Freelaner Economy

Part
01
of twelve
Part
01

Freelance Market Size

Hello! Thanks for your question about the size of the freelance market by the number of freelancers in the US, Europe, and Asia. The short version is that I have found the size of the freelance market by the number of freelancers in the US, Europe, and Asia. Also, I have found percentages of the workforce and the different segments of freelancers in the US.

Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

Methodology

To research your question, I searched exhaustively through corporate websites, industry reports, and trusted media sites in an attempt to locate the desired results. I have found all aspects by using a variety of methods and calculations. Some sources were older but I justified them with direct answers to your request. The most useful research sources were Forbes and LinkedIn.

Findings

According to Forbes, the number of US freelancers is 55 million this year, up from 53 million in 2014 and 53.7 million last year. Freelancers now make up 35% of US workers, that makes one-third of the workforce according to Freelancers Union Founder and Executive Director Sara Horowitz.

EFIP states that the number of independent professionals (freelancers) in the EU rose by 24% from 7.7 million to 9.6 million between 2008 and 2015. The EU workforce as a whole decreased in size from 223 million in 2008 to 218 million in 2015. Therefore, freelancers as a percentage of the labor force in Europe is 9.6 million / 218 million = 4.4% in 2015.

The McKinsey Study found that 20-30% of the labor force in both the US and the EU is now made up of independent workers. In Spain, McKinsey's analysis of official data showed the percentage of independent earners to be 15% of the population, compared to 25% in McKinsey's survey. In the UK, the percentage of independent workers is 14% in official data and was 26% in McKinsey's survey.

Truelancer Blog claims that the number of Asian freelancers is large. They contribute 15,000,000 freelancers, which is about 12.5% of their total workforce. The total Indian freelance workforce is 24% of the total Indian number.

This article breaks down different types of freelancers:

1. Independent Contractor — this encompasses any worker who doesn’t have one specific employer.
2. Moonlighters — they have a steady job and supplement their income with other independent work on the side.
3. Diversified Workers — have a mix of income. They differ from moonlighters in that the mix is more diverse than simply a “regular” job supplemented by a contracted project.
4. Temporary Workers — these workers have projects with a finite time frame.
5. Business Owners — these workers consider themselves freelance but have employees. This is a slightly more formal arrangement of freelancing.

QUARTZ blog states that contingent workers now make up 34% of the US labor force, among which:
a.) Independent contractors — 21 million;
b.) Moonlighters — 14 million;
c.) Diversified workers — 9 million;
d.) Temp workers — 6 million;
e.) Business owners (freelance) — 3 million;

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) calculates the number of citizens in the Civilian Labor Force (persons classified as Employed or Unemployed) at 157,833,000 (49% of the US population).

Using numbers from the QUARTZ, I was able to determine the percentage of freelancers in the US workforce:
Independent contractors — 21 million / 157 million = 13%
Moonlighters — 14 million / 157 million = 9%
Diversified workers — 9 million / 157 million = 5%
Temp workers — 6 million / 157 million = 4%
Business owners (freelance) — 3 million / 157 million = 2%

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, I have found the size of the freelance market by the number of freelancers in the US, Europe, and Asia. Also, I have found percentages of the workforce and the different segments of freelancers in the US.

Thank you for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help you with anything else!




Part
02
of twelve
Part
02

Freelance Market Size U.S. - History

Hello! Thanks for your question about the history of the freelance market economy in the United States since the 1940s. The short version is that between 2000 and 2014 the freelance workforce grew by 500%. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

METHODOLOGY
In order to adequately compile a timeline, I had to search for statistics under the term "self-employed". Once I made that change to the terminology, I found most of what I needed to be documented with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The term freelance did not come into widespread use until the early 2000s. The difference between 'self-employed' and 'freelancer' is that a self-employed person is defined as “earning income directly from one’s own business, trade, or profession rather than as a specified salary or wages from an employer.” On the other hand, a freelancer is “a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer.” Due to this changeover in terminology with the Census Bureau, there are two different timelines with two different sets of statistics. The self-employed time line shows it dwindling down to practically nothing, whereas the freelance timeline doesn't even begin until the turn of this century and increases steadily each year.

INTRODUCTION
In 1945 World War II ended, leaving America licking its wounds. With only 1.9% of the labor force unemployed, the wartime economy had found a niche for nearly everyone and pushed the unemployment rate down from 17.2%, where it had been in 1940 on the heels of The Great Depression. It wasn't until 1948, however, that the United State Census began to include questions about people who worked in "the family business". If the census taker answered 'no' to the question of the family business being incorporated (formed into a legal business), they were classified as self-employed. The reasoning behind this was that legally, these people were the employees of their own business. The United States is no stranger to the self-employed: farmers, craftsmen, and tradespeople largely built the economy, but only now were they beginning to be professionally accounted for.

U.S. HISTORY OF SELF-EMPLOYED MARKET SIZE
1948
Total employed: 58,343
Self-employed: 10,775 (18.5%)

1950
Total employed: 58,918
Self-employed: 10,359 (17.6%)

1955
Total employed: 62,170
Self-employed: 9,577 (15.4%)

1960
Total employed: 65,779
Self-employed: 9,098 (13.8%)

1965
Total employed: 71,088
Self-employed: 8,394 (11.8%)

1970
Total employed: 78,678
Self-employed: 7,031 (8.9%)

1975
Total employed: 85,846
Self-employed: 7,427 (8.7%)

1980
Total employed: 99,303
Self-employed: 8,642 (8.7%)

1985
Total employed: 107,150
Self-employed: 9,269 (8.7%)

1990
Total employed: 117, 914
Self-employed: 10,160 (8.6%)

1995
Total employed: 124,900
Self-employed: 10,489 (8.4%)

U.S. HISTORY OF FREELANCE MARKET SIZE
As of 2016 the number of freelancers available in the United States was $55 million, 35% of America's available workforce. Just two years earlier, in 2014, that number was at $53 million. "Between 2000 and 2014, this segment of the workforce grew by 500 percent." Several factors are attributed to this massive spike in growth, the largest being technology. Technological advances make it more possible than ever to work and contribute remotely. It also offers a host of platforms for partnering business with new talent. It is estimated that by 2020 more than 60 million people will be freelancers/independent contractors. That's a whopping 40% of the viable workforce of the United States.

2.8 million (5%) freelancers own their own businesses
5.5 million (10%) are temporary workers
9.3 million (18%) freelancers are diversified (have more than one source of income or job)
14.3 million (27%) moonlight as freelancers
21 million (40%) freelancers are independent contractors (40%)

CONCLUSION
To wrap it up, the amount of freelancers and job availability in the freelance market are both on the rise and are projected to continue this rate of growth for the next several years. Thanks for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help with anything else!





