Global Environmental Issues

of seven

Global Environmental Issues

Deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and climate change are global environmental issues relevant to agriculture, aquaculture, animals, and/or brain puzzles. The requested information about the issues is presented below.


  • Deforestation refers to clearing of green vegetation to create more land for residential, industrial, or commercial use. Today, forests make approximately 30% of the global land area, but the percentage is shrinking fast due to deforestation. According to World Bank, between 1990 and 2016, 52,200 square miles equivalent to 1.3 million square kilometers of forest were cleared.
  • In 2017, 15.8 million hectares of forest cover was lost. Since deforestation started, humans have cleared 46% of global trees. Over the past 50 years, 17% of Amazon rainforest has been destroyed.
  • Deforestation removes the vegetation that holds the soil together. Without the vegetation, soil is left vulnerable to nutrient loss due to sun’s heat.
  • Absence of roots makes the topsoil loose and susceptible to being blown or washed away, leading to lower soil quality and more landslides. The overall effect is loss of quality arable land and decreased agricultural output. Deforestation also causes reduced rainfall and prolonged drought conditions, thus adversely affecting agricultural activities
  • Forests are home to many animals found on earth, especially wild animals. Thus, deforestation directly leads to habitat loss. It also affects food availability, breeding habitat, and shelter for wild animals.
  • Habitat loss is also the leading cause of human-wildlife conflicts.
  • Forests also help people to live and survive by purifying water and air. They also provide employment opportunities with over 13.2 million people across the globe deriving their livelihood from the forest sector. Another 41 million hold a job that is linked to the sector.
  • Thus, loss of forest cover due to deforestation affects job availability.

Loss of Biodiversity

  • Today, loss of diversity or extinction of various species is a major global environmental issue facing animals and aquaculture. Scientists observe that biodiversity is experiencing an unparalleled decline in the mankind’s history.
  • According to the available data by WWF Living Planet Index, global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, and reptiles have reduced by an average of 60% between 1970 and 2014. One million species are also facing a risk of extinction. The driving forces behind the decline are pollution, changes in the uses of sea and land, and invasive species.
  • Another report by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem (IPBES) released in 2019 indicated that 40% of amphibians, 10% of insects, and a third of all marine mammals are under threat. The chief of diversity in the United Nations observes that biodiversity loss is a silent killer.
  • Reduced genetic diversity affects crop yields negatively. Loss of soil biodiversity renders soil less robust and hinders its capability to support agricultural activities. The ability of agricultural systems to adapt to changes in the environment is hinged on maintaining diversity in crops, cropping systems, and animal breeds.
  • Less biodiversity also makes plants to be more susceptible to diseases and pests, thus affecting crop yields. Moreover, loss of diversity for agriculture jeopardizes nutrition and food security.
  • Loss of biodiversity has major ramifications for humanity, including collapse of health and food systems. Considering that human health is dependent on food production, reduced food availability affects human health. Humans are also exposed to toxic pollutants because of continued use of agrochemicals to boost crop yields of the few food plant species left after loss of diversity.
  • Availability of plant-based drugs is also affected by loss of biodiversity. With 60% of the global population relying on such drugs, especially people from low socioeconomic status, loss of biodiversity emerges as a key threat to human health.

Climate Change

  • Climate change is among the most threatening and pervasive issues in the world today. It has a massive impact on where people live, practice agriculture, and build cities.
  • In World Economic Forum's annual meeting held in Davos this year, climate change was the major theme. According to UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, climate change is the key threat of our time. Scientists reiterate the need to address climate change urgently because the world is close to numerous tipping points, which could hasten global warming.
  • Various stakeholders, including the United Nations and the wider international community, are pushing for communities, countries, and the private sector to come up with measure that address the various causes of climate change, such as greenhouse gases emissions.
  • Climate change has a direct effect on various animal species such as the polar bear that entirely rely on sea-ice environment for their survival. With sea ice melting due to climate change, survival of polar bears is at risk. Climate change also causes variations in temperatures, thus affecting the reproduction cycle of some animals such as turtles.
  • Other affected animals include the endangered species such as tiger, giant panda, Asian elephants, mountain gorilla, and African elephants, among others.
  • Climate change also affects human health by interfering with safe drinking water, clean air, and secure accommodation. According to World Health Organization, climate change is projected to cause 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050.
  • Climate change affects aquaculture by causing changes in temperatures in both air and water. It also alters oceanographic conditions such as waves, wind speed, and currents. Extreme weather conditions caused by climate change subject various animals such as shellfish to psychological stress, thus interfering with their growth and development.
of seven

