FTeen & Twens Fast Food

Part
01
of eleven
Part
01

Market Size of Teens in the Informal Eating Out Industry in Germany

Although we were unable to find data on the total size of the Informal Eating Out market made up of German teens, we estimated that German teens spend between $1.15 billion and $2.43 billion annually on eating out. Below, you will find more details on how we arrived at this estimate.

METHODOLOGY

In order to answer this question, I first searched for pre-compiled data defining the market size of teens in the informal eating out industry in Germany. I found that this is not a specifically defined market in its own right, and therefore there are no industry reports on this subject. I then looked for industry reports on wider industries that would encompass this as a segment. However, all of these reports withheld essential data unless purchased (e.g. this Euromonitor report, and this report on consumer lifestyles in Germany).

Next, I searched for statistics on German teenagers such as the average amount of money spent on eating out, the percentage of their allowance they spend on this, the frequency per week that they eat out, and their annual spend on specific segments such as fast food chains, snack bars, informal restaurants, takeaways, kebab shops and bakeries. I searched through research papers, online articles and online databases (such as Statista, which did have many statistics on German teens, but nothing on their spending on the informal eating out industry, or food in general), however, again this data was not available. This is most likely because the data is yet to be collected. I also searched for this data in German, but it was not available.

Finally, I used the information that was available to make a rough estimate on what the size of the market may be.

USEFUL FINDINGS AND CALCULATIONS

I was able to find the average allowance given to German teenagers. I searched for data on how this age group spends their allowance (broken down into categories) in order to calculate how much is spent on the informal eating out market, but as explained above this data is not available. However, I was able to find what percentage of allowance is spent on eating out by US teens and global teens. I used these figures to calculate a rough estimate of what spending by German teens may be.

US teens spend 20% of their allowance on food. This has increased in recent years. In the US this is mostly being spent eating out at popular food chains.

In Germany, teenagers get an average of £20 a week (roughly $28). Although this figure is from 2014, it is the most recent available.

This source tells us the population of Germany by age group. Unfortunately, there is no source available the tells us how many teenagers there are aged 14-19, this source is the closest as it tells us that there are 3,969,579 teenagers aged 15-19 in Germany. We know that on average German teenagers receive $28 a week in allowance, which equates to $1,456 a year. Multiplied by the number of 15-19 year olds in Germany this equals to $5,779,707,024 in total allowance given to Germans aged 15-19. US teens spend 20% of their allowance on food, which is generally spent in popular food chains. As we do not have this data for Germany, if we apply this percentage relevant to US teens we get a rough estimate of $1,155,941,404.8 spent annually on food by this age group in Germany.

Worldwide, teens spend 42% of their money on eating out. Given that German 15-19 year olds receive $5,779,707,024 a year in allowance, this gives us $2,427,476,950.08 spent on eating out by this age group.

Therefore, it can be concluded that German teens may be spending between $1.15 billion and $2.43 billion annually on eating out.

Finally, this source from Statista tells us that "in 2017, 10.99 million Germans aged 14 and over frequently ate out in their leisure time." There is no data split between age group, however, this confirms that German teens are regularly eating out.

POSSIBLE CONTINUED RESEARCH

As there is very limited data available on this topic, I have found available data on related topics to this subject that you may be interested in pursuing. To begin with, there is data available on the eating habits of young Germans. They are more focused on making healthy food choices than previous generations.

In addition to this, I have found that vegetarianism is on the rise in Germany, including within kids of school age. This may be impacting where German teens are spending their money (in terms of informal eating out venues).

Finally, I have found that obesity is becoming a major issue in Germany. "Statistics show that in 2016 in Germany, 6.9 percent of girls were obese, along with 11.2 percent of boys aged five to 19. Since 1980, the percentage of obese boys has almost tripled." This may have an impact on the kinds of places German teens are choosing to eat out.

CONCLUSION

To sum up, while there is no pre-compiled data telling us how much money this age group spends in the Informal Eating Out (IEO) market each year, a very rough estimate shows that they spend between $1.15 billion and $2.43 billion annually on eating out.
Part
02
of eleven
Part
02

Market Size of Twens in the Informal Eating Out Industry in Germany

The total size of the Informal Eating Out (IEO) market made up of TWENS (20-24) in Germany has been estimated to be 2.73 billion Euro in 2016. The market size of the fast food industry and informal restaurants segment recorded a combined revenue of 43.6 billion Euro. Total market size of the bakery industry amounted to 16 billion Euro in 2016.
After a thorough search through industry reports, market studies, press releases, and other trusted media sites, we found no direct information on the Informal Eating Out industry in Germany. We then went on to research the revenue for each segment of the IEO market which includes fast food industry, informal restaurants, bakeries, and takeaway. Please note, there was no data or supporting information available on snack bars and kebab shops in Germany. The final estimated figure is the aggregate of the four segments of the IEO market along with the TWENS population.

Findings and Triangulation:

1. Informal Restaurants and Fast Food industry

According to the Restaurant Industry in Germany report, the revenue for the fast food industry segment was recorded at 11.9 billion Euro in 2016. The top five German contributors (companies) to the fast food industry during 2016 were McDonald’s (3.135 billion Euro), Burger King (900 million Euro), Nordsee (293 million Euro), Yum! (285 million Euro), and Subway (230 million Euro).