Part
03
of twelve
Part
03

Freelancer Earnings - GDP Contribution

Hello! Thank you for your question about the average earnings of freelancers over time and their contribution to the United States GDP. The sources that were the most useful were Forbes, Upwork, and MBO Partners. In short, the income and number of freelancers over time is available however precise data on their contribution to the GDP was available for 2016 – 2017 but not publicly accessible for previous years. Freelancers earned $65,300 on average in 2017, contributed $1.2 trillion in revenue to the U.S. economy and accounted for 6% of the GDP. The number of freelancers has grown dramatically from 6% of the workforce in 1989 to 35% of the workforce in 2016. Below you'll find a detailed account of our findings.

METHODOLOGY

An extensive search of trusted media sites, press releases, industry reports, blogs, and labor bureau statistics was used in order to find useful information. Statistics for 2016 were publicly available for freelancer earnings, the number of freelancers and their contribution to the GDP. However, some information prior to that year was either not available at all or not visible without accessing a paywall.

In order to provide information for time periods with 10-15 years in between, it was necessary to include data from a range of years that are close together as opposed to a single set of 3 years. Information on the freelancer economy was less available for any time period prior to 2000 due to the fact that this industry started to gain traction after the millennium and was scarce prior to it. With this being the case, precise information on the GDP was largely available for recent years. The approximate number of freelancers, industry forecasts, and their wages were generally available.

FINDINGS

2015 – 2017

Freelancers typically fall into 5 categories, independent contractors, diversified workers, moonlighters, freelance business owners, and temp workers. In 2016 the workforce breakdown of these subgroups were 19.1 million independent contractors (35%), 15.2 million diversified workers (28%), 13.5 million moonlighters (25%), 3.6 million freelance business owners (7%), and 3.6 million temp workers (7%). These percentages equal more than 100% due to the fact that they were calculated in a study by the Freelancers Union and Upwork and rounded up.

In 2016, the number of freelancers reached 55 million and they now account for 35% of United States workers. A study by the McKinsey Global Institute, that has a more worldwide focus suggests that previous studies have lower numbers due to the fact that they do not take into account those who freelance in order to supplement their income. The McKinsey study estimates that the total number of freelancers in the U.S. is between 54-68 million.

Together, freelancers collectively earned $1 trillion in 2015 according to the "Freelancing in America: 2016" survey conducted by The Freelancers Union and the freelancing platform, Upwork. The Freelancers Union has 300,000 members and it's also noted that 47% of workers between 18-24 years old freelance either full or part-time which is significantly higher than the 26% of Baby Boomers who do the same. In 2017, it was noted that freelancers "now generate $1.2 trillion in revenue for the U.S. economy, accounting for roughly 6% of national GDP."

According to the 2015 Contently study, the "median income for all respondents, which only counts freelance earnings, is between $10,001 and $20,000." These numbers jump up to $20,001 and $30,000 when only considering full-time freelancers. The mean income of the survey respondents was about $30,000 but it should be noted that this figure includes the 5% of individuals who made $100,000. It's also noted that freelancers from the United States make an average of $40/hour. Over time the income for full-time freelancers has grown and in 2017, high earners have grown to account for 20% of the freelancing population with an average income of $65,300 for full-time freelancers.

In an Upwork press release, it's noted that freelancers "contribute more than $715 billion in freelance earnings to the national economy." The industry is expected to continue to grow due to an increased demand for freelancers and an increase in the amount of job seeking technology. More freelancers have seen an increase in demand for their work with 32% reporting an increase and only 15% reporting a decrease. Advances in technology were cited as the reason a freelancer was able to find work for 69% of freelancers and 42% have done freelance work through the internet.

Millennials are also expected to contribute to the growth of this industry since 38% are currently freelancing and 82% anticipate better days are still to come.


2005 – 2006

Information on freelancer statistics for 2006 can be estimated when considering the number of "independent and contingent workers—contractors, temps, and the self-employed—stood at 42.6 million, or about 30% of the workforce." The exact "freelancer" terminology was not used so this figure is not precise. At the time of the Qz article in 2013, 2006 was the last time this information was calculated by the federal government. Prior to this, in 2005 the exact count of freelancers totaled 10.3 million.

Around 2005, freelancers made an average of over $35,000 per capita income. It's noted that by 2020, 60 million people, or over 40% of U.S. workers will be "contingent" or freelance workers according to a study by Intuit in 2010. The exact percentage of GDP contribution was not available for this time frame.


The 1980s — Early 2000s

Prior to 2000, in the 1990s, 1980s, and 1970s freelancing was not a common career choice. "During the last few decades of the 20th century (the ’70s, ’80s, and even the ’90s)" most individuals worked in traditional fields and at traditional jobs located outside of their home. However, in 1989, 6% of the workforce was made up of freelancers. It's also noted that in 1980 the average per capita income was under $11,250 and under $22,500 in 1985 and 1990. The average per capita income reached slightly over $22,500 in 1995.

The freelancing industry saw growth after the new millennium when the growing popularity of the entrepreneurial mindset started to take hold. This is shown by the 500% growth in this segment of the workforce from 2000 to 2014. According to Indeed, a job site, from 1980 to 2000 there were less than 10,000 freelancing jobs. This number didn't surpass 10,000 until after 2000 and since then has grown tremendously. In New York City and Los Angeles alone, there were less than 5,000 freelancing jobs in each city prior to 2008. This clearly depicts the scarcity of this career segment prior to 2000. The precise percentage of GDP contribution was unavailable for this time frame.

CONCLUSION

To wrap things up, precise information on the GDP in the United States is not readily available for the requested 10-15 year gap time frame due to the fact that the information was either unavailable or not visible to the public without bypassing a paywall. However, it's clear that freelancers contributed $1.2 trillion in revenue for the U.S. economy and were responsible for 6% of the GDP in 2017. Our research was also able to identify that the average earnings for a freelancer in the U.S. in 1985 were under $22,500 as compared to over $35,000 in 2005 and $65,300 in 2017. The freelancer population as a whole also grew from 10.3 million in 1985 in 2005 to 54-68 million in 2016. In 1989 freelancers accounted for a mere 6% of the workforce which contrasts the 35% they represented in 2016.

Thank you for choosing to send your question to Wonder! Please feel free to reach back out if you have any follow-up questions.
Part
04
of twelve
Part
04

Freelancer Cost

Hello! Thanks for your question regarding the average cost of hiring a freelance employee compared to a full-time, in-house employee. The short version is that the added cost of hiring full-time employees is between 30-50% more than what it would cost to hire freelancers. It is more difficult to estimate the average salary of a freelancer since it depends on different factors like occupation, location and experience. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

Methodology

I began my search by looking for freelance statistics on multiple media sites, corporate websites, and industry reports. I was able to find a variety of statistics and information regarding the pros and cons of hiring full-time in-office employees versus hiring freelancers. I found two useful studies that measure the cost of freelancers and full-time employees in higher paying positions like software engineers. One of the studies converts a freelancer's average hourly rate into an annual salary for a more realistic comparison. Most of the research agreed that having a mix of full-time employees and freelancers is most beneficial to a company's productivity. Also, in general, freelancers tend to be a better investment since they cost the company less money to hire.