Global Environmental Issues P2

The three environmental issues that are relevant to agriculture, aquaculture, animals, and brain puzzles are water scarcity, pollution, and soil erosion. Below is an overview of the findings.

Water Scarcity

  • As the water supply depletes, competition for water is becoming one of the existential threats farmers are facing today.
  • According to the International Water Management Institute, agriculture uses 70% of the world’s usable freshwater and 60% of the water used for agriculture leaks due to irrigation systems failures. Subsequently, overuse of water causes rivers, lakes and underground aquifers to dry out.
  • A team of researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) calculated that if there was 20% more or less water available for agriculture, this would have a "little impact on global food prices, bioenergy production, land-use change and the global economy."
  • The researchers added that the impact of water scarcity will be more severe for countries with a relatively low amount of rainfall and high population growth. Water shortage is likely to limit irrigated cropland expansion and decrease crop production in those countries.
  • Over 4 billion people in the world are facing water shortage because of the overconsumption of freshwater.
  • In Africa, due to the shortage of water, dehydrated animals like elephants dig holes hoping to find water. These holes, in turn, trap other animals making them an easy target for predators. Water shortage also forces wild animals to move out our their territory in pursuit of water and this causes clashes with local people and villages.
  • The likelihood that wandering animals come into contact with humans increases as does the risk that humans will come into contact with disease-carrying insects carried by the animal hosts. Moreover, there is an increased risk that wandering animals will fall prey to predators.


  • The most common toxic pollutants that impact wildlife are synthetic chemicals, oil, toxic metals, and acid rain. Oil spills harm the environment instantly and cause large death tolls.
  • For instance, according to Marine Bio, the Exxon Valdez oil spill incident led to the death of more than 100,000 sea birds, 1,000 sea otters, about 144 bald eagles.
  • Mining, water-waste, metal refining and the burning of fossil fuels increase the concentration of toxic chemicals in the environment to a dangerous level. Those metals emitted to water and air cause neurological damage, liver damage, muscle atrophy, among others, to both humans and animals.
  • Combustion of oil, coal powerplants and cars emit both sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere which causes acid rain. Marine Bio noted that many lakes lose their entire fish population because of acid rain, which in turn many affects birds and other animals.
  • In 2014, the global aquaculture production reached 167 million tons and waste from fish diminished the water quality. The increased use of antibiotics, fungicides, anti-fouling agents of aquaculture production may contribute to the pollution of downstream ecosystems.
  • The most prevalent chemical pollutant in the world’s groundwater aquifers is nitrate from agriculture. The accumulation of nutrients in lakes and coastal waters causes eutrophication which impacts biodiversity and fisheries in at least 415 coastal areas.

Soil Erosion and Degradation

  • Overgrazing could lead to the loss of topsoil and nutrients, thus, enabling erosion. This leads to a reduction in the plant's ability to grow and water to penetrate the ground. Dried-out topsoil harms soil microbes and causes erosion of the land.
  • Displacement of the upper layer of soil leads to floods because the ground's ability to soak up water has decreased.
  • The overuse of pesticides and other chemicals in agriculture alters the soil composition and affects the balance of microorganisms in the soil.
  • Due to the establishment of aquaculture ponds and the development of its infrastructure, large-scale erosion has taken place in several countries such as Thailand and Indonesia.
  • Livestock farming causes 55% of global soil erosion.
  • Every year, an estimated 24 billion tons of fertile soil is lost due to erosion and it costs the global economy between $6.3 trillion and $10.6 trillion.
  • Researchers from Spain have found that the number of yearly floods or disasters related to flooding in the world has increased by more than 9 times since the 1950s and this cannot all be explained by climate change. Reuters reported that erosion is more significant than extreme rainfall in contributing to flooding disasters.

