Fleet EV Infrastructure Needs

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Fleet EV Infrastructure Needs

The cost of a Level 1 single port electric vehicle supply equipment and a DC fast-charging unit ranges from $300-$1,500 and $10,000-$40,000, respectively.

Level 1 EV Fleet Charging Infrastructure

  • Level 1 cost of a single port electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) unit ranges from $300-$1,500, while the average cost is around $900 per unit.
  • The installation ballpark cost per unit ranges from $0-$3,000.
  • The average installation cost per unit is not available.
  • Level 1 is a good option for fleet vehicles "that cover relatively short distances each day (<40 miles per day) and can reliably plug in overnight."
  • The solution can be installed for up to 6 vehicles "for around $2,000-$3,000, including the cost of an electrician’s labor and permitting."
  • The Level 1 charging station utilizes a "standard 120-volt alternating current (VAC) outlet," providing a charging speed of about 3-5 miles of electric range per hour.
  • The typical locations for a Level 1 charging station include single-and two-family homes, town homes, multifamily dwellings, and commercial office buildings.

Level 2 EV Fleet Charging Infrastructure

  • Level 2 EV fleet charging infrastructure can be networked (WiFi-enabled) or non-networked (non-WiFi-enabled).
  • The cost of a non-networked charging unit ranges from $500-$2,000, at an average cost of about $1,250 per unit. The "installation costs can vary widely depending on the site, but average around $3,000 per unit, bringing the total cost for a non-networked solution to $3,500-$5,000 per unit."
  • A networked charging unit costs between $1,500-$6,000, while the average cost is around $3,750 per unit. The installation costs are "similar for a non-networked solution, but the increased cost of the networked equipment brings the total cost to $4,500-$9,000 per unit."
  • Fleet owners will also incur network fees for this charging system. A "typical network fees cost between $100-$900 annually, depending on the installation."
  • Level 2 charging units will likely require trenching, "so that electrical conduit is protected and does not present a tripping hazard." Trenching costs around $100 per foot.
  • Level 2 is a good option for long-range fleet vehicles, "with ranges that top 200 miles," thus seldom use "all their charge in a single day’s commute."
  • This charging system uses a 240-volt alternating current (VAC) outlet, providing a charging speed of about 10-54 miles of electric range per hour.
  • The typical locations for a Level 2 charging station include public and private fleets, single-and two-family homes, multifamily dwellings, and commercial office buildings.

DC-Fast Charging (DCFC) EV Fleet Charging Infrastructure

  • The cost of a DC fast-charging system ranges from $10,000-$40,000, at an average price of around $25,000 per unit.
  • The average DCFC installation costs are "around $21,000, but can range anywhere between $8,500-$51,000."
  • A transformer upgrade will be essential to "accommodate the increased power demands and can cost between $10,000-$25,000" — bringing the total cost of a DCFC solution to $30,000-$100,000 per unit.
  • DC fast charging solution is a good option for longer-range fleet vehicles with a specific need for rapid recharging.
  • It is appropriate for delivery, taxi, or transportation service fleets that may "require rapid recharging of EVs and wish to minimize vehicle downtime."
  • This charging system uses a 480-volt alternating current (VAC) outlet, providing a charging speed of about 75-300 miles of electric range per hour.
  • The typical locations for a DCFC system include highway corridors, public charging depots, retail shops, and hospitality & recreation facilities.

STEPS IN EV FLEET CHARGING PROJECT

Step 1: Estimate Demand

  • Planners should determine their agency's charging needs and how it will change in the future, including the current EV fleet size and the forecast in the near- and long-term.
  • Additionally, there's a need to decide the charging location, including where the EV fleet will be parked/charged and the availability of space.

