Finding the Best Water Testing Company

Part
01
of one
Part
01

Finding the Best Water Testing Company

Below is information on five recent scientific studies that mention multiple water filtration methods, as well as the methods' effectiveness in removing toxins from wastewater.

Comparative Analysis of Conventional Treatment Methodologies and Advanced Processing Techniques for Reutilization of Polluted Ground Water

Study of Photovoltaic/Thermal collector technology for domestic water treatment

  • Link to the research paper.
  • The paper looks into affordable water purification processes that don't require an electrical grid.
  • Reverse osmosis, distillation, ultraviolet treatment systems, and "water softners", along with their effectiveness, are discussed as various filtration methods to remove pollutants. The research also discusses how solar energy and solar photovoltaic thermal collectors can purify water.
  • Distillation is capable of removing many common chemical toxins, such as arsenic and lead, by using the sun. The distillation filtration method boils impure water by allowing "solar radiation" to heat the water. The water becomes pure "when the temperature drops down to ambient temperature."
  • Water softner is an "ion exchange technology" process to remove chemicals and reduce hardness in water.

Surface water filtration using granular media and membranes: A review

  • Link to the research paper.
  • The paper provides research into the current surface water filtration methods to remove pollutants, their costs, effectiveness, and how they are applied in various countries.
  • The filtration methods discussed are granular activated carbon, micro and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, slow sand filtration, and rapid sand filtration.
  • Granular activated carbon (GAC) can absorb "organic compounds" that weren't previously treated. GAC can be used with other filtration methods to tackle toxins and produce quality drinking water.
  • Ultrafiltration and microfiltration are effective at eliminating "organic material from wastewater" and other bacteria after it's been chemically modified. They are also more cost effective that reverse osmosis. While microfiltration does not omit smaller particles that ultrafiltration and nanofiltration is able to remove, it is effective in removing bacteria in "domestic water recycling systems." To disinfect, microfiltration membranes, which already includes "ceramics, metals and woven fabrics," can be modified with different materials.
  • Nanofiltration is more effective at removing larger solutes like heavy metal compared to reverse osmosis. For certain toxins, nanofiltration has “greater removal capabilities” and it can be “chemically adjusted” to remove toxins.
  • The slow sand filtration (SSF) method is suited for rural areas. SSF lets raw water "pass through a sand medium. As the water passes through the sand," heavy metals and microorganisms are removed.
  • Unlike SSF, rapid sand filtration (RSF) does not produce "significant biological layer." This method has to go through "prior and post treatment stages to remove pathogenic substances and prevent fouling." RSF is commonly used in urban areas.

Pedal 4 Purification

  • Link to the research paper.
  • The paper looks into the effectiveness of physical purification methods and chemical purification methods to remove toxins from wastewater.
  • The paper discusses various filtration methods, such as reverse osmosis filtration system, slow sand filtration system, and ceramic filtration systems, such as pot ceramic and candle ceramic.
  • Pot ceramic is a flowerpot shaped filter that holds up to 10 liters of water that is stored in "a plastic or ceramic receptacle."
  • The candle ceramic filters consist of "activated carbon and other microfiltration bodies that are surrounded by a diatom, porous ceramic housing that acts as an additional layer of filtration for larger particles."

A critical review on application of photocatalysis for toxicity reduction of real wastewaters

  • Link to the research paper.
  • The paper looks into filtration methods, such as nanofiltration, granular activated carbon, and mainly photocatalysis to remove organic toxins from wastewater.
  • Photocatalysis is "the chemical reaction induced by the absorption of photons by solid material." This filtration process does not experience "chemical changes during and after" a reaction. The five steps during photocatalysis includes the transfer of toxins to the surface, "adsorption of pollutants on the surface," "photonic activation and decomposition of adsorbed molecules," "reaction product’s desorption," and the "removal of reaction products from the photocatalyst’s surface."
Sources
Sources