Greatest problems facing humanity

Part
01
of five
Part
01

Greatest problems facing humanity part 1

Five of the greatest problems facing humanity include HIV/AIDS, climate change, poverty, water scarcity, and social developmental vices.

HIV/AIDS

DESCRIPTION
  • HIV means the human immunodeficiency virus.
  • It can lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) if not attended early enough.
  • Unlike other viruses that attack the human body, HIV cannot be completely healed even with treatment.
  • This means that if one becomes infected with HIV, it is for a lifetime.
  • The virus operates by attacking the body’s immune system, particularly, the CD4 cells (T cells) which are tasked with helping the immune system fight off infections.
  • If not treated, the virus reduces the number of CD4 cells in the body, making the individual prone to other infections.
  • Over time, HIV successfully destroys the entire body's immune system leading to death.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • There is no known complete cure for HIV. The medicine used to treat HIV is known as Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).
  • Since HIV was first diagnosed, about 75 million people have tested positive for the virus and about 32 million people have died of AIDS-related illnesses.
  • As of 2018, about 37.9 million people were living with HIV worldwide.
  • In the same year, there were 23.3 million people who have the virus and access to antiretroviral therapy.
  • Globally, there were 1.7 million new cases of HIV and 770,000 people who died of AIDS-related illnesses.
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), young girls and women aged 15–24 have higher chances of getting infected.
  • About 1 in 4 HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are infected despite representing just 10% of the population.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • The infection is mentioned as one of the greatest problems facing humanity by WHO, the United Nations, and the World Bank.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING FOR THE PROBLEM
  • WHO, UNAIDS, Kaiser Family Foundation, International AIDS Society, and The Global Fund.

CLIMATE CHANGE

DESCRIPTION
  • "Climate change refers to a rise in the average global temperature due to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases, resulting in numerous climatic shifts and impacts around the globe."
  • The major gases that contribute to climate change are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4).
  • These gases do this by trapping heat from the sun, a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • Climate change tends to bring sustainable economic growth and progressive development to a halt.
  • Natural disasters cost about $18 billion yearly in underdeveloped and developing countries through damage to transport infrastructure and power generation alone.
  • Also, wide disruptions of households and firms cost a minimum of $390 billion yearly.
  • Natural disasters as a result of climate change cost the world about $520 billion throws about 26 million people into poverty.
  • Some impacts of climate change include frequent and extreme heat, rising seas and increased coastal flooding, more damaging wildfire seasons, destructive hurricanes, military bases at risk.
  • Other impacts are national landmarks at risk, costly and growing health impacts, heavier precipitation and flooding, and destruction of marine ecosystems.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Climate change is mentioned as one of the greatest problems facing humanity by WHO, the United Nations, and the World Bank.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING FOR THE PROBLEM
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC), UN Agencies, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Green Climate Fund, Climate Investment Funds, 350.org, and C40.

POVERTY

DESCRIPTION
  • According to the UN, poverty means the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods.
  • Poverty entails the inability to meet basic needs because food, proper sanitation, clean drinking water, health care, education, and other social services are inaccessible.
  • Judging by the UN standard, poor people can not afford $1.90 daily.
  • Despite global progress towards poverty reduction, the number of extremely poor people remain unacceptably high.
  • About 3% of the world’s population lives below $1.90 a day.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • According to the UN, 780+ million people are living below the international poverty line.
  • Over 11% of the world population lives in extreme poverty and struggling to fulfill the most basic needs like health, access to water, education, and sanitation.
  • The ratio of women aged 25 to 34 living in poverty to men of the same age group is 1.22:1.
  • Over 160 million children risk remaining in extreme poverty by 2030.
  • According to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, about 2.5 billion people live on less than $1.90 a day worldwide, and over 1 billion suffer from chronic hunger.
  • Over half of the extremely poor people globally live in Sub-Saharan Africa with the regions poor people increasing by 9 million.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Climate change is mentioned as one of the greatest problems facing humanity by WHO, the United Nations, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the World Bank.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING FOR THE PROBLEM
  • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Oxfam, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), The Hunger Project, World Bank Group, The Red Cross, and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

