Fiber Optic Cable Installation

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Part
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Fiber Optic Cable Installation

Some leading companies that install fiber optic cables into fracking wells in the United States include AboveNet Inc, Trans World Fiber Optics, CSU Inc, Precision Fiber Inc, American Communications Cable Inc, American Cable Services, Shoreworx Communications.

Shoreworx Communications

AboveNet Inc

Trans World Fiber Optics

American Communications Cable Inc

  • American Communications and Cable Inc is a privately-held company that deals with Fiber Optics Services and Electrical Installation in Mc Kees Rocks, PA.
  • The company has an estimated annual revenue of $2.2 million.

American Cable Services

Precision Fiber Inc

CSU Inc


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Part
02

Types of Wells Using Fiber Optic cables

Fiber optic cables play vital roles in the oil & gas industry, including detecting and predicting oil & gas leakages. In gas wells, fiber optics can help quantify flow rates from a few barrels per day up to millions of Standard Cubic Foot (SCF) gas. Fiber optic cables in the oil & gas industry have broader applications in monitoring temperature and reservoir levels and transmitting data in real-time, among other uses.

Types of Wells in the Oil & Gas Industry

Oil Wells

Gas Wells

Oil & Gas Wells

  • Oil & gas wells produce both oil and gas and are designed just like oil wells or gas wells.
  • Fiber optic cables in oil & gas wells play a vital role in monitoring the oil rim, the overlying gas cap, or the aquifer below. In such cases, the oil rim is thin and requires constant monitoring to allow for an intelligent oil & gas well-production methodology.
  • Fiber optic cables are also used in oil & gas wells to determine the production rates and timing regarding when to pump more water and gas above or below the oil reservoir, which helps to "control the position of the oil rim."
  • The use of fiber optic cables replaces the conventional periodic gradiomagnetic surveys applicable in determining the "location and thickness" of the oil rim in a wellbore. The oil rim is often located between the "upper gas layer and lower water aquifer."

Research Methodology

In finding the types of wells using fiber optic cables in the oil & gas industry, your research team commenced by identifying the types of wells in the oil & gas industry, which are classified as either oil wells, gas wells, and oil & gas wells. Next, we proceeded to search for the various applications of fiber optic cables in the oil & gas sector, with a core focus on the different types of oil wells. We came across multiple publications, including scientific studies, government reports, and website publications focusing on the use of fiber optic cables in the different oil wells. In this regard, we examined various sources, such as Petro Online, Aera Energy, and Ziebel. We also checked reports published by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and DZone, which serves technology engineers. These sources cumulatively contained detailed analyses and reports about the use of fiber optic cables in the oil and gas industry.
Part
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Part
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Types of Wells Using Fiber Optic cables (2)

Fiber-optic cables are used in distributed temperature sensing which is used to measure temperature and pressure in steam-assisted gravity drain wells and offshore drilling wells. It is used to measure temperature changes, groundwater flows in groundwater wells.

Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Wells

  • Fiber-optic systems are used for thermal sensing of SAGD wells. They give an accurate measurement of the temperature at specific locations on the well.
  • These Fiber-optic systems have been used successfully to monitor the steam-injection and production processes.
  • Fiber-optic technology accurately monitors the distributed temperature measurement of SAGD wells and transmits the data to multiple remote locations via the Internet or cable communications. The operators then analyze the data to identify the exact location, time, cause of temperature change and then balance and optimize temperature differences.
  • An example of fiber optic technology used successfully in SAGD wells is wavelength-domain multiplexing of Bragg-grating-based fiber-optic sensors commonly referred to as array temperature sensing (ATS).
  • An optical pressure and temperature (PT) gauge can be attached at the end of the array temperature sensing (ATS) optical fiber to provide multiplexed distributed temperature sensing(DTS) and PT measurements.

Offshore Drilling Wells

  • Optical fibers are great for creating distributed sensing systems. The fiber acts as the sensor.
  • Fiber optic cables have played the best role in the area of safety of the pipeline. Optical fiber systems like the Distributed Temperature Sensing and Distributed Acoustic Sensing help in detecting pipe leakages where they are highly dependent on fiber optic cables.
  • Distributed sensing systems are used to measure temperature and to prevent the formation of hydration in pipelines.
  • The optical fiber sensing system monitors the reservoirs and with the data gotten, sheds light on what is happening inside the well.
  • It monitors structural strains in flexible riser/flowlines.
  • Fiber optics cables offer large bandwidth and so can handle very long distances offshore. With the Fiber optic solution, temperature, asset locations, and oil reserve levels can be monitored.