Pros & cons of Freelance and Full-time Employee

Both full-time employees and freelancers have pros and cons. However, both are necessary for a full-functioning and more efficient business. Full-time employees can be a good investment when it is important for workers to understand all aspects of a business and to become integrated into the company's work culture. Whereas a freelancer's involvement with the inner workings of a company will be not be as prevalent and will be focused mostly on the specific project assigned to them. It has been suggested that 70% of a company's goals can be met by freelancers and 30% by full-time employees. One benefit of hiring freelancers is that full-time employees are paid for days they are not working. These include holidays, paid sick days, and vacation time. Using freelancers allows company's to save money because they are only being paid for the hours that they are working.

Considering employers can save a significant amount of money using freelancers it is not surprising that freelancing is on the rise. According to a 2015 study, Freelancing in America: A National Survey of the New Workforce, 32 percent of freelancers claimed that a demand for their services increased in the past year. Another study found that the freelance economy is currently growing at a rate 27% higher than that of full-time in-office jobs. Furthermore, virtual offices accounted for 35 percent of the entire American workforce, according to the Freelancing in America 2016 Report.

However, most of the research acknowledges the importance of understanding when to use freelancers and for what positions. Freelancer positions are best for jobs that are more temporary in nature or in need of a specialist. These sectors normally include IT, graphic design, social media management, content writing or copywriting, and accounting. According to a Hubstaff survey, the most in-demand freelancing jobs are related to development, writing, marketing, administrative, and consulting. The highest number of responses came from recruiters for developers as well as sales and marketing.

Cost Analysis

Based on the research provided, the biggest downfall of hiring full-time employees is the added expense of training, taxes and benefits, which would not be provided to a freelancer. For example, a quantitative study conducted by Michael Solomon, the Co-Founder of 10x Management, found that added costs including payroll tax, social security, medicare, federal unemployment insurance, and workmen’s compensation cost around 30% of a full-time employee’s salary. When looking at a $135,000 employee, it would really costs the employer between around $311,500 compared to the $294,000 (assuming a $150 hourly rate) it would cost for a freelancer. Other sources have also stated that companies can save 30% on each hire using freelancers instead of full-time employees.

Another study calculated the annual salary of both full-time employees and freelance developers. They used an equation to convert an hourly freelance rate into an annual salary: Freelance hourly rate x average hour (1790 hrs) = Annual Salary. In the U.S., a freelance software developer charges between $50 and $250 per hour, which translates into $107,000-$179,000 annually while the annual salary of full-time developer is around $113,000. However, including benefits and indirect costs, a full-time developer ends up costing around $198,974. That means hiring a freelancer would cost almost 50% less than hiring a full-time employee.

Conclusion

To wrap it up, research has found that using a mix of freelancers and full-time employees is the more efficient. Some positions that are best suited for freelancers include IT, copywriting, and graphic design. However, quantitative research has shown that in general hiring freelancers cost around 30% less than hiring full-time employees due to extra cost of taxes, benefits and training.

Thanks for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help with anything else!
Part
05
of twelve
Part
05

Freelancer Use in U.S. Companies

Hello! Thanks for your question about the percentage of S&P 500 companies that use freelancers/independent workers as substitutes. The short version is that after searching extensively through, academic databases, corporate websites, industry reports, government reports/databases, regulatory filings, trusted media sites, user forums and review sites, I’ve determined that the information you requested is not publicly available because there have only been very limited published reports or studies on the on the percentages of S&P 500 companies or companies in general in the US and their use of freelance workers as a whole. However, I was able to learn some statistics and interesting information regarding this topic in general, and some detailed information on an S&P company, 3M. Below you will find a deep dive of my research and methodology.

METHODOLOGY

To research your question, I searched exhaustively through academic databases, corporate websites, industry reports, government reports/databases, regulatory filings, trusted media sites, user forums and review sites in an attempt to locate the desired results. After searching all avenues, I could see that there were reports on the freelance market in general and some information on overall percentages of companies in the US that use freelance workers, however, they did not divulge the percentages of the company workforce or rate the companies by size and they were limited, not showing a 10 year or 15-year span.

HELPFUL FINDINGS

While I could not find a direct answer to your question, I was able to gather some information about this topic, which I think will be helpful for your project.
According to this reporting, in 2010, approximately 23-30% of the US workforce was classified as contingent and over 80% of large corporations stated that they planned to increase their use of these workers substantially in the future. This same survey of 200 of the largest US companies discovered that temporary workers in 2010 represented approximately 22% of their workforce.
Freelancers make up approximately 34% of the Workforce in the US. According to a 2014 study by the Freelancers Union, “53 million Americans are independent workers or about 34% of the total workforce. This number is expected to balloon to 50% by 2020”.

According to Deloitte’s 2016 Global Human Capital Trends study, 51% of global executives surveyed said: “their organizations plan to increase the use of flexible and independent workers in the next three to five years”. This Deloitte study also showed that 87% of US organizations surveyed rated freelance workers as “Important to very important.”
According to Deutsche Bank 17% of US workers are employed by S&P 500 companies. This means that of the 141.6 million people employed in America and about 117 million work for small or medium-size companies. They also note that in 2015, hiring by the S&P 500 has decreased dramatically while small businesses have increased hiring.
A recent Contingent Workforce Study, surveyed major employers in the US the contingent workforce found that one in two or 50% reported they have increased their use of freelance /gig workers over the last five years. This information backs ups a recent study from two Harvard economists, showing that the number of workers engaged in freelance /gig workers rose by 66% in the past 10 years to 2015. “EY analysis shows that the rate of hiring of full-time employees among S&P 500 organizations since 2009 has slowed sharply versus the pre-recession period. Annual full-time employee headcount growth slowed to 2.7% from 2009- 15 versus 3.9% during the five years before the recession”. This study showed that US employers organizations on average were made up of 17% contingent workers. The study also showed that “20% of organizations reported that their workforce comprised at least 30% contingent workers in 2016”. This study is predicting the growth of contingent workers to reach around 1/5 of all US workers by 2020.