of seven

Global Environmental Issues P3

Depletion of natural resources such as water is an environmental issue that is exacerbated by and a threat to agriculture practices and irrigation. Urban sprawl and farm pollution that creates dead zones are other examples of environmental issues that threaten agriculture and aquaculture. Information about these three environmental issues is provided below.

Natural Resource Depletion

  • Increasing levels of consumption are depleting resources at rates estimated to be 1.5 times higher than the earth's capacity to sustainably supply resources such as water and oil.
  • At current rates, humans are using natural resources at 2 to 3 times than is sustainable of the world’s total water volume, only 2.5% is fresh water, and 70% of that is ice.
  • Even though such a small proportion of the world’s water is freshwater, 70% is used in agriculture, 20% is used in industry, and just 10% for human consumption. The depletion of the water supply threatens agriculture and the food supply especially in light of agriculture’s increasing use of water and irrigation.
  • Extraction of minerals is driven by modern technology such as smart phones, however, many mining sites overlap with "ancestral domains, forests, and biodiversity-rich habitats". Mining leaves behind millions of tons of metal waste and billions in waste ore with no reliable means of disposal, and catastrophic accidents like oil spills have killed an enormous number of fish, resulted in soil and water pollution, and harms humans.

Urban Sprawl

  • Urban sprawl threatens ground water supplies, results in “high rates of polluted runoff” and threatens surface waters, and increases flooding.
  • Urban sprawl is threatening the future of agriculture by decimating farm and grazing land. The US is losing 1.5 million acres a year. However, the US is more focused on the economic urban functions of urban sprawl, whereas Europe is more focused on the environmental impacts of urban sprawl.
  • Urban sprawl negatively impacts “animals, plants, and the environment in general”. The disappearing species and habitats threatens humans that are dependent on them as well. In addition, the loss of known and unknown individual plant and animal species also means lost opportunities for future advances in medicine.
  • Urban sprawl depletes farmland and displaces wildlife this increasing human encounters with wildlife. Endangered By Sprawl provides a chart that shows the large and the fastest growing US counties that have large numbers of species at risk of extinction.
  • Wildlife is impacted by urban sprawl by causing habitat loss, food loss because of less farm land, pollution may kill animals that eat the garbage, and animals die from starvation and death.
  • NatureServe estimates approximately 6,400 US species as imperiled or critically imperiled, and about 60% of those species are in metropolitan areas and 31% are exclusively in metropolitan areas.

Eutrophication and Dead Zones (Farm Pollution)

  • Dead zones occur when fertilizer runoff and sewage get into surface waters and kills aquatic plants. The resulting decomposition depletes the oxygen in the water source and kills many of the living fish and cause the rest to seek other waters. An example of this is found in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • The toxic algae bloom not only impacts wildlife but also humans. They produce toxins that poison aquatic organisms like seabirds, fish, and aquatic mammals. Some toxins enter the gills of fish and are then ingested by humans who can then get sick or even die.
  • A dead zone in Chesapeake Bay is estimated to be among the 20% of the largest recorded around 2.1 cubic miles, the equivalent to over 3.5 million Olympic-sized swimming pools. Lake Eerie is estimated to hold 50,000 tons of potentially toxic algae.
  • These record-breaking blooms are the result of record-breaking wet winter and spring rainfall causing more runoff from farmlands. The runoff contains nutrients primarily from fertilizer that fuels algal blooms that kill fish, closes beaches, causes drinking water alerts and "loss of coastal property value".
of seven

Global Environmental Issues P4

The United Nations, through its adopted SDGs, has collaborated with global stakeholders to prevent deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. The Million Moringa Project and Sustainably Forestry Industry Development are some initiatives introduced by the UN to prevent global deforestation and loss of indigenous tree species. Below is a comprehensive review of how the organization's SDGs have been used to address these environmental issues.

