Global AI Policy Analysis

Part
01
of five
Part
01

Global AI Policy Analysis (Rows 15 - 18)

At the start of 2019, Singapore released its Model Artificial Intelligence Governance Framework as part of its AI policy. Prior to this, in 2017, Singapore had released the Road Traffic Rules for Autonomous Motor Vehicles, a policy for the regulation of autonomous motor vehicle technology in Singapore. The findings for all the target countries (Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Russia) have been summarized on the attached spreadsheet.

METHODOLOGY

We started by looking for artificial Intelligence policies, regulations, and framework for the assigned countries (Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Russia) on each country's official websites. Through this strategy, we were able to locate current and prospective policies of the assigned countries. We also searched for sources that provided an analysis of the current and planned policies of each of the countries and we were able to find several media, news, and institutional sources that briefly addressed the effects of these policies. As per the research criteria, our findings have been detailed on row 15-18 of the attached spreadsheet.

GLOBAL AI POLICY ANALYSIS

SINGAPORE

On 23rd January 2019, Singapore released its Model Artificial Intelligence Governance Framework. This document was released for public consultation, pilot adoption, and feedback. Additionally, the main principles of the Model Framework included transparency, explainability when AI plays a part in decision-making and ensuring the creation of human-centric AI solutions.

On 24th August 2017, Singapore introduced the Road Traffic Rules for Autonomous Motor Vehicles. The main features of this policy included rules against: unauthorized trial or use of autonomous motor vehicles, grant application before a certified trial of automated vehicle technology, and using autonomous vehicles to carry passengers. The policy was essentially put in place to regulate the unauthorized use of autonomous motor vehicles, but also to ensure there was a proper framework for testing autonomous technology in Singapore.

LINKS TO AI POLICY


LINK TO AI POLICY ANALYSIS

MALAYSIA

On 19th October 2018, the Prime Minister of Malaysia revealed "initiatives to accelerate the adoption of digital technology in the country and boost the digital economy." Within these initiatives, the Malaysian government also planned to develop a National Artificial Intelligence Framework. The major features of this plan included setting up innovation centers, the creation of Chief Innovation Officer positions at all ministries and agencies, and the utilization of a secure digital ID platform.

A cloud-first strategy was also revealed on 19th October 2018. The major feature of this strategy included priority government support for adoption of cloud technology by the private sector i.e. banking, financial services, healthcare, and telecommunications industries. The government also encouraged the private sector to provide benchmarks for regulation purposes.

LINKS TO AI POLICY

  • Plans for cloud-first strategy and national AI framework revealed at 29th MSC Malaysia Implementation Council Meeting.

LINK TO AI POLICY ANALYSIS

AUSTRALIA

The Innovation and Science Australia 2030 Plan was announced on 22nd May 2018. The main feature of the plan included a $2.4 billion investment into research, science and technology i.e. Artificial Intelligence, skills development and export competitiveness.

The Victorian All-Party Parliamentary Group on Artificial Intelligence was launched on 7th March 2018. The launching of the group was primarily for policymaking in regard to the critical and transformative nature of AI and to ensure Victoria benefited from the opportunities presented by Artificial Intelligence.

LINKS TO AI POLICY


LINK TO AI POLICY ANALYSIS

RUSSIA

The national strategy for the development of Artificial Intelligence was planned to be released on February 25th, 2019. The planned features of the strategy included determining ways to stimulate investment in broader areas of technology, including the Internet of Things, AI and robotics, schools connectivity to high-speed internet and opening of five new scientific and educational centers.

The plan for AI development in Russia was launched in May 2018. The primary features of the plan included the formation of an AI and big data consortium around educational and industrial organizations, providing funds to support expertise on automated systems, increasing state funding of AI training and education, building AI labs at top technology universities, establishing a national level AI Research and Development center, and monitoring technical and social trends in AI.