An article stated that SAP posted predictions that by 2019, “approximately one quarter of the entire U.S. workforce will be independent workers (self-employed, independent contractor, freelancer, temp contractor, etc.)” And that 10% of the largest US companies will use less than 10% physical workers at their offices and will be “virtual corporations.”
In 2017, a study on global freelance posted this quote: “It’s surprising how far some of these very large enterprises are in adopting these platforms,” says Vili Lehdonvirta, an economic sociologist and associate professor at the University of Oxford, who is studying online freelancing platforms and their effects on the way workforces are organized. In the past 12 months, the total number of projects sourced using such platforms increased 26%. He says that while we typically think of start-ups and small businesses using such platforms, increasingly large firms are turning to them too. “That is something that could have a real impact,” he says. Lehdonvirta and his colleague Gretta Corporaal on Tuesday published research on the subject—they looked closely at 9 large companies—in a report by the Oxford Internet Institute, “Platform Sourcing: How Fortune 500 Firms Are Adopting Online Freelancing Platforms.” Other interesting quotes from this study include this one from Upwork, “Until a couple years ago, we mostly saw very small companies, with maybe as few as 100 employees” says CEO Stephane Kasriel. Now, there’s so much demand from large firms for freelancers on its platform that Upwork is planning to double the size of the “enterprise team” that caters to them. (Upwork currently works with 20% of Fortune 500 companies.)

POSSIBLE FURTHUR RESEARCH

Suggested further research to find more accurate numbers of freelance/contract employment in S%P 500 companies would be to research each company on the list individually. Such as 3M, where we see from this article that a contracted employee at 3M had started working there under contract in 2002 and continued working contract to contract in hopes of being hired. After over 10 years, in 2012 3M did not renew his contract. At the point of his departure, he said that “half of the staff in the product safety unit where contract employees.” A spokesman at 3M stated that in 2012, “contingent — or contract — workers now make up about 10% of 3M’s U.S. employee base.”

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, after searching extensively through, academic databases, corporate websites, industry reports, government reports/databases, regulatory filings, trusted media sites, user forums and review sites, I’ve determined that the information you requested is not publicly available because there have been very limited published reports or studies on the on the percentages of S&P 500 companies or companies in general in the US and their use of freelance workers as a whole. However, I was able to learn some interesting statistics and information regarding this topic in general, and some detailed information on an S&P company, 3M. If you’d like to continue research on any of the other topics I’ve outlined above, just let us know!
Thanks for using Wonder!

Part
06
of twelve
Part
06

U.S. Freelancers - Side Gigs

Hello! Thanks for your question regarding the percentage of the U.S. workforce that engages in freelance work as a “side gig”, currently and at a point in the past. The short version is that the total number of people in the US who spend at least some of their time working at freelance jobs jumped by 2 million over the last two years to 55 million, which is about a 4% increase.

Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

Methodology

I started by searching for information regarding workers with side gigs (or hustles) and what might have fueled the growth in secondary incomes. Unfortunately, even after the extensive research, recent government data is hard to find since the BLS has not had an approved budget to do the Contingent Worker Survey since 2005, and the gig economy worker surveys have mostly been conducted within the last two years or so. However, there is still a lot of valuable information about the US freelance market and how it has changed over time.

To complete your request and supply the required information, I reviewed Industry reports, Government reports/databases, and Trusted media sites. The primary research sources were BLS and Bloomberg.

FINDING

HRE Daily cites a CareerBuilder study that shows 32% of US workers have a side gig. More women than men do, they tend to be under 35, and are more likely to be African-American or Hispanic. It also offers additional stats based on income levels. I found that many people, especially women, are doing side gig work out of economic necessity, not for passion projects.

This Brooking study shows the growth in the gig economy for several sectors. Of particular interest might be the ground transportation (Uber & Lyft-style gigs) and traveler accommodation (AirBnB-style) industries.

The McKinsey article has an interesting graph that shows the percent of people who do side gig work because of economic necessity versus casual earning. This survey states that up to 162 million people in Europe and the United States — or 20-30% of the working-age population are engaged in some form of independent work.

A recent survey from Bankrate showed that more than 44 million Americans have a side hustle. The majority are Millennials — adults aged 18 to 34. But women pursue extra gigs for different reasons than men do: 69% of women say they use the extra money from a side hustle to help pay for living expenses, compared to just 42% of men.

The Cashlorette explores the breakdown of Millenials working side gigs. It includes a good visual of how many engage in the work, how often they do it, and how much money they make.

“While we continue to be at what is considered full-employment, the quality of each of those jobs has been dwindling, causing people to seek out new ways to supplement their full-time income,” said Arun Sundararajan, a professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business. “There is a lot more volatility in the world of work today than there was 20 or 30 years ago.” So, that's why there has been significant growth in the side gig economy, particularly due to job instability/volatility.

This article cites a WorkSphere survey that shows a remarkably higher number of people with side gigs (85%). It also discusses the effects side gigs can have on primary employers: 48% of respondents to the WorkSphere survey claimed they were very or extremely concerned that their side gigs could interfere with their main jobs, and a similar number said they’ve used vacation days at their main jobs to work on their side gigs.

The number of on-demand workers in the US is expected to nearly double in the next four years. That means 9.2 million Americans are expected to work in the gig economy by 2021, up from 3.8 million last year, according to combined research by Intuit and Emergent Research.

The CES (part of the US Census Bureau) states that existing estimates of how many persons engage in such employment often referred to by the press as “gig” or “on-demand” employment, vary tremendously. For example, a 2015 report by the Government Accountability Office states that the size of the contingent workforce can range from less than 5% to more than a third of the total employed labor force.

The number for the category of jobs mostly performed by part-time freelancers or part-time independent contractors, according to Economic Modeling Specialists Intl., a labor market analytic firm, grew to 32 million from just over 20 million between 2001 and 2014, rising to almost 18% of all jobs. This article also discusses the issues of classifying gig workers as contractors vs. employees.

This post contains links to the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Contingent Worker Surveys from 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2005. But there was no federal funding allocated to conduct the studies after 2005.

Some of these earlier findings from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' show that in the 1995 survey, between 2.7 and 6.0 million workers, constituting a range of 2.2% to 4.9% of total employment was in contingent jobs. This survey also showed that 8.3 million workers or 6.7% of the total employed workforce were independent contractors, 2.0 million or 1.7% were classified as "on call," 1.2 million or 1.0% were employed through temporary agencies, and 652,000 or 0.5% worked for contract firms.

The 1997 survey showed little change in the portions of contingent or alternate workers. The findings showed that 4% of these workers considered themselves independent contractors and 57% worked for temporary agencies. There were an estimated 5.6 million workers in the contingent workers' category.

The 1999 survey showed there were 8.2 million workers who were identified as independent contractors, 2.0 million who worked on-call, 1.2 million who worked for temporary help agencies, and 769,000 who worked for contract firms. The difference found from 1997 to 1999 showed the proportion of workers employed as independent contractors declined, while the proportions employed in the other three alternative work arrangements were little changed.

The survey conducted in 2001 reported 8.6 million independent contractors, 2.1 million on-call workers, 1.2 million temporary agency workers, and 633,000 contract company workers. "The
proportions of workers employed in all four alternative arrangements were mostly unchanged since February 1999. With the exception of independent contractors, for whom there was a slight decline, these rates showed little change from those of the first survey in February 1995".