Groundwater Wells

  • The installation of fiber optic cable enables the collection of distributed data in surface wellbores.
  • Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing enables measurements at all depths in a wellbore or borehole simultaneously, without disturbing the water column.
  • DTS can measure temperature changes at the aquifer scale and with this, the "characterision of the apparent thermal properties at every depth" of the groundwater well.
  • Understanding of groundwater flow near drinking water extraction wells is crucial. DTS is used in combination with hot water as a tracer to characterize vertical groundwater flows in boreholes.
  • The flow information gotten can be used to prevent contamination of the drinking water, pollution and well clogging.

Brine wells

  • DTS and distributed fiber optic acoustic measurements (DAS) are used to detect leakages in the casing of a brine production well.
  • Fiber optic sensor cable containing multiple fibers simultaneously measures the temperature and noise depth distribution in the borehole. The noise and temperature change are associated with the leakage of the nitrogen bubbles.
  • Distributed temperature sensing systems (DTS) uses a standard telecommunication fiber optic cable as its sensor.

Research Strategy

We were able to find details of what fiber optic cables are used for in steam-assisted gravity drain wells, offshore drilling wells, groundwater wells, and brine wells. We found that Distributed temperature sensing systems are used in all these wells and this DTS technology uses a standard telecommunication fiber optic cable as its sensor.


Part
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Part
04

DTS and DAS Adoption in US-based Fracking Wells

While there was no specific information as to why DAS and DTS systems are not commonly used in United States-based fracking wells, the research team triangulated and provided relevant insights. Based on the garnered information, lack of awareness, high costs, and price fluctuations in the oil and gas industry are the most likely reasons why DAS and DTS systems are not commonly used in United States-based fracking wells. Below is an explanation of the methodology as well as the garnered information.

Lack of Awareness

  • According to a report by Coherent Market Insights, the global distributed fiber optic sensor market is restrained by lack of awareness of the technology, especially the associated advantages. According to NC-Netbusiness, distributed acoustic sensing is yet to achieve "optimum popularity and usage in the oil and gas industry" because not all oil and gas companies are aware of the technology and its benefits.

High Costs

  • Coherent Market Insights states that the high cost associated with the deployment of distributed acoustic sensors restrains the growth of the market, especially for SMEs in the oil and gas industry. A MarketsandMarkets report corroborates this findings by stating that the "high cost of distributed fiber optic sensor poses as a key challenge for industry players."

Price Fluctuations

  • Coherent Market Insights's report states that "constant fluctuation in oil & gas prices hinders the distributed fiber optic sensor market because oil and gas accounts for over 50% of the global market share in the distributed fiber optic sensor market.
RESEARCH STRATEGY
To find out why DAS and DTS systems are not commonly used in the United States, the research team began by searching for media reports in the hope that they had highlighted expert sentiments or findings from surveys or analyses. We also searched for any market research reports on the subject and considered industry-specific resources (both oil and gas and mining). However, we only managed to find insights on the challenges faced by the fiber optic sensing market (which includes DTS and DAS products) globally. While the said insights highlighted a few reasons why fiber optic sensors have not been widely adopted by the oil and gas industry, the information was neither specific to the U.S. nor to fracking wells.

Therefore, the research team decided to follow a more targeted approach by exploring the top players in the fiber optic sensing market including Luna Innovations Incorporated, Schlumberger Limited, Halliburton Company, and AFL. We hoped that these companies had provided insights into the challenges that their DTS and DAS products face in the United States, especially regarding the adoption in U.S.-based fracking wells. We also checked whether the factors identified above were considered as issues by the companies. Our research entailed searching through their annual reports and press releases. We also searched for any research reports conducted or commissioned by the companies and explored any U.S.-related issues that the companies are keen on solving. Our efforts were unsuccessful as the companies only provide the risks and challenges facing their operations, as opposed to their individual products. They also only highlight their achievements technology wise.

Third, the research team decided to explore U.S.-based oil and gas companies in the hope that they had provided information on the factors that have derailed their application of DAS and DTS systems in their fracking wells. The companies explored only provided insights on the strides made in their adoption of distributed fiber opting sensing tech, but none stated why or if they were slow in adopting the technology. Our research entailed searching through their communications as well as annual reports, where available. Having found no data that is specific to the United States-based fracking wells, we have provided global information with the assumption that it would be reflective of the U.S. market since the U.S. dominates the oil and gas market and DAS and DTS systems have seen the largest adoption in the oil and gas industry. The insights provided above are also considered to be relevant to U.S.-based fracking wells because fracking wells account for most of the oil production in the United States.
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Part
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Installing a DTS System in a Fracking Well

