In-Home Care Media Consumption

Part
01
of four
Part
01

Caregiver Demographics

Most home care workers are aged between 45 and 54 years, while the average age of family caregivers in the US is 47 years. Women predominantly work in home care, while the split is about equal for family caregivers. Moreover, family caregivers have a median income of $54,700, while home care workers have a median wage of about $24,000 and more than half of them need to rely on government assistance.

HOME HEALTH AGENCY STAFF DEMOGRAPHICS

  • The elderly care system in the US employs about 1,460,400 nursing and social care workers. Of those, 9.7% (145,000) are employed by home health agencies.
  • Out of all full-time employees in home health agencies, 53% are registered nurses, 25.1% are aides, 19.5% are licensed practical or vocational nurses, and 2.5% are social workers.
  • However, only 46.7% of home health agencies employ at least one social worker, and 70.7% employ at least one licensed practical or vocational nurse.
  • According to Statista, "the largest portion of home care workers are aged between 45 and 54 years and most work part-time or only part of the year."
  • Some estimates suggest that 40% of home care workers are white, 27% are African American and 22% are Hispanic.
  • Only 19% of home care workers have an associate's degree or higher, while more than half of them have a high school degree or less.
  • The median wage of home health aides was $24,060 in 2018. Employment in the sector is "projected to grow 41% from 2016 to 2026", which is much faster than the national average.
  • One in four (24%) home care workers lives below the Federal Poverty Level and over half of them (51%) rely on some form of public assistance.
  • Almost 9 in 10 (89%) of home care workers in the US are women, according to 2015 data from the US Census Bureau.
  • Non-Hispanic white persons make up 42% of home care workers, compared to 28% of African American individuals and 21% of Hispanic persons.
  • Some 13% of home care workers in the US do not have US citizenship.

FAMILY CAREGIVERS DEMOGRAPHICS

  • The average age of family caregivers in the US is 47 years, and caregivers are getting younger when compared to 52 years in 2010.
  • The gender gap is narrowing and now about 50% of family caregivers are male, up from 40% in 2015.
  • Most caregivers are either married or living with a partner.
  • For male caregivers specifically, 56% of them are married, 26% are single and have never married, while 11% identify themselves as belonging to the LGBT community.
  • A caregiver in the US has a median household income of $54,700.
  • More than one-third (36%) of US caregivers have a high school degree or less, while 34% have a college degree.
  • Six in 10 (61%) caregivers report being employed at some point in the past year while caregiving. Among them, 56% worked full time, and on average, they worked 34.7 hours a week.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

Since some national surveys are performed biannually, and reports are usually published a year later, we have sometimes had to rely on sources as old as 2015 to compile a comprehensive demographic profile of caregivers in the US.
Part
02
of four
Part
02

In-home Care Demographics

The most likely users of in-home care services in the US are affluent, non-Hispanic white women over the age of 65, and are homeowners that were recently widowed. They are also likely to have hypertension, arthritis, or heart disease.

AGE

  • The National Study of Long-Term Care Providers found that 18.1% of users of home health services are under the age of 65, 26.8% are aged between 65 and 74, 29.9% are aged between 75 and 84, 25.2% are aged 85 and above. This means that, in total, 81.9% of home health patients are aged 65 and above.

SEX

  • Women are overwhelmingly the receivers of in-home care in the US. In fact, 60.9% of users of in-home care services are women, and 39.1% are men.

PREVALENCE OF USE

  • About 4,455,700 patients received in-home care services in the US, out of the total of 8,327,100 patients who received any kind of elderly care. In-home care is by far the most used form of elderly care. Hospices are a distant second, caring for 1,426,000 people annually, while nursing homes had about 1,347,600 residents.
  • The annual-use rate for in-home services was 75 per 1000, which means that 75 people aged 65 and over used in-home services at least once annually, out of a 1000 people aged 65 and over. Hospices had an annual-use rate of 27 per 1000.

INSURANCE COVERAGE

  • Only 9.5% of users of in-home care services had Medicaid as payer source. This is much lower than residential care communities at 16.5%, nursing homes at 61.8% and adult day services centers at 65.8%. The data suggests that in-home care users are more affluent than users of other elderly care services.

RACE AND ETHNICITY

  • Non-Hispanic white persons accounted for 76.1% of users of in-home services, followed by 12.9% of non-Hispanic black persons. Hispanic persons accounted for 7.4% of users, while all other races and ethnicities accounted for 3.7% of users.

CHRONIC CONDITIONS

  • As much as 88.9% of elderly care users with hypertension used the services of a home health agency.
  • Some 59.6% of elderly care users with arthritis used the same services, and 55% of users with heart disease.