LINKS TO AI POLICY


LINK TO AI POLICY ANALYSIS



Part
02
of five
Part
02

Global AI Policy Analysis (Rows 11 - 14)

Our research identified a dedicated AI policy in South Korea and Brazil's E-Digital strategy. Israel and Indonesia do not currently have any AI policies or regulations in place. The requested information has been included in the attached spreadsheet.

South Korea

In 2016, the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning released the Artificial Intelligence Information Industry Development Strategy, a master policy plan on the development of AI in the country. While the country is focused on development of artificial intelligence, the policy maintains that development should be led by the citizens and businesses of South Korea, with Government and research supporting. AI should help economic growth while maintaining lifestyle, safety and happiness. The government is currently planning to fund $2 billion for AI.

A Forbes article suggested that South Korea's policies and investment in AI may make the country the global leader of artificial intelligence by 2030. With a shortage of AI engineers in the country, the South Korean government is working on opening up at least six new AI schools by 2020, focused on educating AI engineers.

Brazil

Brazil does not currently have a dedicated policy for AI, however AI is discussed in the Government's E-Digital strategy report. The strategy includes allowing for digital transformation to continue, including AI, while protecting its citizens rights and maintaining privacy, developing an action plan for new technologies, and working with other countries to develop new technologies.

Brazil is currently looking at an unemployment crisis due to the increased use of artificial intelligence in workplaces. An article warned that the Government will need to step in and start looking at lower level training or other measures to ensure the workforce doesn't suffer due to increased use of automation. In January 2019, Marcos Pontes was announced as the new Minister of science, technology, innovation and communications. He has stated he plans to focus on cybersecurity and artificial intelligence and to work closely with other Government departments.

Israel

An annual report released in 2018 by CIFAR a Canadian-based, global charitable organization, looked at the policies and strategies for AI around the world. They noted that Israel does not currently have strategies or policies in place, but that they are currently working on putting a strategy together.

The Israel Innovation Authority, tasked with AI policies in the country, has warned that policies are needed to stop the country falling behind. They acknowledge that Israel needs to implement policies to strengthen academic research, develop infrastructure, and to regulate the industry.

Indonesia

We began our research by searching the Indonesian governments' website for any information on the countries AI policies. The website did not provide any information on policies for AI. Next, We reviewed reports on AI by organizations like CIFAR, however Indonesia was not mentioned as having any AI policies or strategies. Finally, we did a press search to see if any news had been released by the government in regard to Indonesia's AI policies. Using these strategies we were unable to find any mention of Indonesia having a policy on Artificial Intelligence.

Our research did find that Indonesia is leading the Asia-Pacific market in the adoption of Artificial Intelligence. 65% of those surveyed stated that they had implemented AI in their businesses or planned to in the near future.
Part
03
of five
Part
03

Global AI Policy Analysis (Rows 7 - 10)

This research outlines key Artificial Intelligence (AI) policies present in France, United Kingdom, Japan, and South Africa. France announced the AI for Humanity policy in 2018, United Kingdom signed the AI Sector Deal in 2018, while Japan and South Africa have Society 5.0 and the Intsimbi Future Production Technologies Initiative respectively. We have summarized our findings in rows 7-10, column B-D of the attached spreadsheet.

Below is a detailed overview of the AI policies present in each of the assigned countries, including the title of the policy, the major features, and the year the policy was announced.

France

AI for Humanity

In 2018, French President, Emmanuel Macron unveiled the AI for Humanity national plan which aims to position France as a global AI leader. This policy framework has the following major features:
  • Attracting the best French talent by coordinating with the National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA) and doubling the number of students with AI training.
  • Developing a transparent data policy in sectors like healthcare where France already has a competitive advantage.
  • Establishing a strong AI work ethic that meets global standards.
  • Boosting research efforts in AI. Under the AI for Humanity plan, A €1.5 billion fund was set aside to create a framework that offers special support to AI research projects and startups.