According to the Global Agricultural Information Network, the total revenue of informal restaurants and fast food industry combined amounted to 43.6 billion Euro by the end of 2016.

2. Bakery industry

The total market size of German bakery products was recorded to be $16.46 billion at the end of 2015, with a CAGR projected at 0.3% for the period 2015-2020. The revenue of the German bakery market for the year 2016 can be calculated by the following formula,

Bakery market size (2016) = (2015 revenue) x (1 + CAGR %)
Bakery market size (2016) = ($16.46 billion) x (1 + 0.03) = ($16.46 billion) x (1.03) = $16.95 billion
Therefore, the total market size of the bakery segment for the year 2016 is estimated at $16.95 billion. Using the average USD-EUR exchange rate at the end of 2016, $16.95 billion is equivalent to 16 billion Euro.

3. Takeaway industry

According to a report published by Euromonitor International, the takeaway segment of the IEO industry is projected to have a CAGR of 1% from 2016 to reach a value of 1.2 billion Euro in 2021. Utilizing the “present value calculator”, we can determine the revenue of the takeaway industry for the year 2016.

With the help of the calculator, we input the following details,
— Interest Rate Per Time Period = 1
— Number of Time Periods = 2016 – 2021 = 5
— Future Value = 1.2 (1.2 billion Euro)
— The result obtained is the value 1.14.

Therefore, the revenue of the takeaway industry in Germany for the year 2016 is estimated at 1.14 billion Euro.
The segments of the IEO market and their revenues are as follows,
— Informal restaurants and fast food industry = 43.6 billion Euro
Bakery industry = 16 billion Euro
Takeaway industry = 1.14 billion Euro

The aggregate of the three segments will provide the estimated total IEO market in Germany.
Total IEO market size = 43.6 billion Euro + 16 billion Euro + 1.14 billion Euro = 60.74 billion Euro

TWENS POPULATION

Since there is no direct data available on the market share of TWENS in the IEO industry, we went on to triangulate the percentage of TWENS in Germany.
Following is the population segmented by age group in Germany for the year 2016 -
Under 1 year = 0.79 million
1-5 years = 3.68 million
6-14 years = 6.58 million
15-17 years = 2.42 million
18-20 years = 2.65 million
21-24 years = 3.68 million
25-39 years = 15.65 million
40-59 years = 24.29 million
60-64 years = 5.28 million
65 years and older = 17.51 million
Therefore, the total population in Germany for the year 2016 = the sum of all the age group population = 82.53 million
The percentage of TWENS = [(Population of 21-24 age group) / (Total population)] x 100
The percentage of TWENS = [(3.68 million)/(82.53 million)] x 100 = nearly 4.5% of the total population.

FINAL ESTIMATION

Assuming that the IEO market consists of the same proportion of TWENS, the total size of the IEO market made up of TWENS in Germany can be calculated as follows,
IEO market size made up of TWENS = percentage of TWENS x Total size of IEO market = 4.5% of 60.74 billion Euro = 2.73 billion Euro

Conclusion

To wrap up, the total size of the Informal Eating Out (IEO) market made up of TWENS in Germany has been estimated to be 2.73 billion Euro for the year 2016. The market size of the fast food industry and the bakery industry in Germany amounted to 11.9 billion Euro and 16 billion Euro, respectively.
Part
03
of eleven
Part
03

Social Hangouts for German Teenagers

German teenagers use their friend's homes as popular hangouts. Other hangout destinations include nightlife and entertainment destinations such as clubs, dancing discos, and concerts. In addition, due to the popularity of soccer in Germany, teenagers who supporter football clubs use their respective stadiums as their social hangouts.

SOCIAL HANGOUTS

Compared to the United States, there are fewer restrictions for German teenagers wishing to visit nightlife destinations such as clubs, concerts, dancing discos, and bars. Hence, this makes these destinations popular hangouts for German teenagers. The reason for this is that, once a German teenager has an ID, they are freely allowed into these nightlife destinations. Also, alcohol is legally sold to teenagers in Germany and this further gives insights into why teenagers in Germany would choose to hang out with friends at these destinations. The growing popularity of drug usage among German teenagers, assumed to be accessible at nightlife destinations, further supports why German teenagers would use nightlife destinations as their social hangouts.

Music is very popular among German teenagers, and they hang out at nightlife and concert venues to consume music. This further explains why nightlife and concert venues are popular hangouts for teenagers in Germany.

FRIENDS' HOME

Social interactive platforms are popular among German teenagers. Given the global popularity of these platforms across all demographics, teenagers in Germany are hanging out with friends on these platforms. Although it is not a physical location, an interview with a popular German teenager, who published the book centered on the secret life of teenage boys, confirmed that German teens hang out at their friends' homes to access contents online, especially when they are restricted from doing so at home. In addition, German teenagers love playing games such as Call of Duty and may sometimes play it in their friends home, and so this gives further insights into why German teens hang out at home with friends.