MARITAL STATUS

  • Experts state that people who might need in-home care services are usually elderly people that were recently widowed and that wish to stay in their homes. This suggests that users of in-home care no longer have a spouse and are homeowners.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

Most of the data in this response is based on a comprehensive National Study of Long-Term Care Providers in the United States. This is a biennial study that was last conducted in 2015 and 2016, by the National Center for Health Statistics, and the report was published in February 2019. The study was conducted on users of home health services specifically, which makes it especially relevant to providers of care-giving services.


Part
03
of four
Part
03

Caregiver Media Consumption

About 34% of caregivers use digital technology devices (PCs, smartphones, and tablets) daily. The vast majority of caregivers in the United States are Gen Xers (aged between 45 and 54 years). A majority of this generation (73%) have broadband service at home with 89% are TV viewers while 78.7% are digital video viewers.

TECHNOLOGY USE: CAREGIVERS

  • About 77.5% of caregivers reported that they are using the internet. Among these internet users, 88.1% accessed from a computer while 83.2% accessed the internet from a mobile device.
  • In terms of communication with primary care providers for their care recipients, 42% of caregivers communicate via online portals, 31% communicate via email, and 11% via text messages.
  • Forty-seven percent of caregivers are avid users of digital technology devices including PCs, smartphones, and tablets.
  • The majority of caregivers are comfortable with a variety of devices (Comfortability rates: 97% for PCs, 80% for tablets, and 80% for smartphones).
  • Technology/devices use for caregivers in the United States:
    • 34 percent of caregivers use digital technology devices daily.
    • 23 percent of caregivers use digital technology devices 1-5 times weekly.
    • 16 percent of caregivers use digital technology devices 1-3 times weekly.
    • 10 percent of caregivers use digital technology devices less than one time per month.
    • 17 percent never use digital technology devices.

MEDIA CONSUMPTION: GEN X

  • A high share of Gen Xers (about 96%) uses the internet.
  • According to a recent report (2018) from Pew Research Center, more than 85% of Gen Xers own smartphones, compared with 64% who own a tablet computer.
  • A majority of Gen Xers (73%) have broadband service at home.
  • Eighty-nine percent of Gen Xers are TV viewers while 78.7% of them are digital video viewers.
  • Among Gen Xers aged between 34 and 49 years, the top three video content providers are Netflix (47%), YouTube (24%), and Hulu (19%). Similarly, the top three video content providers for Gen Xers aged between 50 and 65 are CBS (33%), Netflix (32%), and NBC (23%).
  • The biggest source of entertainment for Gen Xers is broadcast TV "devoting a third of their daily TV time to online TV/streaming services."
  • Gen Xers get their news from websites or apps.
  • Eighteen percent of Gen Xers go online primarily via smartphone. Thus, 60% use a smartphone on a daily basis and 67% use a PC or laptop daily.
  • The most popular ad formats for Gen Xers are magazine advertisements, outdoor, and newspaper.
  • They are resistant towards online advertisement formats such as "desktop displays, paid online search, mobile displays, videos on desktops and mobile videos."

SOCIAL MEDIA CONSUMPTION

  • The vast majority of Gen Xers (75%) use social media.
  • Similarly, about 76% of Gen Xers use Facebook.
  • Gen Xers have an average of five to eight social media accounts. For instance, larger shares of Gen Xers have adopted relatively new platforms such as Instagram, Pinterest, and YouTube.
  • These platforms are getting some attention, but Facebook is still the clear winner as they spend weekly nearly seven hours on Facebook.

TIME SPENT ON MEDIA

  • Gen Xers spend 21 hours weekly on their smartphones.
  • Forty percent of Gen Xers use their mobile phones for more than one hour daily.
  • Similarly, they spend more time per week on all devices: nine hours on PCs and four hours on tablets.
  • Gen Xers spend 2 hours per day on social media.
  • They access their social media accounts between 8 p.m. and midnight.
  • They spend nearly seven hours on Facebook weekly.
  • Gen Xers spend more than an hour daily on their desktop and TV.
  • RESEARCH STRATEGY