According to thought leaders who attended the AI for Humanity conference in Paris, the policy recommendations made by President Macron came at the perfect time and are expected to have a positive effect on the local AI sector. “The timing couldn’t be more perfect,” says Alessandro Curioni, Director of IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland. “We are becoming awash in data and we simply can’t keep up. The only answer is AI,” he says.

united kingdom

ai sector deal

The AI Sector Deal was put in place in 2018 to harness all the social and economic benefits associated with AI technology. This policy strives to ensure AI benefits everyone in the United Kingdom by solving major problems fast and raising productivity at the workplace. Based on UK's grand challenges that aim to put the United Kingdom at the forefront of future industries, major objectives of the AI Sector Deal include:
  • Increasing AI investment to 2.4 percent of the GDP by 2027 and increasing the rate of R&D tax credit to 12 percent.
  • Creating strong partnerships between government agencies, industry, and academic institutions to improve the supply of AI skills.
  • Ensuring the U.K's digital infrastructure has the capacity to keep up with AI tech requirements.
  • Investing £725 million in a new Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund that supports startups with viable and innovative business ideas.

Jerome Pesenti and Wendy Hall, part of the review team behind the Sector Deal draft, strongly believe that the United Kingdom will gain a competitive advantage from this policy which aims to close the AI skills gap in the region.

japan

society 5.0

Society 5.0 was released in 2017 to create sustainable solutions for better human life. By taking advantage of accumulated big data and their culture of “monozukuri”, Japan aims to reduce the prevalence of social challenges associated with an aging population. Major features of Japan's Society 5.0 include:
  • Conversion of big data collected by IOT into AI.
  • AI will take a holistic approach to social life by offering more effective healthcare services, enabling people in underpopulated areas to easily move around, and inspecting infrastructure like roads and bridges.

According to TechCrunch and Japan Industry News, extracting meaning out of big data to solve social challenges and environmental issues is a smart move by Japan and leads to new business models that will change the industrial sector for the better, including all other aspects of society.

south africa

Intsimbi Future Production Technologies Initiative

The Intsimbi Future Production Technologies Initiative (IFPTI) was launched in 2018 with the aim of advancing South Africa's manufacturing sector. The Intsimbi model aims to create innovative industry solutions that can be expanded in a sustainable way. IFPTI, an expansion of the National Tooling Initiative programme, targets fields like robotics and mechatronics which have the capacity to transform South Africa into an industrial powerhouse.

Devon de Freitas, an Intsimbi beneficiary, was quoted by IOL saying IFPTI had exposed him to more advanced aspects of tool making.
“During my stint I was taught the science of computer numerical control machining as well as computer aided designs. All these equipped me with a competitive edge in my pursuit of employment opportunities as prospective employers are more trusting of candidates that possess basic knowledge in advanced machining,” said De Freitas.

According to Tech Financials, IFPTI is South Africa's flagship project that will usher the country into the 4th Industrial Revolution. This program will offer industry players a platform where they can participate and execute projects on a national and regional scale.
We have summarized the above findings in rows 7-10, column B-D of the attached spreadsheet.


Part
04
of five
Part
04

Global AI Policy Analysis (Rows 3 - 6)

We were able to identify the AI policies for the United States, China, India, and Germany. We filled the attached spreadsheet as required.

United States of America AI Policies

This bill was introduced into the house on 12/12/2017. It seeks to promote innovation and investments into AI, sharing of data and research on AI, and promotion and support of unbiased application and development of AI. Also, the bill seeks to protect the privacy rights of individuals and international competitiveness and cooperation.
Introduced into the house on 18/01/2018, the AI Jobs Act expresses the sense of Congress that technology can better the lives of individuals, but can also interrupt jobs. The bill, therefore, fosters innovation while training and retaining the United States workforce for the economy of the 21st century. It also promotes the collection of data to analyze the growth and impact of AI, and identification of industries that will have the highest growth in the usage of AI. This act seeks to examine the result of using the technology for the workers and expertise and the education that is needed to operate, develop and work beside AI for the next twenty years. The Act promotes demographics analysis and preparation of future workers for the AI economy and other observations and recommendation.