Addressing Deforestation

Major Initiatives

Addressing the Loss of Biodiversity

Major Initiatives

Addressing Climate Change

  • The first Climate Action Summit, held in 2018, succeeded in focusing the attention of global leaders, civil society, private and public sectors, and governments on key actions necessary to address climate change and increase climate action.

Major Initiatives

  • The UN Climate Resilience Initiative A2R is one of the initiatives launched by the UN to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Launched during the UNFCCC COP21 in 2015, the initiative promotes key capacities for climate resilience for the UN ecosystem to understand and respond to climate risks and associated hazards.
  • The A2R initiative accelerates action on climate resilience under three pillars: Anticipate (being in the capacity to better anticipate and act on climate stresses and hazards); Absorb (increased capacity to deal with hazards through access to climate risk insurance); and Reshape (being able to reshape development models by transforming economies to reduce risks and vulnerability causes).

of seven

Global Environmental Issues P5

The United Nations, with its adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), addresses environmental issues such as water scarcity, pollution, and soil erosion and degradation and is making an effort to restrict or reduce the effects of these issues. Below is an overview of the findings.

Addressing Water Scarcity and Major Initiatives

  • One of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN) is to guarantee the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for everyone. The water sector is covered in the sixth goal highlighting clean water and sanitation. Further, Target 6.1 stipulates, "By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all."
  • To address water scarcity and lessen the number of people suffering from this environmental issue, Target 6.4 is aimed at "substantially increas[ing] water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensur[ing] sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater" by 2030.
  • The United Nation's SDG asks that developed and developing nations make sure their citizens have access to water. Canada, with its large reserves of freshwater, continues to give boil-water advisories for some one hundred Indigenous communities.
  • Achieving the SDG water-related goals and targets is possible as 90% of people globally use improved drinking water sources, according to the United Nation's recent statistics.
  • The United Nations General Assembly has adopted "International Decade (2018–2028) for Action Water for Sustainable Development," a resolution that puts more focus on water for ten years.
  • The term #EveryDrop Counts is used to emphasize the objective of the UN, which focuses on the "sustainable development and integrated management of water resources for the achievement of social, economic and environmental objectives." UN efforts are also directed towards implementing & promoting related programs and projects and promoting cooperation and partnership at all levels. These initiatives are helping to achieve the globally agreed water-related goals and targets surrounding issues like water scarcity problems and are also included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • To raise awareness of water-related issues, including water scarcity, the UN launched World Water Day on March 22 and World Toilet Day on November 19. These UN events are other efforts directed towards achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and thousands of people are joining these events.

Addressing Pollution and Major Initiatives

  • Since pollution comes in different forms, the SDG targets and goals also address these in different areas. The SDG 12, for example, addresses "non-polluting production", SDG 13 addresses "decreasing air pollutants", and SDG 14 addresses "fighting marine pollution in all its forms."
  • Furthermore, the SDG intends to protect marine and coastal ecosystems from pollution and manage these ecosystems as well. It also addresses ocean acidification. The goals and targets specific to these issues are covered in "Goal 14: Life Below Water" of the SDG.
  • The UN Environment Programme helps to achieve the SDG goals concerning pollution. The initiatives are "supporting the switch to resource-efficient, non-polluting production and consumption," "diminishing climate and air pollutants," and "supporting the move to opposing of marine pollution in all its forms." Efforts are made through "science-based policymaking, innovation, global advocacy, and partnership building."
  • Concerning air pollution, the UN partnered with Clean Fuels and Vehicles to help nations decrease urban air pollution. Actions are focused on embracing cleaner fuels and more capable vehicle technologies and standards.
  • The UN Environment, together with the World Health Organization and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, launched the global Breathe Life campaign. This campaign aims to "mobilize cities and individuals to protect our health and planet from the effects of air pollution."
  • In the area of chemical pollution, the UN is hosting the Minamata Convention which addresses concerns surrounding mercury and is also hosting the Ozone Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund which is concerned with the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Another UN initiative is OzonAction, where the UN collaborates with "governments and industries in developing nations to help them phase out ozone-depleting chemicals."
  • The UN, together with the World Health Organization, also leads the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead in Paint, which aims to reduce the use of lead in paint by 2020. Further, the UN also identifies key trends and policy analysis to inform international discussions on chemicals and waste management through the UN Environment's Global Chemicals Outlook.
  • Concerning marine pollution, the UN Environment launched the #CleanSeas campaign in 2017. This campaign pushes governments to introduce policies that reduce the use of plastic. It focuses on decreasing plastic packaging and redesigning products in the industry and calls on consumers to replace their throwaway habits.
  • To increase global marine protection in areas such as pollution, the UN works through the Regional Seas programs with countries around the world.

