodhya.
  • 67% of the respondents said they “want the Modi government to bring in an ordinance to facilitate the construction of a Ram temple in Ayodhya at the spot where the Babri Masjid once stood.”

Your Research Team Applied The Following Strategy

To identify 3 main themes of Narendra Modi's 2019 election campaign, we scoured through media publications/news articles from NYTimes, Wharton, economic times, India today, the Hindu among others to gain insights on what the party agenda was and how the party planned their campaign themes. We have identified the 3 themes as the "main" ones as these were stated by the party officials, Narendra Modi himself and BJP/party functionary during the election campaigns. We then dug deep into the target demographics and how we determined that this is the group the theme was attempting to target, we focused on the campaign details or theme details to gain knowledge on the target demographics and how we determined was based on the surveys/responses by the citizens on the campaign.
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Narendra Modi 2014 Campaign Messages

'Acche Din Aane Wale Hai,' 'Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas,' and 'Shasak Nahi Sevak' are among the main messages of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign. Below is an overview of the findings as well as analyses to determine the demographic group each message was attempting to target.

Acche Din Aane Wale Hai

  • Modi's slogan translated to "good days are coming" was among Modi's most successful campaign slogans in the 2014 elections.
  • According to India Today, the slogan resonated with the first time voters and the entire young generation due to their desire for a new India with better and new prospects.
  • Similar to India Today's opinion, the Indian youth would have been the target of the message since they were the most aspirational voter category in India at the time, and they were the most vocal in the call for change. According to the Guardian, the Indian youth, which made up 65% of the population, were the most optimistic group at the time with a desire for "better employment opportunities, the containment of price rises, and corruption."

Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas

  • Translated to "solidarity with everyone, development for all," this was Modi's promise for more inclusively in India. The message was a promise from Modi and BJP "to take everyone along to the way of development and prosperity."
  • According to Business Standard, Modi's past was marred with his renowned "adherence to aggressive Hindu nationalism" as he once referred to the victims of the Gujarat pogrom inter-communal violence as 'puppies' and propagated the superiority of the majority Hindu community.
  • Based on this message's call for inclusively, it was intended for the economically and socially marginalized religious minorities, especially in Wayanad and Gujarat who were the most affected by past minority-majority clashes.
  • This would be a message to woo the minority Muslim communities by promising them a place in Modi's government, who is a Hindu nationalist. This was especially important at the time since violence between Hindu and Muslim communities had risen by 30% in from 2012 to 2014.

Fight Poverty, not Each Other

  • According to Narendra Modi's official website and the Times of India, Modi used the catchphrase "fight poverty, not each other" severally in his 2014 campaign.
  • On one occasion, Modi said, "Hindu poor should be fighting the poverty in their community instead of Muslims just as the poor among Muslims should be fighting their poverty rather than Hindus."
  • On another, Modi said, "A poor Hindu and a poor Muslim must ask themselves- do they want to fight each other or do they want to fight poverty."
  • Based on the aforementioned sentiments, this message was targeting the poor among both the majority Hindu and minority Muslim communities. The appeal for Hindu-Muslim unity was Modi's attempt at living down his reputation as a divisive leader.

Shasak Nahi Sevak

  • Translated to "servant not ruler," Modi used this slogan to affirm that Indian voters had been choosing rulers instead of servants for many years and that it was high time they chose servants.
  • He referred to himself as "desh ka mazdoor no 1" (number one country worker) when he used the slogan in order to identify with the working population. On one occasion, he highlighted the plight of muttar (peas) farmers who were committing suicide because of poverty blamed on lack of government support.
  • By lowering his stature and equating himself to the ordinary Indian worker, Modi was trying to identify with the poor working Indian population by reminding them of his former life as a "chaiwala (tea seller)." This message was, therefore, intended for the poor working population including farmers who were not benefiting from their hard labor.

Northeast is India's Ashtalakshmi

  • Ashtalakshmi could be loosely translated as wealth or prosperity.
  • Modi used this message to affirm that India can only prosper if the Northeast region is prosperous.
  • On one occasion, Modi said, "India can develop only when Northeast develops."
  • On another occasion, Modi pointed out that the Northeastern region had been suffering because it lacked infrastructure, and the region's people felt marginalized as a result.
  • Unlike the aforementioned messages, this one was only targeted at the communities of Northeast India the Manipur community.
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Narendra Modi 2019 Campaign Messages

The main messages of Narendra Modi's 2019 election campaign include : New India Sabka Sath,Sabka Vikas National Security Cleanliness 'Ajay Bharat, Atal BJP'.