    In order to find and describe the media consumption of caregivers in the United States, we hoped to find directly available information on this specific topic. We first checked if there were any available consolidated reports on industry-related websites and healthcare organizations such as Journal of Medical Internet Research-Aging, Caregiver, Senior Care Corner, and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). Also, we had hoped to find any compiled or partial reports on these sites. Then, we checked research resources such as Deloitte and PwC, and statistics sites such as Statista. We also searched through the public domain and databases. We aimed to determine the types of media consumed by caregivers, how it's consumed, and how frequently media is consumed.
    Therefore, there doesn't appear to be much data or professional research publicly available on this specific topic. However, on the aforementioned websites, some data was found about the technology use (including PCs, smartphones, and tablets) of caregivers in the United States.
    Another Wonder report titled "Caregiver Demographics" has gathered information about the demographic profile of caregivers in the United States. The research found that "Most home care workers are aged between 45 and 54 years, while the average age of family caregivers in the US is 47 years. Women predominantly work in home care, while the split is about equal for family caregivers. Moreover, family caregivers have a median income of $54,700, while home care workers have a median wage of about $24,000 and more than half of them need to rely on government assistance." Thus, the common characteristic of family caregivers and home care workers is that both of them are aged between 45 and 54 years. Further research was made to define the generation that most caregivers fall into. We found that it is generation X.
    Given the lack of reports that covered all the attributes of the required caregivers' persona's media consumption, we then tried to triangulate and build a consolidated profile based on the various statistics about the media consumption of each of the demographic profile attributes found before. We hypothesized that by combining the relevant statistics found, we could cover the specified persona. Thus, we tried to triangulate the requested data by taking an assumption that what is right for generation X will be applicable on caregivers in the United States since most caregivers are aged between 45 and 54 years.

    Part
    04
    of four
    Part
    04

    In-home Care Media Consumption

    On average, senior people receiving in-home care in the US are consuming different types of media, including TV, streaming subscription services, and social media through smartphones, tablets, and flat-panel TV. A Nielsen report outlined that 74% of seniors go online and use the internet as a means of communication. Detailed below are the types, method, and frequency of media consumption among seniors in the US.

    TYPES OF MEDIA CONSUMED

    • On average, senior people receiving in-home care in the US are consuming different types of media through TV, streaming subscription services, and social media.
    • Today, 74% of late baby boomers (aged 65 to 69) go online and use the internet as a means of communication.
    • Compared to other generations, the elderly in the US are the major consumers of linear TV content. Known to be traditionalists, 70% of this generation (baby boomers and above) place a high value on traditional services, like landline phones, magazines, newspapers, and linear TV.
    • Senior citizens in the US also consume different types of social media. About 27% of adults aged 65 and above use at least one social media platform and 46% of the elderly who use the internet have a social network account.
    • The primary social media networks they use are Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat. Up to 46% of this population use Facebook, and 38% use YouTube. Another 7%, 8%, and 3% use Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat, respectively.
    • Some key motivators that make older adults prefer Facebook include keeping in touch with friends and acquaintances, considering it the most convenient platform for communication, the possibility of observing family members, and the approval of its photo-sharing function.
    • Forty percent of seniors in the US use YouTube, and only Facebook outranks YouTube in this population.

    HOW MEDIA ARE CONSUMED

    • To access different media, US seniors use smartphones, tablets, broadband, and the internet.
    • Four in ten seniors in the country currently own smartphones.
    • Smartphone ownership among seniors in the US varies by household income. Eighty-one percent of older Americans with $75,000 household income own smartphones, while 27% of those with less than $30,000 annual income own a smartphone.
    • Internet usage among seniors has been increasing over the years; 67% of the population use the internet, while another 51% own home broadband. On the other hand, only half of the seniors aged 80 and above use the internet, and just 28% have home broadband services.
    • Roughly 32% of seniors in the US own tablet computers, with one in five of this number reporting owning e-readers. Ownership of tablets, however, varies with the income and level of education, being the highest among seniors with higher income and more education.
    • Up to 70% of the elderly consumer use pay TV (subscription-based TV services) and completely rely on flat-panel TV for media consumption and interaction.
    • The elderly population has unique news-consumption behavior; they prefer watching live news, and up to 60% of the population relies on TV news programs as their primary source of news.

    HOW FREQUENTLY MEDIA IS CONSUMED

    • According to a Deloitte study, 70% of the US elderly spend up to 28 hours watching TV on flat-panel TV weekly, while spending almost 85% of their movie-viewing time using the same medium.
    • Although the senior population forms 30% of the pay-TV market, they only consume three hours of streamed video each week, and only 7% of the said population subscribe to streaming video services.
    • Facebook is commonly used among senior citizens in the US, with 51% of users admitting accessing the platform several times a day. Instagram and Snapchat follow in the frequency of usage, with seniors accessing the sites several times a day reaching 46% and 42%, respectively.

    RESEARCH STRATEGY

    To locate the media consumption habits of older people receiving in-home care in the US, we began by researching for precompiled information from credible market research reports—such as those from relevant government agencies, Market and Market Research, Deloitte, and EY, among others—press releases, and news articles. However, we could not locate any that addresses the specific demographics of the US elderly receiving in-home care. We then changed strategy and looked into the demographic analysis of older people. This led us to the National Study of Long-term Care Providers report, which outlined that 81.9% of home health patients are senior citizens aged 65 and above. We, therefore, located information that address the media consumption patterns of the elderly population under the said age group. We were able to find several statistics in respect to the type of media, how media is consumed, and frequency of consumption of different media platforms of the requested age group; and findings have been outlined above.
    Sources
    Sources