In the survey conducted in 2005, The Bureau of Labor Statistics stated that the proportion of U.S. workers holding contingent jobs showed little difference in February 2005 than in February 2001. This might help explain why the surveys were not continued after 2005.

The total number of people in the US who spend at least some of their time working at freelance jobs jumped by 2 million over the last two years to 55 million, according to this report. That’s about a 4% increase, compared with the nearly 3% increase in the workforce nationwide tracked by the DOL.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, although I wasn't able to find recent government data since the BLS has not had an approved budget to do the Contingent Worker Survey since 2005, and the gig economy worker surveys have mostly been conducted within the last two years or so, I was able to find specific data for the percentage of the US workforce that engages in freelance work as a “side gig”, currently and at a point in the recent years.

Thank you for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help you with anything else!


Part
07
of twelve
Part
07

Freelance Platforms - Competitive Landscape

Hello! Thank you for your inquiry regarding a competitive landscape of freelance platforms. In short, I have profiled 9 companies in the attached spreadsheet link at the bottom of the page.

METHODOLOGY

To research your request, I searched through trusted corporate and media web sites to find the available information on US companies providing freelance platforms. I used the most recent data available and researched companies to find the number of users to rate the top companies in this field. The companies chosen are top, well-known freelance companies in the US market. I have provided the competitive landscape in the spreadsheet link at the bottom of the brief. Any fields that are marked as N/A are because the information was not publicly available.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I have profiled 9 companies in the attached spreadsheet link below.

Thank you for asking Wonder! Please let us know if we can help you with anything else!

Spreadsheet Link: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Vqb2rJG7raOlIx0Lw1YxMIPtPxqpzoxXqZ3Z_LyLeKk/edit#gid=0

Part
08
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Part
08

Cost of a Small Business Website

Hello! Thank you for using Wonder to ask how the costs of launching a small business website have changed over years. The short answer is that an entrepreneur had to spend between $135 and $12,180, as compared to $54-$10,740 in 2015. As for the domain and hosting, their average annual costs were $255 in 2000 and $147 in 2015. Below you will find a deep dive of our methodology and findings.

METHODOLOGY

We searched for articles that discussed the costs of launching a small business website from 2000 and 2015. For the most accurate results, we set the time frames by using search engine tools. We found plenty of useful sources from 2015. Even though the topic wasn't that well-covered in 2000, we also managed to gather all the needed information.

To estimate the costs of annual hosting and domain in 2015, we used the prices from the article in Entrepreneur. For the lowest, we calculated $4,50 (monthly fee)*12, which gave us $54. In this case, the domain was included in the price. Then, we found the middle value between the result and the highest annual cost of $240.
We decided to use this article, as it specifically discussed costs for simple business pages.

For 2000, we took the range $10-$30 that was proposed for a simple small business page in this article. Our calculations were:

$10*12+$15 (domain cost) = $135
$30*12+$15 = $375
($375+$135)/2=$255

We used the same source to provide you with the cost of web development services in 2000. For 2015, we decided to use the Atilus' article, as the author gave the best explanation of how he arrived at the proposed price ranges. Additionally, there are a few other sources that price a standard website at $7,500.

For the lowest possible cost, we chose the lowest price for a basic website. For the highest, we decided that the maximum price for the advanced website will be the best option. However, we took the price from the description ($8,500), as there was an explanation that the price can go up to $30,000 only if the client needs extensive consultations and support. According to your specifications, this is not what you are interested in.

For the cost of web development services, we decided to provide you with the ranges rather than an average amount. Here, all depends on the specific requirements, so one value wouldn't give you a solid overview.

We couldn't find the cost of website content creation for 2000. To estimate it, we used the average hourly rate for that year for copywriter/web content writer in the US ($56-$60) and the results of the survey on how long does it take copywriters to write it. On average, writing one web page takes 3 hours. It translates into roughly $180 per page.

The overall estimations provided in the introduction include hosting, domain, website development services and content creation costs. The lowest cost is the cheapest combination of (paid) hosting and domain. As for the highest, it includes the maximum price of website development (for a relatively simple site), ten pages of content and the more pricey standard hosting.

OVERVIEW

Both in 2000 and in 2015, a small business owner could launch its website for as little as $100 or tens of thousands of dollars. The biggest difference doesn't lie in the costs but the available choices.

In 2000, the resources which an entrepreneur could use to find the best hosting options or to educate himself about website development were quite limited, at least compared to 2015. Additionally, web design is a constantly evolving area. For these two reasons, you can see much greater variations in the costs for 2015.

DOMAIN AND HOSTING

Both in 2000 and 2015, a small business owner could theoretically opt for free hosting and only pay an annual fee for a domain. In 2000, it would typically cost under $15. In 2015, the price range was $10-$100.

However, free hosting offered limited possibilities in terms of disk space and bandwidth. In 2000, an entrepreneur had to pay between $10 and $30 a month for a reasonable deal. In 2015, the recommended options started at $4,50/month and reached $20/month.

The cost of dedicated hosting, with a higher level of service, was around $200 in 2000 and $120 in 2015.

Website DEVELOPMENT

Again, there could be no costs of website development in 2000, as well as in 2015. In both cases, a small business owner could choose a free basic template and customize it on his own. For custom websites, the prices started at $1,000 in 2000, compared to $2,000 in 2015.

For 2000, there is no explanation of how a $1,000 design differed from a $10,000 one, the most expensive option. In 2015, the $2,000 website was compared to "an online brochure," which could be SEO-optimized depending on the standards of the agency. The cost of an average website with CMS was $7,500. The price could go up to $8,500 and further (up to $30,000) if the project required extensive consultations and after-launch support.

CONTENT

The copywriting rates for 2000 and 2015 are quite similar. In 2000, a copywriter would charge around $180 per page, while in 2015, $100-$200. Therefore, for a website with ten pages, the cost of content was $1,800 in 2000 and $1,000-$2,000 in 2015.

However, in 2015 there were more budget options available, with sites like Fivver, oDesk, and Freelancer. With seeking copywriters overseas, it was possible to pay as little as $1 per page.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, in 2000, the overall cost of launching a small business website was between $135 and $12,180, as compared to $54-$10,740 in 2015. Thank you for using Wonder! Let us know if we can help with anything else.
Part
09
of twelve
Part
09

Freelance Workers - Finances

Hello! Thank you for question about the differences in overall debt and health insurance costs between a freelancer and a traditional full-time employee. The short version is that the generations preceding the Millennials pay far more for medical coverage and carry far more debt than those 25 years old and younger. Below you will find a deep dive into my methodology and research.

