# Greenhouse Tomato Acreage: Turkey & China

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Part
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## Greenhouse Tomato Acreage: Turkey

The acreage of tomatoes grown commercially in glasshouses in Turkey is 120,680.33 acres.

### THE ACREAGE OF TOMATOES GROWN IN GLASSHOUSES IN TURKEY

• The total acreage of tomatoes grown commercially in glasshouses in Turkey is 120,680.33 acres.
• Turkey is the fifth country in the greenhouse field with 71,400 hectares land area, broken down into 62,884 hectares of vegetables, 7,164 hectares of fruit, and 1,355-hectare area of ornamental plants.
• The area under cover cultivation comprises 12% glass greenhouse, 48% plastic greenhouse, 25% low tunnel, and 15% high tunnel.
• 71,400 hectares is equivalent to 176,433 acres.
• About 35% of the general production area in Turkey's greenhouse in Antalya.
• Eight million tons of vegetables and fruits are grown under covers. 45% of tomatoes, 60% of cucumber, and 25% of pepper are grown under covers.
• 95% of the total vegetables and fruits (excluding flowers) grown in greenhouses are vegetables, and 5% are fruits. Tomato comprises 55% of vegetable production.

### RESEARCH STRATEGY

To provide the number of acres of tomatoes grown in glasshouses in Turkey, your research team began by converting the land area from the hectares to acres, e.g., 71,400 hectares = 176,433 acres, using a converter. After which, the team calculated the total area (in acres) under covers cultivation in glass greenhouses, which was given as 12% of the total area under cover cultivation. The calculation procedure is as follows:

### CALCULATIONS

ACREAGE OF TOMATOES IN GLASS GREENHOUSES

Total land area in the greenhouse field = 176,433 acres
Glass greenhouse share = 12%
Thus, the total glass greenhouse land area = 176,433 acres x 12% = 21,172 acres of glass greenhouse.
The total production of vegetables in greenhouses =95%, of which 55% are tomatoes. Thus, the team calculated the real percentage of tomatoes as follows:

55%*95%= 52%, which was applied to the acres of glass greenhouses.
This result was further calculated as 21,172 acres cultivated in glass greenhouses x 52% of tomatoes= 11,009.44 acres of tomatoes in glass greenhouses.

Part
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Part
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## Greenhouse Tomato Acreage: China

In China, the estimated acreage of tomatoes grown commercially in glasshouses is found to be 8,995 acres; additionally, the total acreage of tomatoes grown in greenhouses stood at 901,250 acres. It is found that glasshouses comprise less than 1% of all the greenhouses in China and about 35% of all the vegetables produced in the country are cultivated in greenhouses.

### GLASSHOUSE ACREAGE

• According to the Rabobank's World Vegetable Map (WVM) 2018, the total global cultivation area of vegetables in greenhouses was 500,000 hectares (1,25 million acres) in 2016.
• The report states that about 40,000 hectares (100,000 acres) of the greenhouse cultivation is done in glasshouses and the rest in plastic greenhouses. Hence, about 8% of the global vegetables are cultivated in the glasshouses and the rest in plastic greenhouses.
• Rabobank's WVM 2018 highlights the regional proportion of glasshouses vs. plastic greenhouses across the world. Additionally, it categorizes the countries with less than 10% of glasshouses as 'mainly plastic.'
• According to the Rabobank report, China had about 82,000 hectares (205,000 acres) of greenhouse vegetable cultivation area in 2016; further, it states that greenhouses in China mainly comprise plastic greenhouses. Hence, the proportion of glasshouses in China is found to be less than 10% of the total greenhouse acreage in the country.
• Another report by Cuesta Roble Consulting states that only 9% of the global greenhouses are covered in glass and the rest is covered in plastic. Further, it confirms that China has less than 1% of glasshouses, rest being plastic greenhouses.

### CHINA GREENHOUSE ACREAGE

• According to a recent press release by the Beijing Kingpeng International Agriculture Corporation; greenhouses comprised about 3.8 million hectares (9.5 million acres) of cultivation area in China in 2018. Further, it states that nearly 35% of all vegetables in China are grown in greenhouses.
• Also, a research report by The University of Rhode Island estimates the total area under greenhouse cultivation in China to be about 3.3 million hectares (8.3 million acres).

### TOMATO CULTIVATION

• According to a recent report by FreshPlaza, tomatoes are cultivated globally on more than 5 million hectares (12.5 million acres) of arable land.
• In 2017, the global production of tomatoes stood at 180 million tonnes; China accounted for nearly 33% of the global production with 59.51 million tonnes.
• In China, the tomatoes were grown on more than 1.03 million hectares (2.57 million acres) of arable land in 2017.

### TOMATO CULTIVATION IN GREENHOUSES

• About 35% of all vegetables in China are produced in greenhouses. Hence, about 360,500 hectares (899,500 acres) of tomato cultivation area belongs to greenhouses. (1.03 million hectares x 35%)
• Further, the glasshouses comprise only about less than 1% of the total greenhouse acreage in China. Hence, about 3,605 hectares (8,995 acres) of tomatoes are annually cultivated in glasshouses in China.

• In China, about 30 million people are employed in growing vegetables in greenhouses.
• Shandong province produces about 1/7 of the nation's total vegetables and fruits production.
• Shandong has the largest vegetable sowing area in China, and comprise about 1/4 of the total greenhouses in the country with an area of about 973,333 hectares (2.43 million acres).