AI POLICY in CHINA

In 2017, the State Council of China introduced the New Generation of Artificial Intelligence Development Plan. This plan provides guidelines on the expansion of AI by which China seeks to become a global innovation hub by 2030. The policy accelerates the application of AI, promotes the harvest and development of the AI industry to advance the economic development of China. The plan also ensures reliable, safe and controllable development of AI. It fosters improvement, the adaptation of policies, regulations and the infrastructure for the development of AI. The aim of the plan is also to promote global competitiveness and to make China a leader in the development of AI in the world.

AI POLICY in INDIA

In 2018, NITI Aayog established the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence #AIforAll. This policy focuses on using technologies to ensure social growth and positioning India as a global leader in AI. It focuses on dealing with global challenges using AI. It also identifies applications of AI that have a maximum social impact and the future development of AI. The strategy focuses on five sectors: healthcare, agriculture, education, smart cities and infrastructure, and active mobility and transportation.

AI POLICY in GERMANY

In 2018, the Artificial Intelligence Strategy was developed through collaborative efforts of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. This policy sets an essential structure for the application and the development of AI in Germany. The plan seeks to make Germany a center for the research of AI and to help their companies take advantage of AI technologies. It also prioritizes the funding of the use of AI in small and medium-sized companies and ensures that the AI technology serves individuals and society.
Part
05
of five
Part
05

Global AI Policy Analysis: (Rows 19 - 21)

Our team located key Artificial Intelligence (AI) policies present in the United Arab Emirates, Japan, and Qatar. The policies of the two former countries were disclosed on the website of the Future of Life Institute, a research, and outreach organization that follows news and updates on AI policies of 26 nations. Qatar's AI policy was published on the official page of Qatar Center for Artificial Intelligence (QCAI). Additionally, we also provided links to each policy statements, announcements or descriptions, and news sources or reports that discuss or analyze the policies. We have summarized our findings in rows 19-21, column B-D of the attached spreadsheet. To put it briefly, the United Arab Emirates and Japan announced their AI policies in 2017, the UAE Strategy for Artificial Intelligence and the Artificial Intelligence Technology Strategy, respectively. However, Qatar recently announced its AI policy, the National AI Strategy for Qatar on 7 February 2019.
Sources
Sources

From Part 01
From Part 02
From Part 03
Quotes
  • "Development of artificial intelligence (AI) is a priority that the President of the Republic confirmed very early on by entrusting Cédric Villani with the task of laying the foundations of a French strategy on the subject. No other European leader has shown such proactiveness in this area."
Quotes
  • "After announcing plans last week for France to spend nearly $2 billion on AI research and development, President Emmanuel Macron discussed with Wired how France and the EU could not just become global players in AI, but fill a big gap in how the technology is applied to modern society."
Quotes
  • "The timing couldn’t be more perfect,” says Alessandro Curioni, vice president of Europe and director of IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, who attended the event in Paris. “We are becoming awash in data and we simply can’t keep up. The only answer is AI,” he says."
Quotes
  • "France developed a national strategy for AI titled “AI for Humanity” over the course of about a year, with several different entities and strands included. Cédric Villani, mathematician and winner of the Fields Medal in 2010, was tasked by the Prime Minister with examining France’s strategy on artificial intelligence within Europe, and an AI Policy Initiative was launched in 2017. "
Quotes
  • "Make no mistake, the new Sector Deal for AI – and the other programmes like it – is good news for the UK, despite the frustrating delay in the official announcement."
Quotes
  • "Professor Hall and Mr Pesenti concluded: “The UK could stay among the world leaders in AI in the future or allow other countries to dominate. We start from a good position in many respects, but other leading countries are devoting significant resources."
Quotes
  • "In Society 5.0, humanity and machines will solve the greatest issues society faces in the 21st century. We must embrace what Japan is creating with Society 5.0, or we will simply become a vestige of the technological past."
Quotes
  • "The IFPTI Programme will serve as one of the levers which government will implement to lessen the disruptive impact of the digital industrial revolution."
From Part 04