WATER

DESCRIPTION
  • According to the UN, "Water is at the core of sustainable development and is critical for socio-economic development, energy, and food production, healthy ecosystems and for human survival itself."
  • Increased global population has resulted in a corresponding increased need for water competing for commercial demands for water.
  • According to the World Bank, some water crises being faced include sanitation, water in agriculture, water resources management, and water supply.
  • Poor sanitation and unclean water are the major cause of child mortality and childhood diarrhea.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • WHO/UNICEF joint monitoring program for water supply and sanitation opined that there are about 1.8 billion people worldwide who drink water not protected against contamination from feces.
  • Currently, there are 2.3 billion people in the world, who do not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines.
  • 340,000 children below five years die yearly from diarrhea diseases with water scarcity affecting four out of every 10 people globally.
  • About 90% of all occurring natural disasters are water-related with 80% of wastewater flowing back into the ecosystem without being recycled or reused.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Water crises is mentioned as one the greatest problems facing humanity by WHO, United Nations, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the World Bank.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING FOR THE PROBLEM
  • World Water Council, Water Aid, Water.org, charity: water, blood: water, splash, and pacific institute.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

DESCRIPTION
  • Social Development entails putting people first in development processes.
  • Social development promotes social inclusion of the poor and vulnerable by empowering people, building cohesive and resilient societies, and making institutions accessible and accountable to citizens.
  • It can also affect a child’s personality, social opportunities, developmental disorders, and behaviors learned from parents.
  • Social development tends to promote economic growth, a high standard of living, better interventions, and a higher quality of life.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • According to World Bank statistics, lack of social development has resulted in increased adolescent fertility rates and increased child labour.
  • Other effects include decreased labour force participation for girls and women, the prevalence of HIV in females, early marriage, refugee increase, migration crises.
  • 9.5% and 14.2% of children aged between one day old and five years respectively, experience social-emotional problems.
  • Technology is also known for negatively affecting children at the early stage of their life.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Social developmental problems are one of the greatest problems facing humanity as opined by WHO, the United Nations, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the World Bank.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING FOR THE PROBLEM
  • World Bank, United Nations, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

YOUR RESEARCH TEAM APPLIED THE FOLLOWING STRATEGY

To answer this request, we began by finding the greatest problems facing humanity as suggested by four global organizations namely the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations (UN), The World Bank, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. We evaluated the global threats listed by these four reliable sources and selected the greatest problems common to them all. Furthermore, we described each of the problems, an understanding of the problem scale and impact on a global level, and a list of the foundations or companies currently working on each crisis.
Part
02
of five
Part
02

Greatest problems facing humanity part 2

Additional five of the greatest problems facing humanity include: food shortage, lack of access to proper health care, inadequate peace and security, human rights violation and gender inequality.

FOOD SHORTAGE

DESCRIPTION
  • The number of undernourished people in the world has been on the rise since 2015, reaching an estimated 821 million in 2018.
  • One in nine people do not get enough food to be healthy and lead an active life making hunger and malnutrition the number one risk to health worldwide.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • The global demand for food has increased steadily over the years, along with growth in the world’s population.
  • This has led to increased prices for most grains with an even greater increase in demand.
  • Food stocks have subsequently become depleted, and food production has also been affected by extreme weather incidents in major food-producing countries.
  • World cereal production has also fallen over the years with rapid increases in oil prices, increased fertilizer, and other food production costs.
  • As international food prices have continued to reach unprecedented levels, countries have sought ways to insulate themselves from potential food shortages and price shocks.
  • Several food-exporting countries have imposed export restrictions and certain key importers have also begun purchasing grains at any price to maintain domestic supplies.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Food shortage is mentioned as one the greatest problems facing humanity by WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations, and the World Bank.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • World Food Program (WFP), World Bank, The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

LACK OF ACCESS TO PROPER HEALTH CARE

DESCRIPTION
  • Many countries are still grappling with various aspects of the global health-care spectrum, including crisis intervention and the response to humanitarian emergencies as well as the failure to adhere to International Health Regulations.
  • Serious inadequacy has also come up in terms of the identification of disease outbreaks and stopping them from spreading; preventing chronic diseases and the work towards achieving health-related sustainable development goals.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • Less than half of the people in the world today get all the health services they need.
  • In 2010, almost 100 million people were pushed into extreme poverty because they had to pay for health services out of their own pockets.
  • 13 million people die every year before the age of 70 from cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, and cancer — mostly in low and middle-income countries.
  • Every day in 2016, 15,000 children died before reaching their fifth birthday.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Health challenges are mentioned as one the greatest problems facing humanity by the United Nations(UN), and UNICEF, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