A 2017 survey of German teenagers showed that on these social interactive platforms, WhatsApp had 50% females and 30% males; Facebook had 16% females and 15% males; Instagram 37% females and 17% males; while Snapchat had 24% females and 8% males, respectively.

SOCCER

Soccer is very popular in Germany among teenagers. A survey of club fans revealed that 40% are below 25 years, thousands of which are most likely teenagers. It is even popular to find teenagers buy full season tickets in Germany. In some German regions, from a total population of about 40, 000 people, soccer match-day tickets totaling about 30, 000 is reported to be frequently sold out.

Also, these viral images showing teenagers deeply in support of their favorite soccer clubs helps confirm stadiums or match venues to be popular social hangouts for German teenagers.

CONCLUSION

Popular social hangouts for German teenagers include nightlife and entertainment destinations such as concerts, nightclubs, and dancing discos; and given the massive popularity of soccer in Germany, their teenagers, while supporting their favorite soccer clubs, also use their stadiums and match venues for their social hangouts.

Also, given the massive penetration of social interactive online platforms such as social media and games, German teenagers also use their friends' homes as social hangouts, especially when their internet is restricted at home.
Part
04
of eleven
Part
04

Spending Habits of German Teenagers - Fashion

While there is no pre-existing information to fully answer your question, we've used the available data to pull together a few key findings: European teens will begin supporting brands that build their confidence, 55% of teenagers spend their own money on clothing and are looking to brands that match their concept of value over that which is trendy and expensive.

Below you'll find an outline of our research methodology to better understand why the information you've requested is publicly unavailable, as well as a deep dive into our findings.

Methodology

We initially looked for market reports, media content on consumer habits, fashion apparel industry reviews, and teenager spending with a focus on Germany. We found no information qualitative or quantitative that addressed this cross-section exclusively. Next we branched out to European teenagers, Gen Z, or German fashion reports for any relevant information.

There was no information on teenage allowance or disposable income to provide a calculation or triangulation. We found a few sources of information about brand awareness, and value systems regarding fashion choices.

Additionally, we found a set of sources that offer more information behind paywalls. A report on Consumer Lifestyles of Germany by Euromonitor offers a section which reports Germany’s consumers clothing and fashion trends as well as by specific age groups. A second paid report includes a Demographic Forecast for "Older Teens 15-19yrs" as well as a section for the retail sector in clothing and footwear.

Helpful Findings

While there was very limited information on teenagers in Germany, let alone their spending habits for fashion, we found a few notes in the sources we reviewed.

Marketing agency Mintel predicts for 2018 that teenagers will be attracted to brands that build their confidence. "Teens are increasingly defined by anxieties around image, health and work, and are looking for brands to alleviate the pressure and help them build both their confidence and prospects." Growing caution regarding the use of social media means that teenagers "will seek to take back greater control by being more mindful of their usage."

Teens will move away from brands portraying unrealistic beauty ideals and support those with an image of diversity.

A global survey consisting of 16 countries studying Gen Z (ages 13-21) shows that 55% of this population has spent their own money on clothes and shoes. Just above that, a reported 60% have some form of influence on their family's purchase decisions in this category.

A report on Children's wear specific to Germany notes "luxury brands like Burberry and Ralph Lauren have recorded growth as parents increasingly aim to dress their children in similar outfits to their own." While this audience is certainly out of your range, it may be a predictor for the incoming teenage demographics. Children growing into teens with autonomy may continue with styles and brands they are used to wearing.

Online use and Purchases

Gen Z are "prone to switching from stationary retailers to their online counterparts." Brands must also be cautious as high demands "lead to low brand loyalty levels as customers shop around for the brand that meets their individual value-for-money concept." Meaning this group will look more towards their concepts of value rather than something that is trendy or overly expensive.

Fluctuations in EU's data privacy legislation will make consumers "protect themselves with software and behaviors learned from the more streetwise, private approach of younger generations." The implication here being that younger shoppers are aware of the use and abuse of data collection, and may we more receptive or trusting of brands who have transparent, up front data use policies or are not irresponsible with the data they collect.

Germans Overall

Consumers continue to value eco friendly products. This is a feature they are willing to pay extra for. One poll reports "26.6 million Germans are somewhat willing to pay higher prices for environmentally friendly products. Another 23.6 million people are mostly willing to pay premiums for green products, and over 6 million are fully willing to pay these premiums."

The textiles, garments and shoe market accounts for roughly 10% of the total consumer spend in Germany. This sector is second only to the food and beverage market.

The market can also expect to see brands creating on demand "prototyping, personalization, end-to-end transparency, and inventory planning" as fashion companies invest in virtual design and robotics. Adidas already has built their first "Speed Factory" in Germany (page 44).

Conclusion

Besides a few key insights on teenagers, there is no quantitative data to calculate their spend on fashion or types of items they spend most on. It is predicted that this group will gravitate towards brands that boost their confidence, support diversity, and match their idea of value instead of being expensive or trendy.
Part
05
of eleven
Part
05

Spending Habits of German Teenagers - Entertainment and Leisure

Introduction:

German teens are heavily technology focused and, as a result, much of their leisure activity comes from things like television, music, and sports. Though there are not specific numbers for how much money teens are spending on leisure activities, the numbers can be determined based on the previous generation's spending habits since German teens align tightly with mainstream culture.

