High Cholesterol

Part
01
of four
Part
01

High Cholesterol Patient Profile: Colombia

While we couldn't find data on the profile of patients in Colombia who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack and risk of another, available data suggests that such patients are more likely to be male, older than 50 years, live in rural areas, have low income, and have other chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Helpful Findings

  • Dyslipidemia is defined as the "elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low HDL cholesterol level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis."
  • A study of 6628 individuals residing in Colombia found that patients with dyslipidemia are usually older than 50 years.
  • A significant majority of those with dyslipidemia in Colombia are male and live in rural areas.
  • The study also found that dyslipidemia was more common among those with a lower level of education (66.8%).
  • Another predictor of dyslipidemia in Colombia is low income as those with a lower income (66.4%) have more dyslipidemia.
  • The most common dyslipidemia in Colombia is high non-HDL cholesterol (75.3%), which means a higher risk of heart disease.
  • A study of healthcare professionals in Colombia revealed that males have a significantly higher cardiovascular incidence risk (5.2%) compared to 1.4% in women because men have worse metabolic indices such as high cholesterol levels.
  • Another study on cardiovascular risk factors of patients with dyslipidemia found that key cardiovascular risk factors include "hypertension (93.2%), male older than 55 years (35.8%), women older than 65 years (28.1%), diabetes mellitus (28.5%), family history of coronary heart disease (17.2%), personal history of heart disease or stroke (16.7%) and smoking (6.4%)."
  • Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Colombia, accounting for 152 deaths per 100,000 of the population, and about 80% of cardiovascular deaths are considered avoidable.

Research Strategy

To provide a high-level profile of patients in Colombia who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack and risk of another, we extensively searched media, industry, academic, and government databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, Minister of Health and Social Protection Colombia, Taylor and Francis Online, Springer, among others. Although we found data and studies noting that Colombia had "significantly higher prevalence of high total cholesterol (PRs: 1.67 and 1.86)" when compared with other Latin America countries and the US and that high cholesterol is a cardiovascular incidence risk factor in the country, specific data on the profile of patients in Colombia who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack and risk of another was unavailable.

Next, we tried to search for data on the profile of patients who have either high cholesterol or that have had one prior heart attack in the country. The aim was to compare the profile of patients in both cases and highlights profiles that were similar. We didn't find data on the profile of patients with diagnosed uncontrolled high cholesterol or hyperlipidemia but were able to find data on the profile of patients with dyslipidemia which we have reported above. Our search for data on patients with one prior heart attack only yielded results showing that individuals with hypertension and high cholesterol in low-income areas in Colombia are prone to heart attack/failure.

We also attempted to find regional-level data by searching for information on the profile of patients in Latin America who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack, and risk of another, specifically regional studies that included samples of people in Colombia. We also searched for data on just hyperlipidemia profiles and profiles of patients with a prior heart attack. However, we were unable to find the data and only found data on cardiovascular risk factors and models in Latin America.
Part
02
of four
Part
02

High Cholesterol Patient Profile: UK

While we couldn't find data on the profile of patients in the UK who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack and risk of another, available data suggests that such patients are more likely to be male, aged 70+ years, have 5.4 other chronic conditions, and be of a lower socioeconomic class.

Helpful Findings

  • The risk of heart failure is more in men than women and reaches 1.5% per year in men older than 85 years.
  • The availability of low-priced food is associated with obesity in the UK in both women and men.
  • A study on the effect of socioeconomic status in childhood and adult in Britain revealed that being of a poorer socioeconomic class in childhood and adulthood is associated with unhealthy HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels in individuals.
  • However, there was no significant association between socioeconomic class (in adulthood and childhood) and total cholesterol.
  • A study of patients that have been recently prescribed statins (drugs used for treating hyperlipidemia) in the UK revealed that users were "likely to be men and to have comorbidities such as atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, treated hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. They were also more likely to have results recorded on a computer for liver function tests and creatine kinase concentrations."
  • A study of 4 million individuals in the UK to understand trends and patterns in the first presentation of heart failure in patients in the UK revealed that the average age of first heart failure presentation was 77 years and the average number of comorbidities was 5.4.
  • The study also revealed that socioeconomically deprived people were more likely to have heart failure than affluent people and did so earlier in life than affluent people.
  • In addition, socioeconomically deprived people were more likely to have more comorbidities at the time of their first heart failure even though they generally experience their first heart failure earlier in life than affluent people.