INADEQUATE PEACE AND SECURITY

DESCRIPTION
  • In many countries, the scourge of war and devastation have been manifested as a result of disputes which usually escalates into war, including the breakout of armed conflict and insecurity that lingers even after emerging from the wars.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • Today conflicts, while fewer, are deeply rooted with recurrent waves of conflict being a regular occurrence.
  • Many of these conflicts are also complicated by regional dimensions that are key to their solution with peacekeeping personnel today being deployed during the ongoing conflict, where peace agreements are shaky or absent.
  • Conflicts today are also increasingly intensive, involving determined armed groups with access to sophisticated armaments and techniques.
  • The nature of conflict has also changed over the years.
  • Originally developed as a means of dealing with inter-state conflict, over time UN peacekeeping has been increasingly applied to intrastate conflicts and civil wars.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Inadequate peace and insecurity are mentioned as one the greatest problems facing humanity by United Nations(UN), International Organization of Migration(IOM) and UN Mine Action Service(UNMAS).
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • United Nations(UN), UN Mine Action Service(UNMAS), International Organization of Migration(IOM).

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION

DESCRIPTION
  • Globally, the violation of the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, discrimination and many more is a problem that faces humanity.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • International human rights are being flouted as laid down under the obligations of governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
  • Human rights violation constitutes the breaching of a broad range of internationally accepted rights, including civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Human rights violation is mentioned as one the greatest problems facing humanity by the United Nations, UNHCR and International Organization of Migration(IOM).
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

GENDER INEQUALITY

DESCRIPTION
  • There is a continuous persistent gap in access to opportunities and decision-making power for women and men.
  • Globally, women have fewer opportunities for economic participation than men, less access to basic and higher education, greater health and safety risks, and less political representation.
SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • Unfortunately, there is still a long way to go to achieve full equality of rights and opportunities between men and women.
  • There are still multiple forms of gender violence and unequal access to quality education and health, economic resources and participation in political life for both women and girls and men and boys.
  • Opportunities in access to employment and positions of leadership and decision-making are still at a disparity in terms of gender balance.
REASON FOR INCLUSION
  • Gender inequality is mentioned as one the greatest problems facing humanity by the United Nations, UNI Global Union and Peace Corps.
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

YOUR RESEARCH TEAM APPLIED THE FOLLOWING STRATEGY

To answer this request, we began by searching through problems that global organizations such as but not limited to Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations (UN) and The World Bank, view as problems facing humanity. Then, we proceeded to evaluate the global challenges that were listed by these reliable sources and selected the greatest problems common to them all. In addition to that, we provided a description of each of the problems, an understanding of the problem scale and impact on a global level, and a list of the foundations or companies currently working on each challenge.
Part
03
of five
Part
03

Greatest problems facing humanity part 3

An additional five of the greatest problems facing humanity include vaccine hesitancy and scarcity, maternal, newborn and child mortality, lack of education, unemployment, and natural disasters.

VACCINE HESITANCY AND SCARCITY

DESCRIPTION

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every year, 1.5 million children below the age of 5 die from vaccine-preventable diseases (This is equivalent to one child dying every 20 seconds). In addition, tens of thousands of children suffer from permanently disabling or severe illnesses.
  • One out of five children globally "are not fully protected with even the most basic vaccines."
  • There has also been a 30% increase in measles cases globally for many reasons including vaccine hesitancy.

REASON FOR INCLUSION
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

MATERNAL, NEWBORN AND CHILD MORTALITY

DESCRIPTION
  • Millions of women and newborns in high-burden communities lose their lives during childbirth and the first month of life, mostly due to causes that can be prevented.
  • Proven interventions are not reaching everyone who needs them, and the quality of care is a challenge. Primary health care systems not well-equipped to deal with the causes of illness or other complications, and there are missing links to functional referral level care. Also, healthcare resources are either fragmented or insufficient and many settings lack accountability for policy implementation.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT

REASON FOR INCLUSION

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

LACK OF EDUCATION

DESCRIPTION

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • Hundreds of millions of children in developing countries have attended school but still do not know how to read or write. Approximately 90% of students in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have the minimum skills in reading and math.
  • When it comes to early childhood education for children between ages 3 and 6, only 50% in the developing world and 20% in low-income countries are in preschool.