Monthly Spending:

In order to get a sense of how much money Germans are willing to spend on entertainment it is valuable to know what they spend on average per month. The average German spends 135.40 euro per month on leisure activities, accounting for about 15 percent of their spending. German Uni students spend an average of 68 euros monthly on entertainment, accounting for about 8 percent of their spending. Due to the fact that German teens are driven by cultural mainstream trends, it can be assumed that their spending is similar to Uni students.

Considerations for spending:

German citizens are widely focused on savings and preparation; rather than spending money and having immediate satisfaction they would rather save and have stability. This causes Germans to have a propensity to save and invest. Germany, unlike most developed countries, is a cash-intensive economy that does not often use credit or even debit cards, therefore Germans will only spend on what they actually have money for instead of taking out loans. As a result of this mindset, Germans have a very systematic approach to purchasing and try to find the product or service that will offer them the best quality for the lowest price.

Leisure Activities:

Trends:

Across Germany television is the most popular pastime; 97 percent of the population watches at least once per week. If Germans are not watching television, they will gravitate toward: radio (90 percent); phone calls and internet (89 and 73 percent); newspapers and magazines (72 percent); or music streaming (50 percent). Since parent and teen tastes are homogeneous for the most part it can be assumed that these national statistics are representative of how teenagers spend their time.

On average, teens in Germany have six hours and 34 minutes of leisure time. Most of that time is spent on sports, television, computer games, or online shopping. German youth ages 14 to 29 watch, on average, 96 minutes of television a day. This may be because teens in Germany are very connected to technology. 93 percent of German youth own their own cellphones, "64 percent have a computer, laptop, or notebook; 57 percent have a game console; 50 percent have a television; and 21 percent have a tablet".

Sports:

In Germany, sports is a huge leisure activity. 55.5 percent of the total population and 64.2 percent of the population under the age of 16 participates in sports. Of the population under 16 that participates in sports, more than half of them practice once per week. 29.7 percent of the population that engages with sports spends a significant amount of money on the pastime through tickets, betting, memorabilia, etc. 39.6 percent of the population under 16 spend money on sports related items.

Conclusion:

When it comes to leisure activities, German teens largely choose things that involve technology. Television is the most favored past-time, but German teens will also invest their time in music, computer related activities, and calling or messaging friends. Outside of technology, sports is the primary past-time for most Germans and that includes teens.

Part
06
of eleven
Part
06

Spending Habits of German Teenagers - Travel

German teenagers are said to do what the “cultural mainstream” is doing, due to this, it is likely they exhibit the same travel spending habits as the rest of the German population. No publicly available or preexisting information appears to be available specific to the travel spending habits of German teens. However, there are reports relevant to German travel habits, in general, and the habits of German teenagers. Details on travel spend and what German travelers are concerned with are included in the overview below.

METHODOLOGY

Online industry, government reports, and trusted media sites were extensively reviewed. The most relevant information I found were from reports made in 2017 by GfK and Expedia Media Solutions.
A specific breakdown of the spending habits of teens does not appear publicly available from the GfK study. However, it included information on “young” German travelers. Details of this were included in the overview below. Additionally, the 2017 Expedia report also includes a breakdown on how Germans travel and what they are concerned with.

A recent study on German teens suggest that they are driven to a "cultural mainstream" and are thus more likely to conform to the general trend. It is likely that they exhibit the same spending habits and are concerned with the same things as the rest of the German population when it comes to travel. A 2014 study by Statistics Austria and New Insights for Tourism (NIT) indicated that German teens aged 14-19 years are projected to account for only 6% of all holiday trips in 2025. In 2013, they accounted for 7% of all holiday trips. I mentioned and included this study below mainly due to its comprehensiveness and relevance to your query. A more recent study or updated study of this does not appear available. These statistics indicate that German teens only account for a very small share of travel.

Below is an overview of what I found including numbers and statistics which may also be useful to you.

TRAVEL SPENDING HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

Germans spend roughly €1,020 per person on holiday travel, with 72% of Germans traveling abroad and 28% traveling in-country.
The German districts of Regensburg and Berlin are said to have a young population with a higher purchasing power than the national average for holiday travel.
About two-thirds of German travelers feel more secure having face-to-face meetings with travel agencies and have become less spontaneous with their travel purchases. Safety and security are one of the main factors Germans consider when choosing where to travel, due to risk of terrorism attacks and threats. The study on German teens also noted that they are risk-averse and terrorism is a factor that has influenced their behavior, so it is likely that this also impacts on their travel purchasing decisions.

In 2016, each adult and child in Germany spent an average of 20 days for travel. Their preferred travel destinations included: Spain, Majorca, the Canary Islands, Portugal, Greece and Croatia. Sea cruises are also becoming more popular among younger consumer groups, as well as several long-distance destinations. There is also a growing interest in bargain health tourism among Germans.