METHODOLOGY

After a search of corporate and trusted media sites, I found figures that answered both parts of the question with precise data. There were no direct sources for the debt of the traditionally employed American vs a freelancer. That's why I used the average American over the age of 30 as the traditional worker, instead of the Millennial. On the other hand, the largest market of freelance workers, at 38%, is represented by people that are 25 or younger.

AVERAGE PERSONAL DEBT

STUDENT LOAN
The Federal Reserve reports that there are 12 million student loan borrowers between the ages of 30 and 39. Together, these graduates hold a collective $408.4 billion dollars in debt. This brings the average student loan debt of Americans in their 30s to $34,033 on average. This figure is almost $13,000 higher than the student loan debt held by people in their 20s. One possible cause for this discrepancy is societal and cultural factors at the times the two different groups graduated from college. Many students who are now in their 30s finished school at the time of The Great Recession. Unemployment was high and jobs were scarce, especially anything that utilized your hard-earned college degree. It's practically impossible to pay back a student loan while working nights at Wal-Mart.

CREDIT CARDS
The Baby Boomers carry the largest amount of credit card debt of any age group. Their average credit card debt is $9,096. The average American in their 30s was listed as having approximately $8,235 in credit card debt. Millennials, on the other hand (and people over 74) were cited as carrying the least amount of credit card debt, a mere $5,808 per person. According to a research by Value Penguin, In the year 2000, over half of the households in the US had credit card debt. That number fell to 38% in 2001, which is one of the biggest drops in credit card recorded recently. In contrast, the average credit card debt since then rose from $5,048 to $7,697. This means the average American today holds 52% more debt than they did a decade ago.

MEDICAL EXPENSES
The third largest cause of debt in the United States is medical expenses. In a country where people would rather gamble with their lives than pay for the cost of an ambulance getting them to the hospital, this is easily the most tragic of the three categories. A study conducted in 2016 found that equals parts of people with insurance and people without insurance, 44% and 45% respectively, said that medical bills had a very serious impact on them and their families. A 2014 study determined that a staggering 43 million Americans have outstanding medical debts. Another report uncovered that:

1. An individual with overdue medical debt owes $1,766 on average.
2. Medical expenses comprise more than half of the debt on credit reports
3. Half of the people with debt from medical expenses showed no other signs of financial distress.

According to a study from the Urban Institute, almost one out of four working-age adults had a past-due medical debt in 2015. More surprisingly is that in 2012 the number was closer to 30 percent. The decline is probably due to the introduction of the Affordable Care Act and the continuing economic recovery in the post-recession years." According to the same study, the Gen X and Millennial age groups were the most likely to be affected by unsettled medical debts.

With these three primary factors influencing individual debt, the average debt for a traditional, full-time worker is estimated to be $44,004. The average debt carried by a Millennial is $28,607. That amounts to a difference of $15,397.

AVERAGE COST OF HEALTH INSURANCE

This answer to that part of the question was difficult to find because there are so many factors that affect insurances. In order to simplify the process we have taken the numbers for individual insurances only, no family plans will be considered. Overall, employer sponsored healthcare plans cost on average $5,179 annually. That equals to 83% of the premium. For freelancers, the Department of Health and Human Services estimated that the average American with a federal marketplace plan paid $106 a month after subsidies in 2016. This accumulates to a total of $1,272 a year which makes it $3,907 cheaper than the individualized plan provided by the traditional employer.

CONCLUSION
To wrap it up, according to these studies, Millennials carry less debt and pay less for their health insurance than the average full-time worker. Moreover, the average debt for a traditional, full-time worker is estimated to be $44,004 while the average debt carried by a Millennial is $28,607. Not only that, but freelancer Millennial pay $3907 less in insurance premium than the average American worker.

Thanks for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help with anything else!




Part
10
of twelve
Part
10

Freelance Workers - Income Distribution

Hello! Thanks for your question about freelance worker income distribution for the US, Canada, UK, Germany, France, and Japan. The short version is that after searching extensively through, academic databases, corporate websites, industry reports, government reports/databases, regulatory filings, trusted media sites, user forums and review sites, I’ve determined that the information you requested is not publicly available because there have not been any published reports or studies on the income distribution for the freelance market. However, I was able to learn some of the estimated income for the freelance market in the US and UK, along with a wealth of information on the freelance market in the specified countries. I have updated the attached spreadsheet to reflect the US and UK findings and entered N/A in all the categories for the other countries. Below you will find a deep dive of my research and methodology.

METHODOLOGY

To research your question, I searched exhaustively through academic databases, corporate websites, industry reports, government reports/databases, regulatory filings, trusted media sites, user forums and review sites in an attempt to locate the desired results. I was quickly able to find some recent estimates of the US market, but not for around the year 2000. After searching all avenues, for each country, I could see that there were reports on the freelance market in general, however, they did not divulge the income distribution or any relevant information to form a triangulation.

HELPFUL FINDINGS

While I could not find a direct answer to your question, I was able to gather some information about this topic, which I think will be helpful for your project.

UNITED STATES

Forbes reported that a 2016 report from the Freelancers Union showed that freelancers make up 35% of the US work force and is an estimated $1 trillion dollar a year industry, up from $715 billion in 2014. It is estimated that there were 55 million freelance workers in the US in 2016, up from 53 million in 2013. The Freelancing in America survey from Upworks showed that 73% of freelancers say that technology has made the search and availability of freelance work options easier and 66% said they had obtained more work online than in past years. The study also showed that 54% of the US freelancer’s report they earned more money freelancing than working a full-time job and 79% said working as a freelancer was better than working in a traditional employment setting.

UNITED KINGDOM

In 2014, 1.4 million British freelancers contributed an estimated £21 billion in earnings into the economy. The number of freelancers in the UK had a growth of 14% over the previous decade. When poled, 78% of the UK public stated that they believed freelancing would help promote a positive balance of life/work and 72% believe that freelancing is a positive influence on a person’s family life.

In the UK, there was a 46% increase in businesses that were using freelancers in 2013 and payments increased 37% year over year. A report from 2014 showed that 87% of students with either a first or a second-class degree and 77% with a lower-class degree saw freelancing as a highly attractive and a lucrative career choice.
Another study covering all of Europe stated that there were 8.9 million freelancers in Europe in 2013, an increase of 45%. There is a great report on the entire UK freelance industry, with the exception of the revenue that can be viewed here to provide more insight into the UK market.

JAPAN

An article from 2017 stated that a crowdsourcing firm reported that there were 11.22 million freelancers in Japan aged between 20-69, an increase of 5% from 2016. This represents 17% of Japans working populous. Some of the rise in freelancers in Japan was due to the 2008 global financial crises. In Japan, there are little laws governing freelance work. Yoshio Higuchi, a professor of labor economics at Keio University in Tokyo, said: “that unless the government drafts legislation to protect freelancers, it may end up just creating another group of workers with unstable job security”.