Step 2: Consider Charging Station Options

  • In this step, planners will decide the charging speeds, controls, and billing capabilities required.
  • Depending on the fleets charging needs and dwell time, planners can choose either of the three charging stations types: Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 (DCFC). "Level 1 typically suit low mileage & long dwell, Level 2 mid/long mileage & mid/long dwell, and DC Fast Charging for short dwell."
  • If the Level 2 system is selected, "a facility will most likely need one charger per vehicle, as charging will take place overnight."
  • Selecting DCFC will "raise costs for cabling, transformers, and chargers, but possibly lower land and construction costs."

Step 3: Estimate Capital Costs

  • In addition to determining the type of EV charging equipment, planners should decide the cost per unit, the number of charging stations needed, and the "distance between the charging stations and the transformer or power grid connection."
  • Other cost factors to be considered vary, but include typical installation costs, trenching for electrical conduit costs, transformer upgrade costs, network fees, ongoing costs of EV charging like electricity, and "any other impacts to utility bills, such as increased service or demand charges."
  • A fleet manager might decide to incorporate a Fleet Recharge Management System (FRMS), "an integrated, computerized charging system that is designed to eliminate the costly process of managing electric vehicle charging by automatically sequencing multiple chargers." The cost will range from "$4,000 to $10,000 depending on the number and level of chargers."
  • Fleet managers might also want to design a metering/billing system that "matches electricity consumption to individual vehicles." The cost ranges from "$800 for a debit card system to $2,700 for a cashless voucher system to $14,000 for a TECH-21 proprietary card system."

Step 4: Evaluate Cost Recovery Options

  • Since installing EV fleet charging systems "require a considerable up-front capital expenditure," it is time for planners to decide on the cost recovery strategies to implement.
  • A fleet manager may decide to "recover the costs of installation and ongoing use from employees and visitors based on individual usage, or elect to absorb the cost themselves and provide EV charging as a free amenity."
  • If the fleet manager chooses the latter, there are options to apply for EV incentives through "the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuel Data Center (AFDC)."

OTHER STEPS

  • After the first four steps, planners can contact utility providers, including "EV service providers and electrical contractors who will be able to recommend solutions suited to the needs and constraints of their location."
  • The next step is to contract with vendors & hire installers to discuss "a variety of products, services, and unit ownership arrangements."

PUBLICLY FUNDED EV FLEET CHARGING STATIONS

  • The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) awarded $1 million in grants for implementing two electric vehicle charging infrastructure projects: Eastern Washington Project and I-5 Corridor Project, for a total investment of about $2.5 million.

Eastern Washington Project

  • The Eastern Washington Project is a collaboration of Greenlots, EV4, and "Energy Northwest on behalf of Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Transportation Alliance (EVITA)."
  • The project aims to install a network of DC fast chargers in "9 communities along I-82, I-182, US 395, and I-90," bridging "the charging gap between Tri-Cities and I-90 to both the west and north-east of Tri-Cities."
  • WSDOT awarded $405,000 EVIPP grants for the project to be used in "siting, equipment purchases, electrical upgrades, installation, operations, and maintenance."
  • The electric vehicle charging infrastructure project is estimated to cost $1,071,000.

I-5 Corridor Project

  • The project aims to bolster "existing fast charging infrastructure along I-5 by providing dual charging stations in 6 communities."

California EV infrastructure project

  • The California Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Project (CALeVIP) is led by the Center for Sustainable Energy (CSE) in collaboration with community partners and funded by the California Energy Commission.
  • The project aims to "promote the installation and expansion of California’s electric vehicle charging network to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cars and light-duty trucks."
  • The California Energy Commission awarded $4 million to be used in "the purchase and installation of Level 2 electric vehicle chargers." The estimated project cost was not revealed.

Research Strategy

The research team searched various industry-related sources, government, and academic databases to provide a breakdown of costs for each level of EV fleet charging infrastructure, the main steps to starting and budgeting for one, and a list of publicly funded projects. However, we were not able to determine the number of vehicles required for Level 2 and DCFC charging solutions because this will depend on other factors, including the number of charging ports, agency needs, cost, and more. Lastly, for one of the projects identified, we could not determine the estimated project cost, even after searching the project's website and related sources as the information was publicly unavailable.
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