Travel within Germany is also still the most popular among Germans. Families, in particular, prefer to spend their summer holidays along the coasts of the North and Baltic seas". Beach holidays are said to be the most important type of holiday, followed by round trips and study trips".

In general, Germans are said to prefer relaxing and like to get value for their holiday. They place a high importance on lifetime experiences, feeling pampered or relaxed during their vacation, and having the opportunity to do outdoor activities," such as hiking. They also enjoy discovering foreign cultures and landscapes, have “hearty appetites," and "like to eat punctually.” There is also an interest in trying local foods among the more adventurous German travelers. The study on German teens also noted that they think a lot about the environment and conscious consumption and enjoy gardening and cooking, which conforms to the general trend of enjoying outdoor and relaxing activities.

Finally, Germans are also more likely to know how they want to plan their trip, but their decision-making process can also be influenced by the review of places, informative content, and sometimes bargain deals.

BREAKDOWN OF TRAVEL SPEND

Below is a breakdown on what Germans spend on when they travel. Statistics on how they travel and where they like to stay are also included. The statistics indicate that German travelers spend the most on hotels, followed by flight and food. Statistics specific to German teens were not available, however, since they are said to conform to mainstream, it is likely that they follow a similar trend.
Hotel 31%
Flight 17%
Food 16%
Attractions/Tours 10%
Transportation 8%
Shopping 8%
Alternative Accommodations 6%
Other 4%
Train ride 8%
Car Ride 31%
Plane 57%
Hotel 66%
With Family /Friends 7%
Resort 10%
Alternative Accommodations 10%
Cruise 4%
Other 4%

CONCLUSION

German teenagers are said to conform to general trends and conventions, as such, they likely they exhibit the same travel spending habits as the rest of the German population. German travelers generally spend the most on hotels, flight, and food. When making travel decisions, they are concerned with value and prefer relaxing or outdoor activities.
Part
07
of eleven
Part
07

Favorite Forms of Entertainment for German Teenagers

Introduction

German teenagers have a plethora of leisure and entertainment activities available. Use of mobile phones, surfing the internet and listening to music topped the list for most cited digital choices while reported drinking, despite Germany's lax laws on the matter, has gone down. The following information gives an overview into the most popular forms of entertainment and background info on the lifestyles of German teens today.

Media and Digital Use

With the age of internet and technology, it's no surprise that among German teens the most cited activities are socializing on social media, surfing the web and streaming music. Other forms of digital entertainment include streaming videos/movies or series, as reported by 84% of 16-18 year-olds in a study for Amazon. Overall, German teens aged 16-18 are spending approximately 2 hours online each day. According to a study compiled by Statista, over 97% of teen girls and 96% of teen boys use the internet either daily or several times a week. Both German teen boys and girls report similar use in most of the categories. A couple of exceptions include digital gaming, where 83% of German teenage boys reported using "Digital Games" in comparison to 41% of German girls, and "Books," where 49% of girls reported reading as a leisure activity versus 32% of boys.

German teens report ease of communication, staying up to date with friends, and access to entertainment as some of the most important uses of their mobile time. According to a study run by Facebook IQ, 98% of teens in Germany own multiple devices. In terms of entertainment, mobile phones are used for taking photos (78%), accessing social networks (64%), and listening to music (63%).

Alcohol Use

According to a study by Germany’s Federal Center for Health Education, German teens are drinking less and starting later. The study mentions that only 10% of teens aged 12-17 reported drinking regularly (at least once a week), less than half the number reported back in 2004. In addition, the number of those who report not having had their first drink has gone up by more than a third. Johannes Lindemeyer of the Salus clinic specializing in addiction said to the Süddeutsche Zeitung newspaper: “Alcohol makes (people) tired and fat, which young people today are not interested in,. Being active, being able to stay up late, being fit and showing it all of this is becoming more important for young people.”

Cannabis Use

There is a growing movement for marijuana legalization in Germany. Despite the fact that German teens are drinking less and smoking less tobacco as compared to 15 years ago, the reported use of marijuana has increased to 7% among 12-17 year-olds.

Conclusion

Overall, the data shows that German teens are highly active online, socializing, consuming, sharing and creating content. Meanwhile, their take on alcohol consumption and marijuana has greatly shifted from that of previous generations with more emphasis on health and fitness as desirable lifestyle traits.



Part
08
of eleven
Part
08

Importance of Food Freshness in the Informal Eating Out Industry - Germany

Exhaustive research of the public domain indicates that there is no direct answer available regarding how important food freshness is to people when it comes to choosing IEO venues, largely because there are no published surveys or market research on the German consumer's priorities, preferences or motivations on this topic. However, our research did discover two trends that indicate that the consideration of food freshness is likely to be of significance to a portion of the IEO consumer population:
- The importance of food freshness, in general, is growing among German consumers; in response, German McDonald's has made considerable effort to source locally and provide greater transparency into the nutritional content of its food.
- The premium segment of the IEO market is growing, particularly premium burgers; these premium vendors are directly associated with higher quality.

Below you'll find details on relevant findings as well as our research methodology.