GERMANY

An article in 2016 stated that Germany had a rise in freelancers from 500K in 1992 to almost 1.3 million today. This increase is in part due to increased digital platforms along with reductions in salaried work from traditional corporations’. In 2013 a report showed 1.23 million freelancers in Germany and 90% reportedly made a “decent living.” German companies are hiring more freelancers to reduce cost and therefore be able to stay competitive in the market. Germans believe their free time is valuable and that your life should not be defined by work. This makes freelancing an attractive option to both the worker and German companies.

CANADA

A study published in a 2017 article stated that by 2020, 45% of the Canadian work population would be self-employed freelancers. Some of the reason behind this increase is reported as, “an increase in the on-demand economy, which the report defines as ride-sharing, peer-to-peer rental, project-based job platforms and online retail platforms.” The report also stated that 19% of freelancers are people who are retired but still need to earn extra income or wanted to work. Other findings show that 44% of freelancers are making more money than when they were employed, 41% of the freelancers are working to supplement their income and 77% chose to freelance to have more flexibility in their life.

FRANCE

In France, 90% of the workforce is still working in traditional employment vs 10% in the freelance field. The perception in France has been that people needing to do freelance work were “poor helpless victims of the evil American digital platforms, or as feckless millennials unable to hold a “real” job”.
This is starting to change as a report from McKinsey suggests that around 13 million French people are engaged in some form of independent work to supplement income for various reasons. A report just published showed that freelancing is a quickly increasing market in France and many US based companies are playing a key role in this industry. Some of the reasons for this increase are stated as, “because in France, work contracts are among the most rigid in Europe and employers are reluctant to hire new employees and prefer the flexibility of on-demand services.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, after searching extensively through academic databases, corporate websites, industry reports, government reports/databases, regulatory filings, trusted media sites, user forums and review sites, a direct answer to your question is not publicly available because there have not been any published reports or studies on the income distribution for the freelance market. However, I was able to learn the estimated income for some of the freelance market in the US and UK, along with a wealth of information on the freelance market in the specified countries. I have updated the attached spreadsheet to reflect the US and UK findings and entered N/A in all the categories for the other countries. If you’d like to continue research on any of the other topics I’ve outlined above, just let us know!
Thanks for using Wonder!

Part
11
of twelve
Part
11

Co-Working Spaces

Hello! Thank you for your question about co-working spaces in the United States. The sources that were the most useful were the Coworking Map and JLL. In short, 27 million sq. ft. of co-working space was available in the U.S. in 2015. Exact figures are either unavailable or not publicly accessible for the square footage in and around 2007. However, an estimation can be made based on the available figures for 2017 and the available number of coworking spaces from 2007 to 2015. It's estimated that 582,734 sq. ft. of coworking space was available in 2015. It's also noted that WeWork and Regus are responsible for 80% of total leased coworking spaces. Below you'll find a detailed account of my findings.

METHODOLOGY

Industry reports and trusted media sites were used in order to research your request. An abundance of information was available for recent years in terms of both square footage and the number of coworking spaces in the United States. Information on the number of spaces was also available for various other time periods after 2007 however the square footage was not found. This information is likely unavailable due to the fact that the freelancer economy has grown significantly in recent years and most of the available data is for the last few years. To complete your request an estimate was calculated based on the available information on coworking spaces and square footage.

FINDINGS

An article published at the end of 2015 reported that 27 million square feet of coworking spaces were being used. It's noted that "928,471 square feet was leased in 2016’s first quarter alone." In 2015, a total of 2,179,209 square feet was leased for this purpose and since mid-2014, over "3.7 million square feet in leases of 20,000 square feet and larger" were leased by shared office providers. Large coworking space providers like WeWork and Regus are responsible for "80% or 21 million square feet of total leased space." ​WeWork alone "operated 356 square feet of property" in 2012 and was forecast to rise to 3,615 square feet worldwide by 2015.

As of late 2015, there were 142 coworking spaces in the country which was an increase from 120 in 2014, 83 in 2013, 54 in 2012 and 33 in 2011. This shows the steady year to year growth of this industry over the last few years.

In 2007, there were only 3 coworking spaces in the United States. This grew to 7 in 2008, 13 in 2009, and 20 in 2010. The exact number of square footage for 2007 or any nearby year is either unavailable or not publicly accessible. This is likely due to the fact that the coworking industry as a whole has seen significant growth in recent years. This is shown by the fact that only 3 coworking spaces existed in the U.S. in 2007 compared to the 142 in 2015.

An estimate can be reached when considering the 27 million square feet used in 2015 and the increase in coworking spaces from 3 in 2007 to 142 in 2015. Below you'll find my calculations.


CALCULATIONS

Increase in coworking spaces in 2015 — Number of coworking spaces in 2007 = Size of increase (139)

Size of increase / Number of coworking spaces in 2007 = (46.33)

(46.33) x 100 = Percent Increase (4,633.33%)

142 – 3 = 139
139 / 3 = 46.33
46.33 x 100 = 4,633.33%

This same strategy can be used to estimate the percentage increase in square footage from 2007 to 2015. Multiply the 2015 square footage of 27 million by the percent increase from 2007 to 2015. This results in an estimated 582,734 square feet. Calculations are listed below.


CALCULATIONS

Square footage in 2017 / Percent increase x 100 = 2007 estimated square footage

27 million / 4633.33 x 100 = 582,734 square feet.

CONCLUSION

To wrap things up, 27 million sq. ft. of coworking spaces were being used in the U.S. in 2015 and an estimated 582,734 sq. ft. were used in 2007. The precise number of square footage for 2007 or any similar year was either not accessible or not publicly available. This is largely due to the fact that the coworking industry as a whole has seen significant growth in recent years. This is clearly the case when you consider the fact that only 3 coworking spaces existed in the U.S. in 2007 compared to the 142 spaces in 2015. It's also noted that coworking space providers like WeWork and Regus are responsible for 80% or 21 million square feet of total leased space.

Thank you for choosing to send your question to Wonder! Please feel free to reach back out if you have any follow-up questions.
Part
12
of twelve
Part
12

Entrepreneurship Gurus

Hello! Thanks for your question about the profile of some of the most renowned entrepreneurship "gurus". The short version is that I have detailed the life and works of seven entrepreneurial gurus, identified for their social media reach and success as best-selling authors. My research includes details of the six individuals listed in the research brief plus Gary Vaynerchuk, who is identified as a serial entrepreneur and one of the most in-demand speakers in the world. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

METHODOLOGY

I searched corporate websites, trusted media sites, industry reports, user forums and review sites to gather information on this request. I found information on the life and works of all six named entrepreneurs and also identified Gary Vaynerchuk as a suitable peer due to his success as an author, demand as a speaker and social media reach. There was no publicly available data about the number of books sold for Neil Patel, Guy Kawasaki, Seth Godin, James Altucher, Ramit Sethi and Gary Vaynerchuk. The only available information was that of Tim Ferriss. However, I firmly believe that the information provided gives scope of the reach of entrepreneurship “gurus” and their content. The social media accounts that I have listed for each guru are the most active ones. I have profiled each “guru” below with their names in bold.