REASON FOR INCLUSION

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  •  UNICEF, World Bank, United Nations(UN), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), UN-DESA, UN-HABITAT, and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

UNEMPLOYMENT

DESCRIPTION

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT

REASON FOR INCLUSION
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

NATURAL DISASTERS

DESCRIPTION
  • Natural disasters and emergencies happen almost every day and affect thousands of communities globally. They lead to loss of lives and assets, and have "large and long-lasting impacts on poverty."
  • The World Bank reports that if significant investment is not made into making cities more resilient, natural disasters may cost cities around the world $314 billion annually by 2030.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT

REASON FOR INCLUSION
FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM

RESEARCH STRATEGY

We started our research by looking through problems that global organizations such as Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations (UN) and The World Bank view as problems facing humanity. After checking to avoid duplicates with the previous requests, we proceeded to evaluate the global challenges that were listed by these reliable sources and selected the problems common among some or all of them. We then proceeded to provide a description of each problem, an understanding of the problem scale and global impact, and a list of the foundations or companies currently working on each challenge.

Part
04
of five
Part
04

Greatest problems facing humanity part 4

Five of the most significant problems facing humanity include bioterrorism, religious terrorism, child marriage, money laundering, and corruption.

BIOTERRORISM

  • Following anthrax letter attacks in 2001, there has been a considerable escalation in awareness of the threat posed by biological weapons.
  • A majority of security experts and policy-makers (52%) believe biological weapons constitute a threat that is greater than or equal to that of nuclear weapons.

DESCRIPTION
  • Bioterrorism involves the deliberate release of bacteria, viruses, or other harmful germs aimed at causing illness or death. Germs found in nature are sometimes made more harmful when their ability to spread, cause disease, or resist medical treatment is increased.
  • Anthrax has been used in letter attacks since 2001 as a biological weapon. Anthrax can kill its victims.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • According to Bill Gates, the co-chair of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, bioterrorism most likely constitute death threats to the life of about30 million people.
  • Bill Gates believes bioterrorism is more dangerous and can kill more than nuclear weapons/nuclear warfare.

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has implemented campaigns to reveal high levels of bioterrorism threats. This has also been promoted by the co-chair of the foundation.
  • The United Nations has an office of counter-terrorism dedicated to combating chemical and bio attacks.
  • The World Bank has several reports and documents which track biological weapons used in the twentieth century. Reports on the environment (by the World Bank), disclose that about "30 cases of biological agents" have been acquired for illicit/illegal purposes by non-state actors.

RELIGIOUS TERRORISM

  • The rise of religious terrorism in Africa poses a global security challenge. Although a majority of Africans are peace-loving moderates, radical Islamic ideologies continue to fuel pan‐Islamic terrorism across the continent. Experts believe the causative factors of Islamic terrorism can be categorized into push and pull forces.
  • Push forces refer to conditions that motivate people to embrace ideologies of violent jihadism.

DESCRIPTION
  • Three of the most deadly terrorist organizations in the world, namely the Islamic State, Al Qaeda, and Boko Haram, claim to have religious beliefs. Boko Haram, Al-Qaeda, and the Islamic State are groups of jihadists that want to establish a caliphate (that is, a state ruled by Islamic law). They are responsible for thousands of killings globally.
  • These and other terrorist groups claim to be motivated by religion.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • Boko Haram militants inhabit several northern states of Nigeria, such as Yobe, Kano, Bauchi, Borno, and Kaduna. According to CNN, they are fighting to institute Sharia, or Islamic law and eradicate/prohibit Western education in the country.
  • The growth of religious terrorist groups (such as Boko Haram) in Africa now poses a global security threat.
  • Over 30,000 people have been killed, and over two million displaced in Nigeria due to the jihadist activities of Boko Haram within the past ten years.
  • In 2018, three of the deadliest terrorist groups in the world (all based on religious extremism) caused at least 18,814 deaths in the world. In 2017, four of these terror organizations caused 10,632 deaths.

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • In 2017, World Bank approved $200 million as emergency support for victims of Boko Haram in the northeastern parts of Nigeria.
  • The International Committee of Red Cross has supported victims of religious violence in Nigeria and other parts of the world. In 2018, a staff, of the Red Cross was murdered by Boko Haram. Leah Sharibu, a Dapchi schoolgirl who has refused to denounce her faith in another religion, has been kept by the group as a slave for life.
  • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), in collaboration with Google X, are designing/setting up drone base technologies in Africa to track fighters working for Boko Haram, a "network of Islamist extremists that" have destabilized Nigeria.

CHILD MARRIAGE

  • One of the greatest problems facing humanity is child marriage, which affects several millions of girls globally.