  • With a promise of "New India" Narendra Modi launched his party's general election, and in his message, he shared the vision of a new India that will be in tune with its glorious past of economic growth and prosperous society.
  • With the message of "New India", Narendra Modi intended to target the eligible voters of India, which comprise of individual who is a citizen of India and is of 18 years of age and above.
  • This is a target group as it has been indicated by credible news article sharing the coverage of the "promise of 'new India'" by Narendra highlighted his main message used during the 2019 general election campaign (for the position of the prime minister of India).
  • The article also shares the verbatim of the speech by Modi, which indicates the target demographic group as it says," Our vision is of a new India that will be in tune with its glorious past ... India's 1.3 billion people have already made up their minds. Once again, a Modi government is going to be formed in this country," he told the crowd.


  • During the election campaign for general elections in 2019,Narendra Modi addressed various rallies and emphasized the vision of "Sabka Saath - Sabka Vikas" and highlighted that Bhatiya Janta Party is keen to ensure the overall development and pave the way to 'New India ' through inclusive growth.
  • With the slogan of "Sabka Saath Ssabka Vikas" highlighted the key message of overall development, the demographic group particularly targeted is the minorities in India.
  • Minorities group in India constitutes about 19% population of the country, which includes communities from Sikhs, Muslims, Christians, Zoroastrians, Buddhists, and Jains.
  • This is a target group as it has been indicated by credible news articles sharing the coverage of Modi's election campaign and messages.
  • The article states that ," Mr. Modi spruced up a mantra — sabka saath, sabka vikas, translated as ‘collective efforts, inclusive growth’. Mr. Modi later elaborated on the theme and said the BJP needed to win the trust, particularly of the minorities. Modi later elaborated on the theme and said the BJP needed to win the trust, particularly of the minorities."


  • Narendra Modi addressed national security messaging in most of his campaigns during the general election in 2019 as it was a prime issue with the Pulwama terror attack a few months before the election, in which 40 CRPF jawans were killed, and the BJP government took a hard stand against Pakistan-backed terror organizations.
  • "During his election campaign, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has routinely raised the issue of nationalism, national security, and his government's tough stand on terror."


  • Emphasizing the message of "Cleanliness" during the election campaign for 2019,Narendra Modi spread a wide voice supporting the cause and encouraged the program dedicated towards Swachta mission.
  • The targeted group with the 'cleanliness' messaging of Narendra Modi is mostly females in India who are key players in making Swachh Bharat a reality.
  • This is a target group as it has been indicated by credible news articles sharing the coverage of Modi's election campaign 2019 and main messages relating to Cleanliness and Swach Bharat mission.
  • The article states that The PM (Narendra Modi) will send out a message of cleanliness and lay the foundation for Swachh Shakti dedicated to women".


  • Driving the message of strong governance with highlighting his party's commitment to its core values and the country's progress and forward march under its rule., Narendra Modi coined a new slogan "'Ajay Bharat, Atal BJP', for his 2019 election campaigning.
  • With the 'Ajay Bharat, Atal BJP', messaging, Narendra Modi targeted the demographic group of opposition parties who were stitching together as a grand alliance against the BJP in the general body elections 2019.
  • This is a target group as it has been indicated by credible news articles sharing the coverage of Modi's election campaign 2019 and main messages relating to Ajay Bharat, Atal BJP' Modi's slogan for 2019 polls campaigning.
  • The article states, "Taking a dig at efforts by opposition parties to stitch together a grand alliance against the BJP, Modi said, "People who do not see eye to eye are thinking of a grand alliance. It is a vindication of our work."

Research Strategy:

  • To obtain the insights on the main messages (slogans, expressions, catchphrases, etc.) of Narendra Modi's 2019 election campaign (for the position of prime minister of India) along with the details on the targeted demographic group through these messages, we searched through various credible news articles which share election campaigning reports and details on the primary messages being targeted by the candidates along with analysis on the campaign provided by reputed political journalists.
  • For the same, we searched through reports from economictimes, timesofindia, navbharattimes, aljazeera, theconversation, hindustantimes and others and listed the above messages which have been main slogans/messages/agendas highlighted and quoted by Narendra modi during his general election 2019 campaign for the position of PM of India and resonated the parties key agendas for the election. Also, by individually analyzing each message the reference of specific demographic group was evaluated where it was mentioned by credible news reports and included quoted from Modi in his speeches/messages resonating the demographic group.
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Narendra Modi 2014 Campaign Products

Narendra Modi's 2014 campaign products are available on TV, print, online, Facebook and Twitter among others. These have been provided below and in the attached Google document.