METHODOLOGY

Our research encompassed market research reports; third-party analysis of these research reports; and publications from the food service industry, the food, and beverage industry, and German mainstream media sources. For the purposes of this brief, 'fast food' and 'IEO' are used interchangeably, consistent with our findings that they were used interchangeably through our research, including in highly reputable sources.

Available market research reports on the fast food/IEO market do not survey consumer perceptions and preferences (ex: here and here). Conversely, available surveys on German perspectives regarding food do not include questions about IEO eating habits or considerations (ex: here). For this reason, we have included all the information discovered in our research about German perspectives in the importance of food freshness in general, and in any relationship between 'freshness' and the fast food market. In some cases, we have assumed parity between the words 'quality' and 'freshness,' largely because 'freshness' itself was rarely used as a metric. Please note that two of the sources date back to 2015 and 2014 because the information they contain on German perspectives on food freshness and German fast food market trends were not available in more recent sources.

OVERVIEW: INCREASE IN GERMAN AWARENESS OF FRESHNESS

As noted above, there is no information available which connects the German rising prioritization of quality in fresh foods with consumer decisions in choosing an IEO venue. However, the recent growth of the premium segment of the German fast food market indicates that some consumers are significantly interested in 'freshness', as represented by the perceived quality offered by 'premium' IEO venues. Both trends have been on the rise for several years; and it is reasonable to assume that, together, they could represent an increasing consumer consideration for freshness in choosing IEO venues.

GERMAN CONSUMERS & FRESH FOOD

A comprehensive 2015 survey of German "attitudes towards food, shopping and cooking" did not address fast food at all. However, the survey did find that 67% of respondents considered the quality of fresh food more important than the price. This percentage has increased since 2005, with more than half of that increase occurring between 2013-2015, overall indicating a sharp, recent upswing in consumer awareness about the importance of the quality of fresh food. In this context, we assume parity between 'quality of fresh food' and 'freshness.'

The same report found that Germans strive to be healthy overall; "this effort to be healthy is also seen in the high proportions of Germans who attempt to limit their fast food consumption (87%)." This combination of endeavoring to be healthy, increasing the valuation of quality in fresh food, and the implied perception of 'fast food' as unhealthy together support the assumption that freshness could be gaining as a consideration factor in consumer selections of IEO venues.

'PREMIUM' FAST FOOD VENUES IN GERMANY

The 'premium' segment of the fast food market in Germany has been growing steadily since at least 2014; the gourmet burger trend took off between 2015-2017. Again, perceived higher 'quality' is the metric used to distinguish this trend, rather than 'freshness.' However, while quality can encompass multiple elements in this context, it is reasonable to assume that freshness is one aspect. This is supported by the fact that the American burger joint Five Guys - whose brand positioning capitalizes on the 'freshness' of its food - decided to expand into the Germany market in late 2017 based on the premium/gourmet burger market growth.

Large IEO chains are also responding to consumers' increasing awareness "of the importance of nutritional value in foods," which can be indirectly correlated with 'freshness,' in perception if not in fact. McDonald's Germany expanded its 'premium' menu and opened hundreds of McCafe's - the latter of which serves "high-quality coffee" - after conducting extensive market research. The company also sources heavily among local suppliers, in response to consumer trends; 'local' also correlates with the perception of 'freshness' in food.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up: extensive research indicates that there is no direct answer to your query in the public domain. However, key trends in consumers food priorities in general, and in the premium segment of the fast food market, indicate that the consideration of 'freshness' may be increasing in importance among IEO customers.
Part
09
of eleven
Part
09

Average Time From Source to Plate for Informal Eating Out Venues in Germany

While there is no pre-existing information to fully answer your question, we've used the available data to pull together the following key findings. Germany's audience has been increasingly turning into more locally-grown products, which presumably means average time from source to plate will be reduced. Currently, most of the food consumed in Germany comes from other parts of Europe, which can take 24 hours to arrive by truck, 3 hours by plane or 15 hours by train — without taking into account any storage times that may happen before said food reaches the consumer.

Whereas Germany does not have as much of a fast food or food chain culture as the US, and does not seem to have any healthy-perceived fast food chains, some of the present chains (which are mostly American) are adapting to the current trends by offering organic or bio products.

Below you can find additional notes on our findings and methodology.

METHODOLOGY
In order to answer this query, we researched for hard data on travel and storage time for food in Germany, taking into account both locally sourced and imported products, in both consultancy papers, government reports and media articles. However, after looking in sources like GTAI, Deloitte, Deutsche Welle, EUFIC, Institut für Mathematik, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, The Local, and PERIscope, among others, we were unsuccessful in locating data specific to travel times of food going into the plates of German consumers.

We did locate some numbers on travel times of food exported from Germany to other European countries, which we offer below as guideline. We also found some information on the increasing trend to consume locally in Germany, which will presumably reduce average time from source to plate.

Similarly, information on food chains in Germany that are perceived as the fastest or freshest is scarce — one explanation could be that fast food or restaurant chains are not as popular in Germany as in other countries like the US: the most popular food for a quick snack in Germany is the döner kebab, which is bought in a local mom-and-pop shops, not retailers or chains.