Research Strategy

To provide a high-level profile of patients in the UK who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack and risk of another, we extensively searched media, industry, academic, and government databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, the UK NICE Healthcare Database, NHS, Taylor and Francis Online, Springer, among others. Although we found data and studies about the effect and impact of high cholesterol in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, specific data on the profile of patients in the UK who have uncontrolled high cholesterol, one heart attack and risk of another was unavailable.

Next, we tried to search for data on the profile of patients who have either high cholesterol or that have had one prior heart attack in the country. The aim was to compare the profile of patients in both cases and highlights profiles that were similar. We didn't find data on the profile of patients with diagnosed uncontrolled high cholesterol or hyperlipidemia but were able to find data on the profile of patients with dyslipidemia, HDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol which we have reported above. Our search for data on patients with one prior heart attack yielded results of the profile of people in the UK who have had one heart failure which we have also reported above.

During our research, we found that statins were the primary drugs used in treating hyperlipidemia. Hence, we decided to search for information on the profile of people that are prescribed statins in the UK. This line of research also yielded some data which we have reported above.
Part
03
of four
Part
03

Autoinjector Perceptions: Colombia

While data specifically on the Colombian consumer perceptions of autoinjectors is unavailable, available data suggests that Colombian patients who use autoinjectors rate the device favorably.

Helpful Finding on Colombian Consumer Perception of Autoinjectors

  • A global study on patients' perceptions of autoinjectors that included 123 Colombian patients found that patients who use autoinjectors rate the device favorably.
  • The study also found that patients who used autoinjectors to self-inject had "less baseline disease activity and higher response rates than patients who did not self-inject."
  • Patients who use auto-injectors stated that they liked the ease of use and that the pain was less.
  • About 96% of patients said that when they used an autoinjector they were sure or very sure that the treatment was fully injected.
  • Patients also reported that they were satisfied with the injection frequency.
  • Lack of available data, sources, or references on the use of autoinjectors in treating heart attack or high cholesterol in Colombia suggests that the use of autoinjectors in treatment of high cholesterol or heart attack in Colombia is still at its infancy at best, but autoinjectors are already being used in treatment of allergies in Colombia, especially in administering epinephrine.

Research Strategy

To understand Colombian consumer perceptions of autoinjectors, our research team extensively searched media, industry, academic, and government databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, Minister of Health and Social Protection Colombia, Taylor and Francis Online, Springer, among others for studies or surveys of patients perception of autoinjectors in Colombia. We initially focused on autoinjectors used in the treatment of high cholesterol and/or heart attack but expanded to autoinjectors in general. However, this search didn't yield any relevant result. We only came across reports on epinephrine autoinjectors in Colombia and global market reports about the global autoinjector market with a section on Colombia that is behind a paywall.

Furthermore, we decided to conduct searches for consumer/patient reviews of autoinjectors in Spanish given that Spanish is the official language of Colombia and consumers in the country were likely to leave reviews of the product online in Spanish. We looked at media as well as online stores carrying autoinjectors where reviews could be found. Although we found stores selling autoinjectors for epinephrine, there were no consumer reviews on the product.

Next, our research team decided to expand the scope of our research to find consumer/patient perception studies of autoinjectors in Latin America and/or globally that includes patients from Colombia in lieu of more specific data. We were able to find a global study that included patients in Colombia and have reported our findings above.
Part
04
of four
Part
04

Autoinjector Perceptions: UK

While data specifically on consumers' perceptions of autoinjectors in the UK is unavailable, available data shows that patients in the UK who use autoinjectors rate the device favorably.

UK Consumers Perception of Autoinjectors

Research Strategy

To understand consumer perceptions of autoinjectors in the UK, our research team extensively searched media, industry, academic, and government databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, the UK NHS, Taylor and Francis Online, Springer, among others for studies or surveys of patients perception of autoinjectors in the UK specifically. We initially focused on autoinjectors used in the treatment of high cholesterol or heart attack but expanded to autoinjectors in general. However, this search didn't yield any relevant result. We only came across global market reports about the global autoinjector market with a section on the UK market that is behind a paywall as well as information on autoinjectors used in treating bad cholesterol.

Next, our research team decided to expand the scope of our research to find consumer/patient perception studies of autoinjectors in Europe and/or globally that includes patients from the UK in lieu of more specific data. We were able to find European and global studies that included patients in the UK and have reported our findings above.
Sources
Sources