DESCRIPTION
  • Child marriage occurs when a girl marries at ages less than 18 years. In most regions of the world, child marriages occur due to high rates of poverty, and the result is discontinuation in the education of girls involved. Child marriages also result in an increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, cervical cancer, death during childbirth, as well as obstetric fistulas.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT


DESCRIPTION
  • In 2012, about 70 million women aged 20-24 across the world got married before reaching the age of 18.
  • If the present trends persist, about 150 million girls will get married before they reach 18 years old within the next decade. Child marriages affect an average of about 15 million girls every year.
  • Their children of younger girls are at risk of premature birth as well as death. Such children are 60% more likely to "die in their first year" when compared to children whose mothers are older than 19 years.

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has encouraged the fight against child marriage through awards.
  • Several organizations, including the UNAIDS, UN Women, UNICEF, UNFPA, and PAHO/World Health Organization, have joint initiatives aimed at eliminating child marriage. They are also trying to eradicate early unions and support government actions to meet the multiple needs of girls and women.

MONEY LAUNDERING

  • Money laundering is one of the most significant problems facing humanity. It involves enormous sums of money running into billions and also promotes illegal activities.

DESCRIPTION
  • Money laundering occurs when large amounts of money obtained via criminal activities, such as terrorism, drug trafficking, appear as originating from legitimate business activities. Money earned through any illegitimate activity is considered dirty, and the process "launders" so that it looks clean. Money laundering is a crime.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • The World Bank has set up financial intelligence units to help in fighting money laundering in several countries, including Sierra Leone.
  • The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation promotes payment infrastructures that aim to combat money laundering, as well as other breaches.
  • The United Nations has several programs aimed at combating money laundering, drug trafficking, and organized crime.

CORRUPTION

  • Corruption is a problem facing humanity on a large scale.

DESCRIPTION
  • Corruption refers to dishonest behavior by people in positions of power. These people may be government officials or company managers. Corruption usually includes the acts of giving or accepting bribes, inappropriate gifts, under-the-table transactions, double-dealing, and manipulation of elections, among other dishonest acts.

SCALE AND GLOBAL IMPACT
  • At least 35% of companies across the world have been deterred from investing in some parts of the world. This determent is due to a country's perception in terms of corruption.
  • Private sector corruption accounts for the mismanagement of about $500 billion yearly in developing countries.

FOUNDATIONS/COMPANIES WORKING ON THE PROBLEM
  • To fight corruption in many countries, Transparency International has an index, which ranks about 180 countries and territories based on their perceived levels of public sector corruption. This ranking represents the view of experts and business people on a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 represents a highly corrupt territory, and 100 represents a very clean territory free of public sector corruption.
  • The World Bank Institute has governance and anti-corruption unit.
  • The International Anti-Corruption Resource Center (IACRC) has practical instructions and tools used to combat corruption in the developing parts of the world and elsewhere. Its programs are designed to help international development organizations, NGO's, local law enforcement, aid agencies, agencies, and anti-corruption professionals.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

The research included credible media publications such as Forbes, Al Jazeera, CNN, and the resources of non-governmental organizations like Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Health Organization, World Bank, UNAIDS, etc. An investigation was conducted to uncover the greatest problems facing humanity. The study included insights that appear across a plethora of sources. These include insights that are combated or viewed as problems by at least three global organizations.

The greatest problems are considered based on the number of lives they threaten or their economic impacts. Bioterrorism is included because it is a threat to the lives of about30 million people. Religious terrorism is included because it claimed the lives if about 18,814 in 2018 and 10,632 in 2017 across the world. Religious terrorism is responsible for the death of over 30,000 people and two million displaced people within ten years in a single African country. The study has included child marriage due to the millions of children (below 18 years) negatively impacted by the risks that come with it yearly. Money laundering and corruption have been included based on the amounts of money mismanaged across the world through the processes.
Part
05
of five
Part
05

Greatest problems facing humanity part 5

Modern slavery, the displacement/refugee crisis, the African challenge/crisis, the humanitarian crisis, and the population crisis are among five of the greatest problems facing humanity.

I. Modern-day Slavery

Description and Impact

  • Antislavery.org defines modern slavery as any situation whereby a person is "exploited and completely controlled by someone else, without being able to leave."
  • Forms of modern slavery include human trafficking, forced labor, child labor, debt bondage, "descent-based slavery," and forced/child marriages.
  • According to the United Nation's International Labor Organization (ILO), there were about 40.3 million people living in modern-day slavery in 2016.
  • Statistics show that about 24.9 million are victims of forced labor while 15.4 million are in forced marriages. Children make up about 10 million (25%) of the overall 40.3 million modern-day slaves.