Despite limited data on the process for installing DTS systems in a fracking well, the research team managed to provide some useful insights: the casing installation of a DTS is similar to that of a normal fracking well. Below is an overview of the useful findings.
  • A diagram provided by Halliburton, one of the major players in the distributed fiber optics market, shows the structure of wells fitted with fiber optic sensors. The company offers both DTS and DAS systems, and the sensors could be either.
  • From the diagrams, retrievable fiber optic sensors are placed inside the tubing. Permanently-attached sensors are attached to either the tubing or casing of the well.
  • Notably, when compared to a diagram of a well with no fiber optic sensors it is seen that the casing installation of a DTS is similar to that of a fracking well without DTS sensors.
  • According to a 2016 survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, about 77% of the costs of a typical unconventional well comprised of five key expenses: casing costs (9-15%), rig-related costs (12-19%), frack-pumping costs (14-41%), proppant costs (6-25%), and completion fluid expenses (5-19%).
  • Another 2016 report states that speed has facilitated the reduction in the cost of well drilling from about five weeks in 2014 to two weeks in 2016. In some instances, the cost plummeted by up to 42% as a result.
  • OptaSense, a major player in the distributed fiber optics market, states that the technology reduces well-drilling and completion expenses by about 30%.
RESEARCH STRATEGY
The research team was tasked with identifying and detailing the estimated costs and estimated time for installing DTS systems in fracking wells. We also searched for information on the technical risks associated with this installation and tried to determine whether the casing installation of DTS systems is more complex than a normal installation in a fracking well. Our research began by searching through the public domain for any publicly/readily-available data on the required information. Our research entailed searching form media reports, industry reports, market research reports, and statistics sites, among others. While we managed to find some insights on the hydrofracturing market, there was very little publicly-available information regarding the process of installing DTS systems in fracking wells.

Secondly, the research team top players in the DTS systems market, specifically those serving the oil and gas industry. These companies include Halliburton and OptaSense, among others. Unfortunately, our search through their official portals, press releases, and annual reports only provided information on their recommendations for the deployment of fiber optic sensors as well as their features and benefits. These companies provide both DTS and DAS systems and the information provided is relevant to both.

As a last resort, the research team considered U.S. oil and gas companies. We did this hoping that they had provided information on how much they incurred, the estimated time that it took, technical risks encountered, and the complexity of the casing in either format. This was done by searching through their websites and communications. We also searched for nay published or commissioned reports. Additionally, the research team conducted a more targeted search on the public domain for any media reports highlighting these companies' activities around the DTS systems. However, our efforts produced nothing relevant to the quest. Some older sources have been used to provide useful insights due to limited data.
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Part
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Installing a DAS System in a Fracking Well

After extensive research, it was determined that there is very little information on how the process of installing DAS systems in fracking wells looks likes. However, the research team has provided some useful insights: the basic layout of casings in fracking wells is similar whether a DAS system is installed or not. Below is an explanation of the research strategy as well as an overview of the useful findings.
  • Based on diagrams, the basic layout of casings in fracking wells seems similar whether a DAS system is installed or not. The casings seem to be laid out in the same arrangement in both situations, but the complexity arises from the deployment of the sensors.
  • According to Bandweaver, a DAS installation company, there are three deployment options for fiber optic sensors: "Wireline, Slickline & Coiled Tubing," "Tubing Based Deployment," and "Behind Casing Installation." While the first deployment is simpler, "cross-coupling protectors" are included in the two latter deployments.
  • The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that onshore wells "cost between $4.9 million and $8.3 million" when costs related to completion, capitalized drilling, land acquisition, facilities cost, and transport costs have been included. Hydraulic fracturing usually accounts for about 38% of the total cost.
  • Completion costs typically account for up to 75% of the cost of onshore wells. These costs overlap and may include "fracking costs like the cost of fracking pumps, the fluids injected into the well and the salaries of the workers that operate the fracking equipment."

RESEARCH STRATEGY

The research team was tasked with identifying and detailing the estimated costs and estimated time for installing DAS systems in fracking wells. We also strove to include insights on technical risks associated with this installation and evidence of whether the casing installation of a DAS system is more complex, compared to a normal installation in a fracking well. Our research began by searching through the public domain for any publicly/readily-available data on the required information. Our research only provided data on the market size as well as general information on the DAS technology. We also found some insights on the process and cost of hydrofracturing but nothing on the process of installing DAS systems in fracking wells.

Next, the research team considered companies that sell and install DAS systems for the oil and gas industry in the United States such as Halliburton, Bandweaver, and Luna, Inc., among others. We searched through their websites, media releases, and annual reports for any insights on how much they charge for installations, how long it takes them, any technical risks encountered, and the complexity of the casing installation of a DAS system. The companies only provided information on their products' features as well as high-level overviews of their completed projects.