However, as Germans are turning to healthier food options, existing fast food chains are also changing their menu — as we explain below.

USEFUL FINDINGS
In Germany, sustainability is becoming an increasing concern for consumers, who are looking more into buying local produce and reducing travel times for food from source to plate. According to a survey of German attitudes towards food and healthy eating, Germany ranked number five in the list of countries that place importance in eating locally.

Two-thirds of respondents purchase local food at least twice a week, and 85% of them check for country of origin and symbol of quality. Almost 60% of Germans say that buying local is important, with 16% saying that it is very important.

However, eating 100% local is still a struggle in Germany, as most food comes from other parts of Europe (or even the world). An experiment by a DW reporter found it hard to eat exclusively locally for a week, stating that it is a "full-time job."

According to the article, many products come from other parts of Europe, such as Spain, Portugal, Poland, Macedonia or Bosnia, or even from across the Atlantic. Whereas no information on travel time for food coming into Germany could be located, a report by GTAI had an infographic for travel times for food going out of Germany to other parts of Europe — assuming these times are similar when in reverse, we can say that travel times for food coming from Spain or Portugal are 24 hours by truck, food coming from Sweden takes 3 hours by plane, and food coming from Poland takes 15 hours by train.

However, these travel times do not take into account how long the food may be stored in fridges between travel stages — which, according to the DW article, can take months.

In terms of chain restaurants, whether informal or upscale, Germany does not seem big on them. Fast food chains in the country are mostly American — with a handful of local chains thrown in. There was one healthy fast food chain in Germany once — Nat., which opened in 2008 — but it is permanently closed.

However, given that Germany's attitudes towards food are changing, and the local consumer is looking for fresher and organic options, American chains are making an effort to cater to the local taste buds. McDonald's, for example, introduced its first-ever organic burger in Germany in late 2015. Five Guys, which emphasizes its commitment to real ingredients, also announced its intention of entering the German market in late 2017.

CONCLUSION
To wrap up, while there is no pre-existing data to fully answer your request, we found that the German consumer has been increasingly turning to more locally produced food, which presumably will reduce travel time from source to plate, and that fast food chains in the country (most of American origin) are making efforts to address the changing food attitudes by offering organic products.
Part
10
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Part
10

Percentages of Home Delivery of Fast Food in Germany

In 2018, upwards of 26.39% of the total German Fast Food market is estimated to be delivered to consumers at their various locations. Fast food is calculated to be a €12.14 billion industry in Germany. The amount of fast food home deliveries in Germany is increasing. The food delivery market in Germany is expected to show an annual growth rate of 17.4 % from 2016 until 2022, and in 2018 it will be an estimated gross merchandise value of €3.204 billion.

BACKGROUND
The fast food industry in Germany is similar to other developed nations led by fast food giants McDonald’s and Burger King. These companies command a 40% share of the industry. Food delivery is a rapidly growing industry in Germany. Many startups are flooding cash into the space in attempts to gain traction.

CALCULATION
While there were no precompiled reports or articles that directly provided the percentages of Home Delivery of Fast Food in Germany, we were able to triangulate this request. The triangulation is a result of available data on the total market size of the German Fast Food market and the gross merchandise value of the German Food Delivery market. Gross merchandise value (GMV) is the total amount a customer is charged by a food delivery firm for the food ordered, which is primarily made up of the cost of the meal and delivery. GMV shows the amount consumers have spent on food delivery over a given time period.
In 2016, the market size of the Fast Food industry in Germany was €11.9 billion while expanding at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1% from 2016 to 2021. Calculating the projected market size for the German Fast Food market in 2018 shows it to be an estimated €12.14 billion. In 2018, the GMV of the food delivery market in Germany is projected to be €3.204 billion. The raw data from these 2 industries are that the Fast Food market in 2018 is an estimated €12.14 billion, and the Food Delivery market in Germany in 2018 is an estimated €3.204 billion.

HELPFUL FINDINGS
Unfortunately a breakdown of the various categories of restaurants within the food delivery market could not be ascertained–the figure is unavailable. The assumption must be made that it is unlikely that all food deliveries were orders from fast food restaurants, and therefore the calculated percentage in terms of strictly fast food delivery is likely lower than our findings. If all food delivery was limited to the fast food market, then the percentage of fast food delivered would be an estimated 26.39%. That figure would be achieved by calculating what the percentage of €3.204 billion (food delivery market) out of €12.14 billion (fast food market) is. Therefore, the absolute maximum percentage of fast food that could be delivered would be 26.39%, but that would mean that no other types of restaurants besides fast food offer delivery, which is not the case. So the clear assumption is that the correct figure is somewhere under 26.39%.