Reason for Inclusion and Concerned Organizations

  • Modern slavery has been identified by the UNHCR as a severe problem and has deployed several agencies, foundations, and NGOs to counter the situation.
  • According to the CNN, global organizations interested in modern slavery include the Polaris project, UNICEF, World Vision, and World Hope International.

II. Displacement/Refugee Crisis

Description and Impact

  • According to Care.org, there are millions of displaced people classified as refugees, stateless people, asylum seekers, and internally displaced persons.
  • According to the United Nations, about 70.8 million people globally were forced to leave their homes due to conflict or persecution by the end of 2018.
  • About 30 million of the involuntarily-displaced people are refugees, about 50% of whom are children.
  • Care.org estimates that about 24 people flee their homes every minute. That means that about 34,000 people globally leave their homes each day in fear of persecution or conflict.

Reason for Inclusion and Concerned Organizations

  • The United Nations lists the refugee crisis as one of the most challenging global issues that it is concerned with.
  • According to the NYTimes, several global organizations are interested in the refugee crisis including Oxfam America, Doctors Without Borders, UNICEF, Mercy Corps, and InterAction.

III. The African Challenge

Description and Impact

  • According to the United Nations, the African issue includes the problems affecting Africa as a continent such as Ebola, climate change, water scarcity, extreme poverty, gender inequality, and widespread unemployment.
  • According to data from the United Nations, 250 million Africans would face water scarcity by 2030 and 33% of African youth are currently unemployed.
  • Additionally, 41% of Africans live in abject poverty and only 24% of elective seats in African are occupied by women.
  • The African population is also growing at a slow 3.4% rate with about 55% of the population being dependent solely on agriculture for employment.

Reason for Inclusion and Concerned Organizations

IV. Overpopulation

Description and Impact

  • Overpopulation is the undesirable state where the number human beings exceeds the earth's carrying capacity. This means that the earth's resources would not be able to support the entire population.
  • According to UN statistics, there are currently 7.7 billion people in the world, up from just 1.9 billion about a century ago.
  • Every 14 months, the world's population increases by about 100 million people and it is projected that the world's population will hit 9.7 billion by 2050.
  • If the population continues growing at the same rate, the earth will have to carry about 10.9 billion people by 2100.
  • Experts warn that if the earth's population reaches 10 billion, all undeveloped land, including forests and valleys will have to be turned to agriculture to sustain the entire population.

Reason for Inclusion and Concerned Organizations

  • The United Nations lists population as one of the most challenging global issues that it is concerned with, so much that it has two agencies addressing it: the UN Population Division and the UN Population Fund.
  • The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provides access to family planning services and information to women in poor countries to curb the population growth. Other global organizations include Worldwatch, DSW, and Transition Earth.

V. The Humanitarian Crisis

Description and Impact

  • According to the Gates Foundation, global emergencies include drought, disease outbreaks, natural catastrophes, conflicts, and gender-based violence, among others.
  • The foundation reports that there are over 300 natural disasters annually, most of which are not publicized.
  • According to the United Nations, there are about 28 million people in dire need of humanitarian aid in just 13 countries including the DRC, Haiti, Chad, and Honduras.
  • According to the UN, millions of people are caught up in crises globally and their "level of suffering is alarmingly high."
  • Care.org reports that about 20 million people are on the brink of starvation, 1.4 million of them children, due to the global humanitarian crisis.

Reason for Inclusion and Concerned Organizations

  • Eight of the largest U.S.-based global organizations including Care International, Mercy Corps, World Vision, and Oxfam created the Global Emergency Response Coalition in 2017 to address the global humanitarian crisis.
  • Also, the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) recently allocated $125 million to helping the victims.
  • Additionally, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Emergency Response wing is concerned with the humanitarian crisis and alleviating the suffering.
Sources
Sources

From Part 04
Quotes
  • "CHILD MARRIAGE AROUND THE WORLD One third of girls in the developing world are married before the age of 18 and 1 in 9 are married before the age of 15. In 2012, 70 million women 20-24 around the world had been married before the age of 18. If present trends continue, 150 million girls will be married before their 18th birthday over the next decade. That’s an average of 15 million girls each year. While countries with the highest prevalence of child marriage are concentrated in Western and Sub-Saharan Africa, due to population size, the largest number of child brides reside in South Asi"