### RESEARCH STRATEGY

To find the total acreage of glasshouses for tomato cultivation in China, we started our research by identifying recent market research reports, industry publications, press releases, and academic studies that featured the greenhouse acreage or tomato production statistics for China. In our initial research, we were unable to find any precompiled reports that can facilitate us to determine the total glasshouse acreage for tomato cultivation in China.

We referenced credible reports from Rabobank, WorldAtlas, Cuesta Roble Consulting, ProduceReport, Hortidaily, FreshPlaza, and The University of Rhode Island, among others to understand the global acreage of glass and plastic greenhouses in vegetable production. Next, we identified the total area covered under greenhouses for the commercial production of vegetables in China. Subsequently, we tried to identify the total acreage of glasshouses vs. plastic greenhouses in China. We were able to ascertain our findings from multiple reports that glasshouses form less than 1% of the total greenhouses in China.

Subsequently, we tried to identify the total proportion of vegetables grown in greenhouses in China. We were able to understand that about 35% of all vegetables in China are grown in greenhouses. Next, we tried to find the total acreage of land used in China for the cultivation of tomatoes. We found that over 1.03 million hectares or 2.57 million acres (1 ha=2.47 acre) is utilized for cultivation of tomatoes in China.

CALCULATION
We were able to determine the total acreage of tomatoes grown commercially in glasshouses in China using the following calculation:
• Total acreage of tomatoes in glasshouses = [Total acres of tomato cultivation x 35% (cultivated in greenhouses)] x 1% (cultivated in glasshouses)
• Total acreage of tomatoes in greenhouses = 2.57 million acres x 35% = 899,500 acres
• Total acreage of tomatoes in glasshouses = 899,500 acres x 1% = 8,995 acres.

## Did this report spark your curiosity?

Sources
Sources

##### Quotes
• "There is about 3,800,000 ha greenhouses in China that produce more than 35% vegetable, greenhouse labor reaches up to 30 million. "
• "China: Bright future for photovoltaic greenhouses - Hortidaily"
##### Quotes
• "Dr. Laura A. Meyerson, of the URI Department of Natural Resources Science, is one of nine researchers (most of them Chinese) who decided to study the extreme proliferation of plastic greenhouses in China where it is estimated that some 3.3 million hectares of land (about 8.3 million acres) are now covered with the structures."
##### Quotes
• "Shandong province is an important grower and exporter of vegetables and fruits. The vegetable sown area in Shandong (32.6 million mu, 15mu=1ha) makes up 1/10 of China’s total, with output equivalent to 1/7 of the nation’s total."
• "Shandong is also the biggest owner of solar greenhouses in China. The total protected area totaled over 14.6 million mu (including 4.5 million mu solar greenhouses and the rest with different size sheds) in 2015, roughly 1/4 of nation’s figure."
• "Shandong has been the largest exporter of vegetables both in output and value for 15 consecutive years in China, which accounts for about 1/3 of the country’s total. In 2015, over 3,000 processing companies exported vegetables and products worth 3.62 billion USD, to over 170 countries and regions across the globe."
• "Shandong has rich vegetable varieties that have gained good reputation in both at home and abroad. The Chinese onion, ginger and garlic which have a persistent sown area of over 6 million mu, make up main stream in vegetable export."
• "Chinese greenhouse business is booming" - Hortidaily"
##### Quotes
• "In some references, China alone is said to have 3 million hectares (8 million acres) of “greenhouse vegetables”. However, less than 2% of this total is in climate-controlled greenhouses. Other references show 8,847 ha. of “heated greenhouses” in China. Based on a detailed report from the Netherlands for one province in China, the breakdown of “protected cultivation” structures for greenhouse vegetable production has been calculated."
• "Greenhouse” vs. “Protected Agriculture” vegetable production"
##### Quotes
• "Other countries with reported glass vegetable greenhouse percentage statistics: Bulgaria-48%, Canada-42%, China-<1% ,Germany-80%, Ireland- 95%, Japan-5%, Latvia-39%, Mexico-5%, Moldova-7%, Netherlands-90%, South Korea-<1%, USA-40%. "
• "Only 9% of greenhouse acreage worldwide is covered with glass"
##### Quotes
• "Tomatoes are in the ranking of the most consumed vegetables worldwide. 177 million tonnes of tomatoes were grown globally in 2016. This meant that production was almost 30% higher than ten years earlier. Approximately 5 million hectares of tomatoes have been planted all over the Earth. On average, 3.7 kilos per square metre are harvested from that acreage. The largest producers are China and India, although the yield in India is low and stands below 2.5 kg per square metre. "
##### Quotes
• "In 2017, the worldwide production of tomatoes totaled 170.8 million tons. China, the leading producer of tomatoes, accounted for 31% of the total production. India and the United States followed with the second and third highest production of tomatoes in the world."
##### Quotes
• "China had about 109,866 hectares of tomato fields in 2016, which has increased 2.7% year-on-year"
##### Quotes
• "The total world production amounted to more than 180,000 million kilos, grown on an area of almost 5 million hectares."
• "As stated earlier, China was the world's largest producer in 2017, with 32.64% of total cultivation and an average production of 5.79 kilos per m2."
• "Spain: One of the most important tomato producers in the world"