Narendra Modi's 2014 Campaign Products

  • Here are samples of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign products in TV: 1, 2, 3.
  • Here are samples of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign products in print: 1, 2, 3.
  • Here are samples of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign visual branding products: 1, 2, 3.
  • Here are samples of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign online products: 1, 2, 3.
  • Here are samples of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign products in Facebook: 1, 2, 3.
  • Here are samples of Narendra Modi's 2014 election campaign products in Twitter: 1, 2, 3.

Additional Information

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Narendra Modi 2019 Campaign Products

The examples of products (ads) used in Narendra Modi's 2019 election campaign for various channels, such as TV, print, visual branding, online, and Facebook, has been entered into the attached Google document. Twitter was chosen as the other social media platform outside of Facebook as it was a channel that was frequently used by the campaign.

Summary of Findings

  • Here is a link to one example of a TV ad used in Modi's 2019 election campaign.
  • Here is one of the print ads used in Modi's election campaign in 2019.
  • Regarding visual branding, the BJP party's symbol was used in Modi's recent election campaign.
  • Here is link to a Facebook ad used in Modi's 2019 election campaign.
  • An example of an online ad used in Modi's 2019 election campaign can be found here.
  • According to Narendra Modi's 2019 election campaign's digital advertising, Twitter was a prominent channel used to publicize user-generated content and create high interest and engagement level. The Twitter handle used during the campaign was #BJP4India, which has over 10 million followers.
  • Here is an example of one of his campaign ads placed on Twitter.

From Part 02
  • "Taking a swipe at the Opposition, he said people have to decide between a government led by one captain or a team of 11 players, and that of 40 captains."
  • "For poor women, a crucial constituency that voted heavily for Mr. Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party, the government pledged priority access to 20 million new homes that it plans to build over the next three years."
  • "In the current campaign, however, Modi has assumed a different avatar. In the days after the air strikes, he and his supporters rebranded themselves as chowkidars or ‘watchmen’ – those steadfast individuals ubiquitous in India, who sit at the gate to every house and compound, supposedly vigilant to the threats the outside world might bring. "
  • "This is a similar strategy to 2014 when BJP turned around Manishankar Aiyar’s ‘Chaiwalla’ jibe into a mass campaign, BJP said. "
  • "The idea of every Indian citizen being a watchman is the seemingly benign face of a much more worrisome trend of right-wing Hindu nationalism expressed as vigilantism in the country since the BJP came to power in 2014."
  • "The Washington Post summed up this phenomenon succinctly: This election is going to be the test of a common man’s patriotism. If you are with Modi, you are with India and if you are not with Modi, you are anti-India."
  • "The BJP’s continuation in power marks “a historic turning point for India politically, and perhaps eventually economically [as well],” notes Marshall Bouton, acting director and visiting scholar at the Center for the Advanced Study of India at the University of Pennsylvania"
  • "Prime Minister Narendra Modi runs for a second term, his ruling Bharatiya Janata Party has made the construction of a Ram Mandir one of its key campaign promises."
  • "Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) launched 'Bharat Ke Mann Ki Baat', where Amit Shah made it amply clear that Ram Mandir Ayodhya was on top of their Agenda."
  • "A poll conducted by India Today-Karvy has found that 69 per cent people want the Ram temple to be constructed at the disputed site in Ayodhya. While 22 per cent people polled say it should not. "
From Part 05

Facebook Ad 2

Publication Year: 2014
  • "Bharatiya Janta Party has a very strong and active presence on major social media networks, i.e. Facebook, Twitter and Youtube. "
  • "On Twitter, the BJP4India twitter handle lags behind one of the competitors, the Aam Aadmi Party, with 374k followers but again the party has a well knitted network of twitter handles which add to their reach and timeline deliveries at the end of the day. "
  • "The Prime Ministerial Candidate Narendra Modi’s official twitter handle has 3.5 million followers while AAP’s Convener Arvind Kejriwal has 1.47 million followers."
  • "The Prime Ministerial Candidate Narendra Modi’s official twitter handle has 3.5 million followers while AAP’s Convener Arvind Kejriwal has 1.47 million followers."
  • "To expand the reach further, a mobile app was launched in the month of January which has 40,000 downloads registered already and has a subscriber rating of 4.6/5 on an Android Play Store."
  • "BJP is one of the first political parties in India to use Whatsapp for its election campaigns. The party has a dedicated number- 7820078200 the- wherein people can pledge support by giving a missed call, verify their voter id, ask/share/suggest their views and opinions with the party. "