INDUSTRY INSIGHTS
The growth of the food delivery market is accelerating much faster compared to the expected minimal growth rate of 1% experienced in the fast food market. The food delivery segment consists of: Food ordered online from services that deliver the order themselves; Food ordered online from a restaurant partnered with a separate delivery service; and "Online delivery services that only provide a platform for restaurants that run their own delivery service." A separate option not considered in this analysis is online order with in-store pickup.
Restaurant partnered delivery services are leading the food delivery industry. The 3 biggest German companies leading the way are Lieferando.de, Delivery Hero, and Foodora. Deliveroo, UberEats, and Amazon are not German companies, but have a presence in Germany. Germany's biggest food delivery startup Lieferando.de generated a total of €36.81 million in gross merchandise value in 2016. Not far behind in market size is Delivery Hero, which is globally the "biggest food delivery platform, covering more than 40 countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Latin America and Asia-Pacific, and partnering with more than 150,000 restaurants." The UK-based firm Deliveroo is expanding rapidly into Germany hoping to overtake Foodora, which is currently considered Germany's most recognizable food service platform.

CONCLUSION
The calculable triangulation of the German Food Delivery market where it intersects with the Fast Food market is upwards of 26.39%. This percentage must be assumed to be higher than the actual figure, but specific data is unavailable. The triangulation is a result of the fast food market calculated at €12.14 billion, and the food delivery market in Germany calculated at €3.204 billion.

Part
11
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Part
11

Most Popular Places for Free Time - German Twens

While there is no pre-existing information to fully answer your question, we've used the available data to pull together key findings: German young adults age 20-25 ("twens," henceforth) prefer to get out and meet with their friends, particularly in bars and clubs, with going to athletic clubs also being somewhat popular. The amount of money that they spend on these or other activities has not been compiled by any public source.
Below you'll find an outline of our research methodology to better understand why information you've requested is publicly unavailable, as well as a deep dive into our findings.

METHODOLOGY

We sought surveys, marketing reports, and research papers which might provide a breakdown of German leisure activities and/or spending habits by age. While we found information specific to German Millennials, and have incorporated that into our findings, of course Millennials span ages 20-36, and so do not exactly fit the narrower criteria of age 20-25 in the question. Despite a thorough search, we were unable to find any data that perfectly matched that age range, as both polling and marketing companies tend to categorize age ranges in terms of "generations," e.g., Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. We have therefore compiled the available information about Millennials together to provide a likely aggregate picture of German twens.
We were hampered somewhat by language barriers and relied primarily upon English-language sites. In a few cases, we found useful information in translations of German sites. However, even here we did not find hard data about German twen, or even Millennial, spending habits. The articles that we did find discussed only shopping habits, which were outside of the scope of the question. Nor did we find a breakdown of entertainment and leisure pursuits except in the broadest possible terms; e.g., we did not find a public source which provided stats on how much time or money twens or Millennials spend at the bar (Kneipe) vs. the cinema (Lichtspielhaus).

SOCIAL MEDIA AS A COORDINATION TOOL

It seems that most sources that discuss the leisure activities of German twens or Millennials cannot help but focus on their online activities. While out of scope for the question, understanding how German Millennials use the internet highlights an important detail about their real-life leisure activities: "While they largely live up to their reputation when it comes to the use of the internet (59% in Germany ... indicated that it was part of how they spend their free time), in both countries spending time with friends and family is still more important than being online." The number of German Millennials who spend time browsing the internet is actually lower than the general population (73%). However, over 90% of German Millennials are active on Facebook, with other social media channels (e.g., Twitter, Google+, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, and YouTube) ranging from a low adoption of 40% (Pinterest) up to 73% (YouTube). Nearly 75% are on social media several times a day, and less than 5% avoid social media altogether. What this means is that Millennials, including the twens, are active online, but that social media is far more popular than traditional websites, being used as a way of remaining in touch and coordinating real-life activities with family and friends.

FAVORITE LEISURE-TIME ACTIVITIES

German twens and Millennials are highly sociable as a group. "In their free time, three-quarters (74%) of millennials prefer to meet with their friends, while two-thirds (67%) work with the family. Not only do they stay home (cooking and baking (49%) / do-it-yourself (35%)), they also like going out (61%) or out into nature (55%)" (translated). For younger Germans, this often involves going "to bars and clubs to dance and have a good time together. Drinking alcohol like beer and cocktails is usually a part of this."
This is further highlighted by a survey showing that Berlin is considered the best place in Germany to live by adults under age 30, due in large part to its nightlife scoring a perfect 10 in surveys. A recent article highlighting fun destinations for Millennial travelers notes, "Berlin has some of the best nightlife in Europe. You’ll have your pick between listening to low-key live music or if you crave excitement you can rave the night away, there’s an endless supply of clubs." The fact that Germany has "been dubbed one of the most fun and party-oriented countries in Western Europe" further demonstrates the enthusiasm of twens and other Millennials for social gatherings.

Athletic clubs, which are more affordable than gyms and which many Germans join as children, are also a popular leisure choice, though again we lack hard data on how popular.

CONCLUSION

Despite a lack of quantitative data in the public domain, we were able to determine the following about where German twens spend their leisure time: 74% prefer to spend their leisure time with their friends 67% with their family. 61% like going out and 55% enjoy spending time with nature. Of those who go out, the majority enjoy clubbing in venues with alcohol, whether listening to quiet music or dancing at a rave, though exact stats and spending are not available. Athletic clubs are also a popular leisure time destination, though again we lack hard data on how many enjoy this activity or how much money they spend on it.

Sources
Sources