Addressing Soil Erosion and Degradation and Major Initiatives

  • Environmental issues on soil erosion and degradation are also covered in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. These are included in the fifteenth goal on the SDG, which focuses on life on land by protecting, restoring, and promoting the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems.
  • The life on land goal (the fifteenth SDG goal) aims to stop and reverse land degradation and biodiversity loss. It also includes capturing carbon, maintaining soil quality, providing habitat for biodiversity, maintaining water quality, and regulating water flow and erosion control.
  • Concerning soil erosion and degradation problems, Target 15.1 aims to "ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements" by 2020.
  • Multiple SDG targets and goals focus on soil degradation issues. Target 15.2 focuses on the "restoration of degraded forests," Target 15.3 focuses on the "restoration of degraded land and soil," and Target 15.5 focuses on the "reduction of degradation of natural habitats through exercising urgent and important efforts."
  • Concerning soil-related issues, including erosion and degradation, the UN Global Compact has aided the growth of the Principles for Sustainable Soil Management. The companies can support these principles voluntarily and report on their progress through their annual Communication on Progress.
  • In Serbia, where soil erosion is a significant issue, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA, and the Vinca Institute adopted the fallout radionuclide (FRN) methods for soil erosion assessment. The effort helps to measure the effects of land use on soil erosion and the efficiency of soil conservation. Moreover, through this effort, the UN Sustainable Development Goal Target 15.3 on land degradation neutrality can be achieved.
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established Faith for Earth, which focuses on SDG 15 and targets land-related issues such as soil erosion and degradation. The first main objective of the initiative is to "strengthen partnerships with faith-based organization leaders to boost environmentally friendly policies."

Research Strategy

To understand how the United Nation's SDGs addressed the three environmental issues (water scarcity, pollution, and soil erosion and degradation), we leveraged diverse UN websites like the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, the UN Global Compact, and the UN Organization's official site as well as articles on initiatives. Several sources are older than two years but were utilized to offer details on initiatives, SDG goals (which were adopted in 2015), and other areas.
of seven

Global Environmental Issues P6

The United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) # 12, 11, and 14 address the issues of natural resource depletion, urban sprawl, and eutrophication, respectively. Details are outlined below.

UN SDG #12 addresses the issue on natural resource depletion

  • The UN Sustainable Development Goal #12 states "ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns." This goal addresses the environmental issue pertaining to natural resource depletion as the goal seeks to "educate consumers on sustainable consumption and lifestyles, providing them with adequate information through standards and labels and engaging in sustainable public procurement."
  • This SDG also seeks to "implement the 10-year framework of programs on sustainable consumption and production." In this program, all countries will be taking action, "with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries."
  • Last March 2019, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) "called for urgent action against resource extraction to save the world from depletion that it says has tripled since 1970."
  • As of the moment, there are no specific initiatives that have been put into place yet that are geared towards lessening the effects of the issue. However, later this year "parties to the UN Convention on Biodiversity will be called upon to adopt a plan to reverse the depletion of our world’s biodiversity."