Neil Patel

Orange County-based Neil Patel was the co-founder and VP of marketing at KISSmetrics from January 2008 to December 2014. In January 2006, he co-founded Crazy Egg and Hello Bar where he currently works. Details on his website profiles him as a New York Times best-selling author." He is also named as a top web influencer by The Wall Street Journal and mentioned in the top 10 marketers according to Forbes. His company is identified as one of the 100 most brilliant companies by Entrepreneur Magazine. In addition to this, he was acknowledged as one of the top 100 entrepreneurs under 30 years of age by former President, Barack Obama.

With regard to his social media following, Patel has 175,609 followers on Linkedln. On Twitter, he has 268,000 followers, on Facebook he has 911,860 likes and 911,715 followers and he has 11,219 subscribers on YouTube.

Tim Ferriss

Tim Ferris worked as the Senior Director at Brain Quicken LLC from 2001 to 2009. In 2007, through an Amazon deal, he published a book by the name Crown (Random House). He has been a Principal with Angel Investor since 2007. Ferriss has been listed as one of the Fast Company‘s “Most Innovative Business People” and one of Fortune‘s “40 under 40.” He is an investor and adviser regarding early-stage technology for more than 50 companies, including Alibaba, Uber, Shopify and Facebook. Ferriss has been dubbed "the Oprah of audio" by The Observer due to the success of his podcast, The Tim Ferriss Show.

Ferriss has written four books, all ranked #1 by New York Times and considered best-sellers by the Wall Street Journal. The titles include, The 4-Hour Workweek and his most recent publication, Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers. The 4-Hour Work Week has sold almost 2 million copies across 36 markets worldwide. His title, The 4-Hour Body, has sold over 1 million copies and The 4-Hour Chef has sold over 350,000 copies across North America.

As for his social media following, Ferriss has 1,146,005 followers on Linkedln, 227,423 YouTube subscribers, 561,000 followers on Instagram and 1.47 million followers on Twitter. On his Facebook page, Ferriss has 836,507 likes and 816,732 followers. The Tim Ferriss Show is generally the number 1 business podcast on iTunes, and it has been ranked number 1 out of 300,000+ podcasts. It is the first business/interview podcast to pass 100 million downloads, and it’s been selected as “Best of” iTunes for three years running — in 2016 under “most downloaded”.

Guy Kawasaki

Guy Kawasaki co-founded Alltop in 2007 and has been an executive fellow at the Haas School of Business, University of California since 2014. He has been a keynote speaker with Keynote Speaker Inc. for over 20 years and is a brand ambassador for Mercedes-Benz USA. He is also currently the chief evangelist with Canva, a web-based graphics-design company. Kawasaki also has a Bachelor of Arts degree from Stanford University, an MBA from University of California and an "honorary doctorate from Babson College". His website provides further detail of Kawasaki's success as an author, writing nine books, including The Art of the Start 2.0, Enchantment and The Art of Social Media.

Kawasaki's social media reach is extensive, including 2,502,274 followers on LinkedIn, 461,607 followers on Pinterest, 7,044,302 Google+ followers and 63,100 followers on Instagram. He also has 5,612 subscribers on YouTube, 1.5 million followers on Twitter and on his Facebook page, has registered 450,487 likes and 433,026 followers.

SETH GODIN

Seth Godin received a Masters of Business Administration from Stanford University. He founded Yoyodyne in 1995 and has worked in marketing at Seth Godin Productions for the past 31 years. Godin is the author of 18 books, many of which have been world-wide bestsellers and have been translated into over 35 languages. His writing topics include the post-industrial revolution, marketing and leadership.

As for social media statistics, Godin has 352,851 likes and 344,716 followers on Facebook, and 624,000 followers on Twitter. He has 42,600 followers on Instagram, however, his last post on this account was on April 23, 2015. On YouTube, he has 1,093 subscribers and his last upload was 8 months ago. There is no publicly available data regarding his LinkedIn followers.

JAMES ALTUCHER

James Altucher was the owner of Formula Capital from 2004 to 2007 and is currently a columnist with TheStreet.com and the Financial Times. He has also been a writer with The Wall Street Journal since 2009 and editor with The Altucher Report since January 2015. He is best known as a successful entrepreneur and investor, and for inspiring people through his writing and Twitter sessions. Altucher is also the author of eleven books, including a best-seller titled, Choose Yourself.

Altucher has 19,478 followers on Google+, however, his last post on this account was on January 16, 2015. He has 34,300 followers on Instagram, 854,251 followers on LinkedIn, 184,000 followers on Twitter, and 348,805 likes and 346,940 followers on Facebook.

RAMIT SETHI

Ramit Sethi worked as the Director of Special Projects with Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab from 2001 to 2006 and as a consultant with Omidyar Network until September 2006. He co-founded PBwiki in 2005 and worked as the Vice President of Marketing. He is currently listed as the founder and author of I Will Teach You to Be Rich, a New York Times best-seller. On his website, Sethi says, "Over 1,000,000 people read my material to learn how to use psychology and systems to live a Rich Life."

He has 13,956 followers on LinkedIn, 38,000 followers on Instagram, 129,251 subscribers on YouTube, 133,000 followers on Twitter and 115,070 likes and 112,302 followers on Facebook. Sethi also has over 175,000 readers per month on his blog, IWillTeachYouToBeRich.com, where he writes about entrepreneurship and personal finance.

GARY VAYNERCHUK

Gary Vaynerchuk is a serial entrepreneur who co-founded Vayner/RSE in 2014. He then went on to co-found VaynerSports in 2016 and is the co-founder and CEO of VaynerMedia since April 2009. VaynerMedia is a digital agency whose clients are Fortune 500 companies across the U.S. Vaynerchuk is known as "one of the most sought after public speakers alive today." He is the author of four New York Times best-selling books and has invested in a multitude of companies, including Tumblr, Uber and Twitter.

Vaynerchuk has 2.2 million followers on Instagram, 814,233 subscribers on YouTube, 1.54 million followers on Twitter, 1,152,534 followers in LinkedIn and 2,157,621 likes and 2,189,864 followers on Facebook.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, I have detailed the life and works of seven entrepreneurship "gurus". Each is noted for their social media reach and success as best-selling authors, including the six individuals listed in the research brief plus Gary Vaynerchuk, who is identified as a serial entrepreneur and one of the most in-demand speakers in the world.

Thanks for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help with anything else!


Sources
Sources

From Part 12