Third, the research team explored several U.S. oil and gas companies in the hope that they had provided information on how much they incurred, the estimated time that it took, technical risks encountered, and the complexity of the casing in either format. Again, our strategy was fruitless because these companies do not divulge the required information. We believe that the information is missing because the players in the sector do not divulge the information. However, we have provided some useful insights.
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Part
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Number of DAS Installation in 2020


After an exhaustive search, data on the total number of DAS system installations in 2020, and even 2019, as well as what it would look like in 2025 in the U.S. was largely unavailable. However, while industry reports provide conflicting information on the current market size of the distributed acoustic sensing systems market, they all agree that its size is expected to grow in the United States in the years to come.
  • According to Zion Market Research, the global distributed acoustic sensing systems market recorded $350 million in revenue in 2018 and it is expected to grow at 11.7% to reach about $922 million by 2027. The biggest U.S.-based players in the DAS market include Halliburton, Schlumberger Limited, and Ziebel. The report states that the market is likely to grow modestly in the United States due to increasing demand for energy.
  • According to Grand View Research, the global distributed acoustic sensing systems market was worth $360.8 million in 2018 and is likely to expand at 11.5% CAGR between 2019 and 2025. North America accounted for over 34% of the global market in 2018 due to growing shale gas exploration and oil and gas production.
  • According to Big Market Research, the global distributed acoustic sensing systems market is expected to expand at 12.1% CAGR rising from about $330 million in 2019 to $650 million in 2024. The report states that Europe and the United States captured about 78.84% of the global market.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

The research team set out to determine the total number of DAS system installations in the United States in 2020 by searching for information through media reports, fiber optic-focused sites/databases including The Fiber Optic Association, statistics resources, among others. We hoped that our initial research would provide readily-available information on the subject. We also hoped that we would find various media reports of any such installations, which we would have compiled to provide the total number. However, there was no relevant data even though we expanded our scope to 2019.

Next, the research team decided to expand our scope even further and search instead for the number of installations globally. We hoped that we would also be able to find the United State's market share of installations, which would enable us to determine the number in the country. We did this by leveraging market research reports, statistics sites, expert publications, and international media reports, among others. While we were able to find data on the market size for DAS in 2018 and forecasts for the years to come, all sources are behind paywall and, therefore, we could not access breakdowns, if any. Additionally, all reports provided varying data.

Our second strategy unveiled the biggest players in the DAS market as per the market reports, and we identified Halliburton, Schlumberger Limited, and Ziebel as the top U.S.-based companies. We then searched through the websites of these companies in the hope that they had published any information on the number of installations they, or their competitors, had carried out. We also conducted a more targeted search through the public domain in the hope of finding reports or interviews from the said companies or their executives. If we had found the number of installations by any or all the companies, we would have used their market shares to calculate an estimate of the total numbers. Again, our efforts were fruitless. We believe that the information is missing because players in the industry do not divulge such information. We have, therefore, provided useful information as available in the public domain.
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Part
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Number of DTS Installation in 2020

After an exhaustive search, data on the total number of DTS system installations in 2020, as well as what it would look like in 2025 in the U.S. were largely unavailable. In the course of this research, the research team found that the global DTS market is predicted to hit $819 million by 2022.

Related Findings

  • The size of the global DTS market was about $486 million in 2015.
  • The global DTS market was projected to grow at a CAGR of 7.9% to hit $819 million by 2022.
  • LAMEA generates the highest revenue in the global DTS market, followed by North America and Europe.
  • Asia-Pacific region is projected to exhibit the highest growth rate at 10%.
  • Schlumberger N.V. and Halliburton Company are U.S. companies with a significant market share in the global DTS market.

Research Strategy

To determine the total number of DTS system installations in the U.S. in the first quarter of 2020, your research team commenced with an exhaustive search through media pages, statistical and association databases such as The Fiber Optic Association, Inc., Statista and others. The team hoped to find reports on the installation of DTS in the U.S. from these sources but no useful data was found even after expanding below 2020.

Next, the team switched gear to search through industry reports, expert publications, and media reports. We hoped to find press releases or publications by experts and independent organizations for statistics on the installation of DTS in the U.S. However, no relevant data could be found. All we could gather were reports on the size of the global DTS market and the projected growth rate of this market but no data specific to the U.S. or the installation of DTS was available.

In the course of our research, we found a list of top players in the global DTS market. From the list, we identified Schlumberger N.V. and Halliburton Company as U.S. companies that are among the key players in the global DTS market. The team proceeded to scour through the websites of both companies for reports or press releases that could provide insight into the number of DTS systems installed in the U.S. in 2020 or any other year. Unfortunately, these companies do not provide any hint on the installation of DTS systems in the country. The likely reason for the unavailability of this data could be that no database that aggregates the number of DTS systems installed in the U.S. has been created.

Sources
Sources