UN SDG #11 addresses the issue on urban sprawl

  • The UN Sustainable Development Goal #11 states "make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable." This goal addresses the environmental issue pertaining to urban sprawl as the goal seeks to put in place "efficient urban planning and management practices to deal with the challenges brought by urbanization."
  • SDG 11 seeks to increase municipal waste collection. It also seeks to "support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning."
  • One of SDG 11's targets is to "substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels."
  • In 2018, the UN Environment launched a report that examines the urbanization of ASEAN countries. According to the report, "collaborative governance, at all levels, and long-range planning will be needed to transform the region’s cities."
  • The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), in 2016, released a "scientific tool that measures the rate of global urbanization, its characteristics, and the potential effect of urban sprawl on the quality of life for city dwellers."

UN SDG #14 addresses the issue on eutrophication and dead zones

  • The UN Sustainable Development Goal #14 states "conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources." This goal addresses the environmental issue pertaining to eutrophication and dead zones as the goal seeks to effectively manage marine protected areas.
  • The goal also seeks to put in place regulations "to reduce over fishing, marine pollution, and ocean acidification." It also seeks to "prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution."
  • Aside from that, SDG 14 also targets to "sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans" by 2020.
  • To protect oceans from eutrophication, the UN Environment Northwest Pacific Regional Seas Programme developed "a satellite imagery technique for timely detection of potential dead zones in the sea" and it is now ready for use.
of seven

Global Environmental Issues P7

Climate change and extreme weather patterns, water scarcity, loss of biodiversity, pollution, and urban sprawl are some key crises affecting the globe. However, a combination of all these factors together amplifies the risks of each, threatening the sustainability and wellbeing of humanity. Because of the interlinkage of these environmental challenges, it is crucial that the United Nations organization (UN) and global leaders adopt integrated environmental solutions that address multiple issues.


  • According to the 2018 Global Risks Report published by the World Economic Forum, 6 out of 10 greatest risks affecting humankind, in terms of impact and likelihood, are environmental-related. These include desertification, loss of biodiversity, climate change, pollution, water scarcity, food shortage, and soil erosion.
  • According to the report, pollution of land and water resources, biodiversity loss, land degradation, and poverty are examples of related problems that result from multiple interacting causes. These challenges are further exacerbated by climate change and its impacts on human livelihoods and the environment.
  • While some of these issues are antagonistic, others are synergistic. Food, energy, and water are closely linked and should be considered simultaneously, together with maintenance of the biophysical resource base, which includes the soil, land, biological, and hydrological resources to ensure sustainability.
  • Some interconnection of the highlighted environmental issues are discussed below.

Deforestation, Climate Change, and Loss of Biodiversity

Water Scarcity, Pollution, and Deforestation

  • According to the WWF, only 3% of the world’s water is freshwater, while two-thirds is unavailable for consumption or tucked away in frozen glaciers. As a result, more than 1.1 billion people across the world lack water access, with a total of 2.7 billion facing water scarcity.
  • A significant cause of water scarcity is pollution. Sources of water pollution include fertilizers and pesticides that are washed away from farms, industrial activities, and untreated human wastewater. This phenomenon affects the groundwater, as many pollutants leach into underground reservoirs. Some immediate effects include immediate contamination by harmful bacteria, which render the available water hazardous for human consumption.
  • Deforestation has also been linked to water scarcity. According to the WWF, trees play a critical role in the local water cycle by creating a balance between water in the atmosphere and water on land. However, with deforestation, the balance is affected, resulting in changes in the river flow and precipitation, thus, causing water scarcity.

Climate Change and Water Scarcity

Eutrophication and Climate Change



From Part 01
From Part 04
From Part 05
  • "By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all"
  • "By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater."
  • "sustainable development and integrated management of water resources for the achievement of social, economic and environmental objectives."
  • "science-based policymaking, innovation, global advocacy, and partnership building"
  • "mobilize cities and individuals to protect our health and planet from the effects of air pollution"
  • "ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services"
  • "promote the implementation of sustainable management"
  • "By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements."