European EV

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Part
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U.K. Vehicle Charging: Industry Trends, Media

Hello! Thank you for your question regarding U.K. Vehicle charging trends in media and industry sourced in the last three months. The U.K. is moving toward adding EV charging stations at a rapid pace. The government continues to add incentives to purchase EVs. As the use of fossil fuel falls the need to replace taxes on petroleum increases. Experts predict new micro payments for the use of bridges and tunnels as well as increased fees upfront.

KEY THEMES AND TRENDS

INCREASE IN CHARGING PORTS

1. The number of charging ports is growing along with the number of EV sales. The registrations of plug-in cars increased from 3,500 in 2013 to more than 107,000 by the end of July 2017. The U.K. has 7,300 charging devices with 12,500 connectors. The largest growing type of charging is the fast charging, which fully charge most models in 3-4 hours. Other charging options include rapid DC which can charge a car to 80% in 30 minutes. Slow or overnight charging unit take 6 to 8 hours to charge an EV. Tesla is offering "Superchargers" which are stations strategically placed to minimise stops during long distance travel near restaurants shopping centers and wi-fi hotspots. The number of sockets is set to soar to 80,000 by 2025, predicts Zap-Map.

FUEL DUTY INHIBITING GROWTH

2. U.K. is challenging the expanding number of EVs. The U.K. fuel duty is still a significant source of revenue for the U.K. according to the Office for Budget Responsibility. The Treasury earned £27.6bn in 2015-16. With a predicted 8% of the public driving cars no longer needing fuel that source or revenue will take a hit. It is predicted to be offset by increased bridge and tunnel fees with increased fees at the time of sale. The U.K. also has yet to install EV hotspots so multiple EV cars can be charged in one area without causing "brown outs". England and Scotland found the 40% of home will need upgrading to charge EVs at their residences. Experts agree that charging cars at peak times as drivers return home will put a strain on electrical systems.

INCENTIVES

3. The U.K. offers strong incentives for the purchase of EVs for private and business use.
-100% First Year Allowance for business owners available until April 2021
-UK Plug-in Car Grant of £4,500
-Reduced Employer Class 1A National Insurance Contributions (company cars only)
-Exemption from London Congestion Charge
-Salary sacrifice scheme available to business drivers
-Significant Fuel Savings vs. a comparable Combustion Engine Car and no car fuel benefit for company cars
-Significantly Reduced BiK Taxation for Company Car Drivers
-Scottish customers can enjoy interest-free loans of up to £35,000 (personal) or up to £100,000 (business)

According to the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) and SMMT, around 107,000 claims have been made through the Plug-in Car and Van Grant schemes 2016. The most popular being the Mitsubishi's Outlander PHEV and the Nissan Leaf.

Low-emission vehicles eligible for a plug-in grant qualifications can be found at https://www.gov.uk/plug-in-car-van-grants.

CONCLUSION
To wrap it up, the current trends involving EV charging and sales involve incentives for the future of greener cars but it is not without the challenges of providing infrastructure to power these EVs and replacement of taxes created by fuel sales. The U.K. offers many incentives toward the purchase of EVs and is working to improve the number of charging stations that provide power to them. Telsa is creating charging ports to make long distance driving more practical in EVs. With the combination of government support and private industry advances along with growing public demand charging facilities for EVs should continue strong growth in the future.
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Part
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Part
02

U.K. Vehicle Charging: Industry Trends, Social Media/Forums

OVERVIEW
Hi there! Thank you for your question about UK charging industry trends, social media/forums. The short version is a Facebook page "Electric Vehicle Charge Point Campaign UK" was created to encourage individual campaigns for more and fairly priced charging stations to be added all across the UK It has been tweeted that Ubitricity is retrofitting streetlights in London to become charging stations for EV's. Additionally, the City and County Council partnership in Oxford have plans to install 100 new electric vehicle charging stations in residential streets.

Below is a deep dive of my findings.

FINDINGS
We searched user forums, review sites and other trusted websites to gather information that would assist us in composing the most relevant response to the question.

FACEBOOK DISCUSSIONS
This Facebook page "Electric Vehicle Charge Point Campaign UK" was created to encourage "individual campaigns for more and fairly priced charging stations to be added all across the UK." A question was posted in September, where the writer was inquiring as to "why they are being charged to park at a charger when they are paying for the charge and gasoline-fueled vehicle drivers do not have to pay an additional fee to get their needed fuel." There seems to be an issue with gas drivers taking up the charging spots just to grab a parking spot and this fee was installed to discourage them. The response on the page was "it's something we're keeping a close eye on and may need to change as more chargers become available."

Another Facebook page, EV Charging Solutions posted, "The country's leading consultant and installer of electric car charging stations is helping developers, businesses and homeowners take advantage of cheaper, greener driving." This Nottingham based company and page not only talks about how they install charging stations, but they also mention that it was announced in July that the "UK will follow in France's footsteps by banning all non-electric cars by 2040."
TWEETS ON TWITTER
"I've been #ICED" - These tweets are all expressing frustration at being "Iced" a term for non electric car owners parking in a spot that prohibits electric car owners from getting a charge. Some tweets are very heated while some plead with the community to educate the gasoline drivers in a non offensive way.

In this tweet, Ubitricity is retrofitting streetlights in London to become charging stations for EV's. Some tweeted that "by outfitting all the streetlights to serve as chargers, then EV's can become an option to every car owner in the city."

FORUM DISCUSSIONS
On Speak EV in August, Mark Cornwall raises the issue that he has a model 3 Tesla EV on reservation but can't purchase unless a service center gets put in closer to his home in Newquay. This seems to be a recurring theme, that "there aren't enough electric stations in rural areas and not enough spaces in urban ones."

Additionally, it was also announced in August on AV Forums, that the City and County Council partnership in Oxford have plans to install 100 new electric vehicle charging stations in residential streets. The trial is thought to be "the first on-street charging pilot of its size in the world", and the University of Oxford has described the project as "having global scientific significance.

In this discussion, again on AV Forums, Stuart Wright, the original poster, is giving an experience about deciding to go on an impromptu weekend in Boulogne. In the discussion he was airing his concerns about traveling out of the UK with an EV. He said "planning charging within the UK is feasible but in France, it's daunting." He said it made him think twice about relying totally on an EV and maybe renting a car was a better option. The comments agreed that it was a problem with most preferring to keep their electric vehicles and rent something else for traveling if need be. They seem hopeful that the problem would correct itself in the future.

Overall, for the most part, the common cry seems to be that there are insufficient electric charging stations across the country. However, this segment of the community seems very excited about the future and are hopeful that all of their concerns will be addressed and corrected in the years to come.

CONCLUSION
To wrap it up, review of the data revealed that a Facebook page "Electric Vehicle Charge Point Campaign UK" was created to encourage "individual campaigns for more and fairly priced charging stations to be added all across the UK." It has been tweeted that Ubitricity is retrofitting streetlights in London to become charging stations for EV's. Additionally, the City and County Council partnership in Oxford have plans to install 100 new electric vehicle charging stations in residential streets.

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Part
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Part
03

U.K. Vehicle Charging: Brand/Company News

Hello! Thank you for your question about an analysis of what brands in the electric vehicle charging market have been covered by the UK media during the past three months. The short answer is that the brands/companies in the electric vehicle charging market that have been covered by the UK media during the past three months are SSE Enterprise, Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks, GeniePoint, EO Charging, Rolec (AutoCharge), Pod Point Ltd and Chargemaster. Enhancement, expansion and high costs of infrastructure, various supply challenges, need for EV infrastructure training and the adaptation of EV online pay-to-charge system are the key themes for the media coverage. Below you will find a deep dive into our findings.

METHODOLOGY

In order to facilitate an analysis of what brands in the electric vehicle charging market have been covered by the UK media, we reviewed industry reports, regulatory filings, and other trusted media sites. We restricted our search to review sources from the past three months alone and focused exclusively on the UK market. The list of media coverage is placed in chronological order with the most recent report placed first, in order to provide an analysis of the evolution of events.

KEY THEMES

Most of the articles written have been influenced by the decision to ban petrol-based vehicles starting from the year 2040 and dispositions of the current petrol distributors to start adapting by adding charging points. In general, all the news present a favorable and positive reaction. The following are the key insights of the themes for this coverage.
Enhancement, expansion and high costs of infrastructure.
• Various supply challenges that must be considered by electric vehicle charging distributors.
• Need for infrastructure training and being prepared for the new demand around electric charging facilities.
• The adaptation of Electric Vehicle Online pay-to-charge system.

LIST OF MEDIA COVERAGE

The brands/companies in the electric vehicle charging market that have been covered by the UK media during the past three months are SSE Enterprise, Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks, GeniePoint, EO Charging, Rolec (AutoCharge), Pod Point Ltd and Chargemaster.
1. Headline: Spread of charging points makes e-motoring a smart option in Wandsworth
Date: September 22, 2017
Media Outlet: Wandsworth UK
Company: SSE Enterprise
Summary: According to the report, Wandsworth is taking on the revolution of electric vehicle technology by installing over 35 charging points at 11 new sites across the location. The charging points are designed to have their own parking space which can be used only by electric vehicles while they are being charged. The article also provides a list of measures that the council is pursuing in order to encourage the locals to switch to electric motoring. The overall sentiment is positive towards the electric vehicle market.
2. Headline: UK electric car plan could cause huge infrastructure costs in efforts to steer clear of power shortages.
Date: September 1, 2017
Media Outlet: Independent
Company: Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks (SSEN)
Summary: According to this article, the UK government has decided to ban the sale of new diesel and petrol cars and vans from 2040. The article focuses on the supply challenges that will be faced by the companies and the society. Estimates show that the number of electric vehicles could rise to 20 million by the year 2040 from the current 90,000 present on the roads today and the charging of 20 million cars will need “additional electricity”. The report mentions that the local grid and the distribution networks will feel the weight of the additional electricity needed in the future. The SSEN claims that uncontrolled electric vehicle charging will increase by two times over the usual load of 2 kilowatts (kW) when using a 3.5 kW charger. Due to the 3.5 kW chargers, over 30% of the locals would experience issues like power loss if 40-70% of the locals have electric vehicles. The article explores the various challenges that might be faced by the EV market and also provides the solution decided by the government, resulting in positive sentiments.
3. Headline: Petrol Stations to get Geniepoint Rapid EV Charge Points
Date: August 31, 2017
Media Outlet: Zap Map
Brand: GeniePoint
Summary: The report reveals UK’s second largest forecourt operator Motor Fuel Group signing a deal with ChargePoint Services to install charge points at various forecourts in the country. The deal includes 50kW along with rapid chargers at their sites. Alex Bamberg, who’s the managing director of ChargePoint Services, expresses the need for rapid chargers in the market of electric vehicle charging. The overall sentiments expressed is positive.
4. Headline: EO Wins Innovation Award With EOHUB
Date: August 31, 2017
Media Outlet: Zap Map
Company: EO Charging
Summary: The Company EO Charging won the BusinessCar’s Innovation Award 2017 for its innovation of eoHUB, a “smart-fleet charging system”. This system can connect to over 30 “smart ready” EO charge points to the internet and enables consumers to control and manage the system from the eoCloud web system. The technology facilitates fast chargers and will also help avoid upgrading of power supply of the site, thereby reducing costs. The overall sentiments expressed is positive.
5. Heading: Warner Hotels Invests in Rolec EV Charge Points
Date: August 14, 2017
Media Outlet: Air Quality News
Company: Rolec (Brand — AutoCharge)
Summary: According to this report, The Warner Hotels chain are working on installing Rolec’s electric charging points at 13 of their locations spanning across England and Wales. The charging points are free only for the Hotel’s customers, while others would have to pay for the supply. According to the Company’s managing director Kieron Alsop, the luxury chain hotels chose Rolec’s product for its “future-proof design” and its “pay-to-charge solutions”. The overall sentiments expressed is positive.
6. Headline: Tusker rolls out Rolec’s EV Charge Online Network
Date: August 10, 2017
Media Outlet: Fleet News
Company: Rolec
Summary: The report states that Tusker has installed a number of the Company’s AutoCharge electric vehicle charging points at its headquarters locations, Watford. Each charging point comes with Rolec’s EV charge online pay-to-charge system that enables customers to make their payments online through their smartphones. The overall sentiment expressed is positive.
7. Headline: Are your buildings ready for all cars to be electric?
Date: August 3, 2017
Media Outlet: Riba Architecture
Company: Pod Point Ltd.
Summary: With the onset of the government’s announcement of the ban of petrol and diesel cars in the UK from 2040, architects will need to equip themselves with the technology and learn to accommodate electric vehicle charging points in new buildings. The article reveals that Pod Point has developed a program to facilitate EV charging point installation and has been “booked solid”. They are also working on expanding the program in order to meet the growth in the market. The overall sentiment expressed is positive.
8. Headline: Chargemaster makes ‘logical move’ to 100% renewable supply.
Date: July 28, 2017
Media Outlet: Clean Energy News
Company: Chargemaster
Summary: Chargemaster has decided to make provisions to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the electric vehicle market in the UK. The article claims that the Company’s Polar network will switch to renewable energy that includes solar and wind assets. This decision is to result in enhancement of the EV infrastructure. The overall sentiment expressed is positive.

CONCLUSION

In summary, the brands/companies in the electric vehicle charging market that have been covered by the UK media during the past three months are SSE Enterprise, Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks, GeniePoint, EO Charging, Rolec (AutoCharge), Pod Point Ltd and Chargemaster. All the news present a favorable and positive reaction towards the EV market.
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Part
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Part
04

U.K. Vehicle Charging: Consumer Sentiment

Hello! Thanks for your question about UK consumer sentiment about charging electric vehicles. The short version is that the overall sentiment of UK consumers towards charging electric vehicles can be described as anxious and worried. The UK consumers' slightly negative sentiment is partially due to concerns about the "lack of charging points and long distance [travel] capabilities." This is also known as range anxiety. Consumers also have safety concerns around blowing an electrical fuse when charging their car at home because it could start a fire. However, one study showed that consumer sentiment improved after the introduction of fast chargers, as this alleviates concerns about the amount of time it takes to charge an electric vehicle. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

METHODOLOGY
I searched through peer-reviewed journals, industry reports, and news articles from trusted media sites to find information about how the general UK population perceives electric vehicle charging. I limited my research to the last three months (6/22/2017 to 9/22/2017) as per the request details.

RANGE ANXIETY
Around the world, people are concerned about traveling long distances in battery electric vehicles (BEVs). According to Express news, "one of the biggest problems with attitudes towards electric cars is ‘range anxiety’. Range anxiety stems from consumers being worried about running out of batteries on a long distance trip and finding safe places to charge their cars.

An article by iNews explains that 70% of UK consumers feel range anxiety because they are concerned over the "lack of charging points and long distance [travel] capabilities." Another factor increasing range anxiety is the fact that over 25% of UK respondents were unsure of how to charge an electric vehicle. This could easily be resolve with consumer education.

GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT
Increasing the market penetration of BEVs would require an overhaul of domestic electrical grids. Sander van der Veen feels that the UK government is responsible for supporting new charging infrastructures. A National Grid report stated that an electric car charger uses around 50 amps of electricity while "the average British household is fitted with a main fuse of 60-80 amps." This has led to UK consumers being concerned that "charging an electric car with a fast charger at home while boiling a kettle could blow a fuse," which could, in turn, start a fire.

IMPROVEMENTS IN SENTIMENT
Consumers are concerned about the time it takes to charge a BEV because it can take up to 11 hours and could be cost prohibitive. However, according to the Journal of Energy Policy, one study found that accessibility fast chargers improved consumer attitudes towards electric cars. Another solution to this is plug-in hybrid cars that mainly rely on electric power but also have a small reserve of petrol., which assuages range anxiety.
CONCLUSION
To wrap it up, the overall sentiment of UK consumers towards charging electric vehicles is slightly negative and can be characterized as anxious. The main consumer sentiments are range anxiety, which stems from being worried about running out of battery and not knowing how to charge the vehicles in a safe and time-efficient way. UK residents feel that the government should support the new electric infrastructure required for this new technology to take hold.

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Part
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Part
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U.K. Vehicle Charging: Market Opportunity

Hello! Thank you for your request on vehicle charging in the United Kingdom.

The short version is that there is plenty of fundamental information about the current state of electric vehicle charging. Below you will find a deep dive of my research and findings.

Methodology

I began by familiarizing myself with the topic of electric vehicles. Next, I searched through industry reports, government reports, corporate websites, trusted media sites, academic databases, user forums, and review sites. Furthermore, I researched any statistical change regarding the effects of electric vehicle charging in the United Kingdom.

Poor Air Quality

In July 2017, France announced that it plans to ban all diesel and petrol cars by the year 2040. As followed, the British government decided to act on similar interests. This decision was influenced by the poor air quality in the United Kingdom, especially in London. A government spokesperson expressed that poor air quality is the primary environmental problem to the people of the United Kingdom and the government plans to take immediate action regarding the issue. The spokesperson also expressed that there is a £3bn program in consideration, to clean up the air in the country. The United Kingdom recently consider accelerating the deployment of electric vehicles, which increase the possibility to have gas stations that include electric car chargers. Currently, there is a £4,500 “plug-in grant” in consideration, in order to purchase electric vehicles.

National Grid and Infrastructure

The Automobile Association of the United Kingdom cautions councils that the National Grid may not be able to deal with a sudden influx of electric vehicles. Another issue for Britain is that they may have to be reliant on imported electricity, which increases energy usage and questions about security. Michael Gove, the Environment Secretary, suggested that an increase of wind farms may be required to set the government's plan in motion.

The government's plan to eliminate diesel and petrol vehicles by 2040 will have a massive effect on the infrastructure of the United Kingdom and will produce a large cost. It has been suggested that people charge their vehicles at night, which could save £2.2bn of expenditure on the replacement of cables or transformers. One issue for homeowners is the capacity concern, where some individuals may trip the main fuse if they use other appliances during car charges.

Another issue is that 43% of Britain households have only street parking, meaning drivers would be unable to recharge their cars overnight in a driveway or garage. According to Johannes Wetzel, that the United Kingdom need to create a maximum of 2.5 million new charging points, which indicates that a public charging point would cost 25-30,000 euros and investment would have to be 33-87bn euros for the plan to flourish.

In early July 2017, the government announced that $25.8 million will be funded towards the development and research of vehicle to grid technologies.

Pollution and Diesel Charges

The city of London has introduced a £10 toxic “T-charge” that will be placed on 10,000 of the oldest, most polluting vehicles on a daily basis. While other councils of the United Kingdom are considering this idea, there is no announcement on whether the charging idea would be in effect for the entire country.

Ministers also want to address parents who leave their engine running during school travels. Councils have introduced immediate fines of £80 in an attempt to decrease this habit.

Ford, Mercedes and BMW manufacturers are offering £2,000 to drivers to trade in their diesel vehicle for a brand new model, which can be exempt from the proposed charges. In the year 2019, Clean Air Zones will be established in the cities of Nottingham, Derby, Leeds, Birmingham, and Southampton, which could involve a £10 per day toll for individuals driving a diesel car that is over two years. Parking surcharges are also in effect in the Westminster Council of London, where they have established a £2.45 hourly parking surcharge on diesel vehicles over the two years age limit.

Regulations

The United Kingdom government has introduced a legislation that requires all gas stations to have electric charging points. However, the time for the legislation to go into effect has not been announced. On a side note, all large fuel retailers and motorway service stations are now required to install charging points.

Charging Points

Every year, 156,000 homes are being built in the United Kingdom, but charging points are not being installed as a standard requirement. Installing home charging points would be a great opportunity for home builders, as this would increase home sales and business sustainability.

Sadiq Khan announced an investment of £4.5 million in creating 1,500 new charging points across the city of London. This will likely double the current charging points by the year 2018. All of this will make sure that the infrastructure is securely intact so that it's easier for people to select electric vehicles.

Currently, there are around 4,000 accessible locations with 13,000 plug sockets. One-fifth of the 13,000 are rapid charging connections. The number of accessible sockets is expected to reach 80,000 by the year 2025.

Conclusion

To wrap it up, the United Kingdom plans to ban all new diesel and petrol cars by the year 2040. The government announced an investment of $25.8 million to build electric vehicles and charging stations. Electric vehicle sockets at charging stations are expected to be at 80,000 by the year 2025.

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Part
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Part
06

Germany Vehicle Charging: Industry Trends, Media

Hello! Thanks for your question about the Germany Vehicle Charging: Industry Trends, Media. Although Germany is pushing forward to the goal of 1 million electric vehicles on the road, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed. Main concern is EV charging. Currently there are not enough charging stations and EV charging is considered slow.

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SALES

Increasing number of Germans are buying electric vehicles. But Germany is still falling behind its neighbors. The government launched an incentive program 6 months ago to give a direct discount of €4,000 for all-electric cars and €3,000 for plug-in hybrids. Sales number from August show that nearly around 2 percent of new car sales in Germany were plug-in vehicles. Fully electric vehicle sales are up for 137 percent.

CHARGING STATIONS

As it was mentioned before, charging stations are most important concern. EnBW Company plans to install 1000 charging stations on Autobahn and several other locations across the state to increase the total of EV charging infrastructure by 25%. They are concentrating on fast-charging stations which will enable up to 150 kW charge rate.

Sortimo Company plans to build the world’s largest EV fast-charging station with 144 charging ports. It should be located near the A8 highway in Germany. They stated that a station like that could charge 4000 vehicles a day. The plan is to have 24 supra-superchargers with charging capacities of 350 kW.

ON THE ROAD

Car rental companies could contribute to wider acceptance of electric cars. But majority of them still do not have enough trust in electric vehicles.

The leader in e-mobility in Germany is actually public service. From the beginning of the year to this moment, the percentage of electric cars of all new cars is 4,74 percent. However, as public employers are less than 1 percent of all new registrations, the effect on the electric car rate across Germany remains almost the same.

CONSUMER ISSUES

There are many reasons why e-mobility is still on the downside. The ones that concern consumers the most are small range, lack of charging infrastructure, very narrow choice of models and too expensive despite buying bonus government provided.

A survey was done with 843 electric vehicle users in Germany regarding their preferences for public charging infrastructure. From the results a need for more public charging infrastructure was identified. Three critical user preferences are: a preference for semi-fast (22 kW AC) charging stations, slow charging (3.7 kW AC) is acceptable for frequently used stations, whereas fast charging (50 kW DC) is desired for infrequently used stations. Slow charging is acceptable for locations were vehicles are parked over a longer period.

But there are ways to make life easier for the consumer. One of those ways is Share and Charge. Share and Charge is a network of all types of charging stations to make the charging infrastructure in Germany more accessible. There is the Share and Charge app, which allows you to share charging stations with others and to calculate the charged current. For Share&Charge, a charging station must be equipped with a special hardware module that ensures the connection to the platform. In Germany, this is already the case with more than 1,150 charging stations. By autumn 2017, there should be over 2,000.

TOP BRANDS

Car manufacturers in Germany are leading the way on electric car battery technology. Car companies like Volkswagen, BMW and Daimler are all planning to produce dozens of new e-car models in the near future. In the beginning of September, Volkswagen announced that they are going to create an electric version of every single car in their portfolio by the year 2030.

German car manufacturers are already leading the way when it comes to key car battery technology. Daimler, Volkswagen, BMW and Porsche combined have registered 348 patents for lithium-ion batteries over the past six years. In general, Daimler ranks in third place with 213 patent applications.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, the current trends do show increased sales of electric vehicles in Germany, but charging infrastructure needs to improve. For the consumers to be satisfied and to make more people go green, it needs to be more accessible and less time-consuming. However, the plan of Sortimo Company looks good and could make the change in the near future. Thanks for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help with anything else!
Part
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Part
07

Germany Vehicle Charging: Industry Trends, Social Media/Forums

Hello! Thanks for your question about Germany’s electric vehicle charging industry trends on social media and forums for the past three months. The short answer is that people are commenting on innovations in the industry, whilst discussing concerns about viability of car models and the need for more charging stations.
Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

METHODOLOGY

My focus was solely on finding sources from social media and online forums. I extensively searched on Google and through social media platforms Facebook and Twitter, as well as forums Reddit and LinkedIn to come up with an overview of what is currently being discussed around vehicle charging trends in Germany. I further supported my findings with trusted news media articles.
There were a number of key themes that I identified, including car manufactures, innovation, environmentally friendliness, payment and charging stations. Charging stations and innovation were the primary response types.

CHARGING STATIONS

Commentary exists within Germany that the electric charging infrastructure is insufficient to support the current levels of electric vehicle ownership nor the proposed levels. Twitter posts over the past three months are reflective of this, with the sharing of good news that additional charging stations are being made available on the autobahn to investment in the industry of $300 million Euros in expanding the electric vehicle network.
More recent Twitter posts have been sharing the announcement that German utility company, EnBW, has ordered a further 117 electric vehicle charging stations from ABB, a manufacturing company in the US. It is anticipated that the charging stations will be installed by the end of 2017 at a number of Tank & Rast service stations on the autobahns. The interest here is not only for the increase in the number of charging stations being made available, but that they are being placed on the autobahns. Previously charging stations have been more routinely located in urban areas. Having them available outside of cities will encourage electric vehicle owners to travel further distances, assured that they will be able to recharge their vehicles. The German Association of Energy and Water Industries advises the total charging points across 4,730 locations within Germany is 10,700 points.
My searches on LinkedIn, Facebook and Reddit returned similar results.
Dr. Klaus Dohrmann, a university lecturer in Germany published a study on LinkedIn with the aim to debunk myths around electric vehicles. The study reinforces social media commentary with 68% of respondents reluctant to purchase electric vehicles for fear of running out of charge and not being able to locate a charging station. This is known as “range anxiety”.
A LinkedIn article on electric vehicle infrastructure shows that 80%-90% of German electric vehicle owners charge their cars at home. Growth areas for charging stations include workplaces and in other public spaces such as malls. Field studies showed 3,200 vehicles were recharged at a rest area over a single 24-hour period, requiring 100 fast charges to be available. To adequately service the existing and growing marketplace, it is anticipated that between 60,000 to 100,000 fast chargers will need to be located along the autobahn.

INNOVATION

It wasn’t surprising that much of the dialogue in social media had a strong focus on innovation. The marketplace itself is one of change improvement and improving on previous iterations.
In August 2017, a number of Twitter posts (link) were reporting on the first overhead contact line to allow continuous charging for trucks traveling on the autobahn, whose project name is “eHighway”. Online forum community, Reddit, also posted the Electrek.co update, with 431 or 89% of those reading the article up voting it. Some posters found it interesting and discussed how it could work and opportunities for the infrastructure to also be used to support conventional vehicles by providing stopping bays where they could plug in and recharge. Other posters reflected that it would be pointless given the advances in battery technology as well as the enormous amount of infrastructure required to support it. Though it was also argued that automated trucks would benefit as it would enable almost 24 hours a day, 7 days a week capability without needing to stop and recharge batteries; an improvement on the capability for the trucks being able to travel up to 90km/h.
Ubitricity, a German startup, looked for opportunities to reinvent technologies we have already access to by adding charging points to existing streetlights; thereby taking advantage of the electricity infrastructure that is already built which also happens to be convenient to roadside parking spaces.
Advancements in boosting charging speeds and the capacity to charge up to four vehicles at a single time has drawn the attention of Reddit users. The discussion is diverse with no firm opinion. Some posters think that whilst Honda may have advanced enough to offer the multi car charge, others believe that Tesla is still several steps ahead of them.
The innovative premise of electric vehicles encourages further innovation as can be seen by the start-up company Ubitricity and decision to use bitcoins to take payments by Germany's power giant. For example, Bosch, a German company, has taken the plug in charge concept and replaced it with a wireless option.
LinkedIn which described an unusual value adding opportunity currently being looked at by car manufacturers Renault-Nissan, Daimler, BMW and Volkswagen. They are looking for environmentally friendly ways to reuse electric car batteries. The study is looking at how these batteries can be used in the creation of power storage plants and Germany is a possible location for the plant.

PAYMENT OPTIONS

Providing alternate ways to pay for an electric car recharge is generating interest on both Twitter and Facebook. One option that has been implemented is the use of Ethereum blockchain, via a Share&Charge app, to pay for recharges and improve the payment processing times. Some say that paying is often difficult to do and it can also be costly though this wasn’t the case for one of the people commenting on the tweet, who pointed out that EnBW has a card allowing for payment at a single price at many of the charging stations found in Germany.

BEING GREEN

Facebook and Twitter both have posts where people share locations that support electric vehicle use and recharging. Using the hashtag #GOGREEN, it is a way to support businesses who support the evolution of the electric car and the protection of the environment. The Share&Charge app was created to support electric car drivers overcome hurdles in trying to find charging stations near to them or along their journeys.

CAR MANUFACTURERS

In the last day, Reddit users have started discussing the issues with the sale of the Chevy Bolt in to Europe having undersold on launch. It appears it will be discontinued from sale due to a lackluster response. However, it seems that the community are more than happy to use them and the current resale market rate is sitting above the list price range by 10 to 20%. Users then question if whether it is a legitimate case that a lack of interest is seeing the vehicle’s discontinuation. It prompts further questions as to what brands of electric vehicle are available in Europe and the discussions revolves around make, price, speed and average travel distance.

DESIEL DEBATE

A number of LinkedIn articles and posts appear as opportunities to promote a one side the current debate in Germany on moving towards the year 2020 when they will cease production of diesel powered vehicles. This article discusses how traditional manufacturers have mistimed their entrance into the electric car marketplace with the result that Tesla is further advanced in both product development and market segmentation. Those commenting on the article grumble about it being one sided and not fairly balanced article and favors Tesla, that is contradicted by one comment where they point out that the traditional car manufacturers did have a stake in Tesla, however, they placed that stake without embracing a visionary approach to innovation or change.

CONCLUSION

To wrap it up, there is a health discussion in the German marketplace on electronic vehicles, from what is new in the industry to the issues they are experiencing around the lack of charging facilities. In general, it remains a positive discussion with very few people put off by the growth issues being experienced.
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Part
08
of ten
Part
08

Germany Vehicle Charging: Brand/Company News

"Hello! Thanks for your question regarding the specific brands and companies providing electric vehicle charging options operating in the German market. The short version is that it appears to be a highly competitive market, but one with such an important and novel niche commodity, that there is still an untold amount of opportunity for expansion on existing ideas or insertion of wholly unique ideas not yet seen. There are several companies that are already major names in the industry and they have provided solid solutions to many of the largest challenges facing the main-stream implementation of this new technology, opening the door for other's to perhaps expand on the ideas they have presented or use them as inspiration for a unique alternative. The key contributors to date, are ABB, EaseLink, Menneke's new Amtron Home Station, Porsche, Sortimo, and Qualcomm. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

METHODOLOGY:

I started my research by conducting a broad search for electric vehicle charging companies and then reviewed and refined the search results to list only those with a current presence in the German market. I then searched for the most recent reports for each company and selected only those companies with data available dated within the last 3 months. The final results are listed below with a brief summary of each companies main product or contribution and projected future plans. I included speculation or opinions from industry experts wherever it was offered as well.

RESULTS:

ABB:

ABB is a Swiss engineering company and a major manufacturer of electric vehicle charging units which are ultimately supplied to Germany and as well as other European countries. In a 2017 article published by Reuters (Zurich), ABB Chief Executive Ulrich Spiesshofer is quoted stating,
“The need to rapidly expand the charging infrastructure network has once again been shown during this year’s International Motor Show in Frankfurt, where nearly all automotive companies have announced a massive expansion of their electric vehicle ranges,”
ABB has been a stable contributor to the electric vehicle market for some time, providing the base infrastructure powering a large part of the industry today. In 2014, ABB and partners officially became a part of the public-private European Long-distance Electric Clean Transport Road Infrastructure Corridor initiative. This program was created with the express goal of linking European Union member states with providers of electric vehicle charging equipment to facilitate a networked power infrastructure which would, in turn, encourage and support the emerging electric powered vehicle industry.
ABB reports, in the same 2017 article by Reuters(Zurich), the recent completion of a transaction with German Utility Company EnBW for 117 new vehicle charging units to be delivered this year. This is a repeat order following EnBW's initial purchase of 68 units from ABB last year. Reportedly, EnBW intends to install all the units purchased from ABB into service areas and filling stations operated by Tank & Rast throughout Germany. Reuters reports that Tank & Rast currently operate ~350 filling stations and ~390 service areas on The German Autobahn.


German company, Sortimo, is in the final stages of an ambitious construction project tentatively named InnovationSpark which is aimed at creating the world's “largest electric vehicle fast-charging station” according to one of the company's two managing directors, Klaus Emler. Mr. Emler provided the details of the project in an article originally published by German website FAZ. The original article was translated to English and is cited heavily as the original source for the information provided in an editorial piece written by James Ayres for Clean Transport in 2017. All of the following information was gathered from the Clean Transport editorial.
The 'InnovationSpark' electric vehicle fast-charging station project is located alongside Germany's A8 Highway and when completed will offer a total of 144 charging ports capable of powering more than 4000 vehicles daily.
The site is expected to open in 2018 and will be located in "the industrial area in Bavarian-Swabia, between Ulm and Augsburg" according to the project developer's as reported in original source. Sortimo developers are also quoted by FAZ as stating that this particular location was selected to "allow those traveling along Germany’s busy 6-lane, A8 highway to easily recharge their EVs — with those that are stopping knowing for sure that they won’t have to wait for someone else to finish to recharge." FAZ also reports that Mr. Emler has future plans to expand the site to include a variety of options for consumers to rest, eat, shop, and work as well. It is worth noting here, the writer of the Clear Transport piece, who compiled the information which is referenced here, has obvious strong reservations about this project and an overtly skeptical opinion of whether the designer's grand ideas for the site will actually come to fruition. He points out that while the ideas presented by Mr. Emler as quoted in the FAZ piece sound intriguing they are by no means finalized plans and he speculates the end results may be quite different from those described. Ayres references a statement made by the designers to FAZ which mentions that the site will offer an option to charge vehicles even faster if need be, with a reported 24 of the 144 charging stations being 'super-fast chargers' having a charging capacity of 350 kilowatts each. Ayres points out in his editorial the evidence that his skepticism is shared by the author of the original Faz article. He specifically cites the original author's expressed concerns that American electric car maker Tesla has so far only offered ‘superchargers’ capable of producing about 150 kilowatts of charging power and FAZ asserts 350 kilowatts is more than current battery capacities can accommodate.  However, per FAZ, when discussed, Emler remained convinced of coming advancements being made which would expand battery capacity and confident of the large growth potential in electric vehicle charging station infrastructure.
Though unabashedly skeptical, Ayres finishes up his report with some hopeful optimism speculating that if Sortimo is truly able to provide stations capable of 350kw charging power they will undoubtedly be extremely popular and extremely lucrative. Ayres reports that one of the desires most often expressed by electric car owners is to eventually have the ability to recharge their electric cars as quickly as they were able to fill-up their gas powered vehicles.
Sortimo's initial investment in this lofty project is estimated at ~ 15 million euro so far with more capital assumed to come after if all goes as planned. Mr. Emler confirmed to FAZ that the stations were receiving some financial support from the government but asserts that the amount is insubstantial and was not a factor in his decision to move forward with the InnovationSpark project. Clear Transport reports that Sortimo is a car interior supplies manufacturer currently employing ~ 1400 people and at present has an annual revenue of ~ 160 million euro. Another important bit of information mentioned in this piece is the report that Sortimo anticipates the stations will ultimately be exclusively supplied by 100% renewable energy sources.


Qualcomm is a US chip manufacturer that is throwing its hat in the ring in a bid to develop technology able to offer a safe and efficient wireless, or to be more accurate, cable less charging option for vehicles.
Qualcomm cites the cable as being the largest roadblock to moving forward for the electric vehicle industry. The company has invested heavily for the past 5 years in research aimed at overcoming this impediment. In an article published by Zeit Online, Qualcomm director, Thomas Nindl is cited as reporting that in 2012, when Qualcomm first announced their interest in developing a cable less charger option they were met with a great deal of pessimism. Most were concerned that the efficiency would be far too low, that electrosmog requirements would not be met, and that the safety risk would be too large. The opinions of most seem to be decidedly more optimistic in 2017 though. BMW and Audi are set to release their first wireless charging systems in prototypes in the coming year. However, these will be proprietary systems and require specific charging equipment. Qualcomm is hoping to ultimately develop a universal system able to easily link up with all cars, and they hope to have this completed no later than 2020. According to Nindl the industry has finally hammered out the details which will be the agreed upon standards going forward. The chief one is the delivery method for the charge which will be WLAN based, another agreement sets the energy to be transmitted at 85 kilohertz. In a nod to the safety concerns expressed in 2012, there will be radar sensors and metal detectors in the floor plates which will be able to instantly recognize any foreign bodies which may enter the charging zone and will then switch off the flow of power within milliseconds for safety. Qualcomm has already set its sights on even more advanced technology and envisions a smart infrastructure akin to the network shared between smartphones. Qualcomm has already outfitted a section of test track in Versailles with charging platforms capable of charging vehicles as they are being driven. Nindl reports that even at 100 km/h an electric car can drive over it and it will charge the car's battery. Nindl points out the advantage "Once the technology has been implemented, a car is inductively charged four to five times a day. The driver only sees the green bar for the optimum state of 60 to 70 percent of the battery," only infrequently, for long-distance trips would an owner need to make a special effort to refill the battery Nindl speculates.

EASELINK:

Austrian start-up EaseLink hopes to charge electric vehicles with using their floor panels. They plan to provide the necessary technology which can be easily retrofitted with nearly all electric cars.
An article published in 2017 by Wired, details the downsides often mentioned by electric vehicle owners in Germany. The chief laments are the lack of electric filling stations in Germany as compared to the rest of Europe, the variety of different plug-in couplings which often do not fit their car, and the large number of stations that are found to be inoperable due to damage or vandalism. EaseLink hopes to solve all of these problems by replacing the current refilling columns at stations throughout Germany with charging plates built into the parking surface. The company is developing a system which will no longer require the customer to manipulate a connection cable. The vehicle will instead contain a short charging harness which will automatically lower and connect to a matching harness in the surface plate of a station. These stations will then charge alternatively with 22 kw alternating or 43 kw direct current. This is an automated alternative to the current system and not truly cable less. It will rely on a completely conductive system rather than the inductive system of the truly cable less alternatives. The automatic harness system EaseLink is working on is based on a system already in use in select public transit coaches in China. According to Wired, EaseLink predicts the availability of a public prototype of their system in the next couple of years.

PORSCHE:

According to Motor Authority, the German auto-maker, Porsche has already installed Germany's first 350 kilowatts, 800-volt charging station. The station is in use at Porsche's newest branch office in Berlin-Adlershof. Motor Authority illustrates the significance of what Porsche has done explaining that the current Combined Charging Standards (CCS) limit charging stations using technology available today to a cap of 50 kilowatts. For comparison, in the span of 15 minutes, Porsche's 350-kilowatt charging station is capable of charging an electric car's battery to at least 80 percent capacity. That is half as long as it takes the current fast-charging stations.
To achieve this result, Porsche is using liquid-cooling technology which is unfortunately not readily available as yet for the mainstream market. The cable itself is liquid cooled due to the massive amount of heat produced at this high transfer rate which Motor Authority asserts would "fry" the current cables being used in the public sector. Porsche is also utilizing solar powered charging pylons for their innovative stations. The charging pylon is 82 feet tall and provides 33,000 kilowatt-hours per year. It is reportedly able to provide ample power to supply all the electricity required to operate the new office. The downside here is that this technology is still extremely pricey and therefore largely out of reach to the public sector as it will require a substantial monetary investment to retrofit current vehicles and enable them to use the newer technology. Motor Authority reports that Porsche's parent company, Volkswagen Group, will invest $2 billion over the next 10 years into fueling infrastructure electric vehicles as stipulated by the court ordered settlement to resolve their recent legal scandal. A portion of that $2 billion will likely end up being used to develop the future of the 350-kilowatt charging stations.


The Amtron Home Charging Station when combined with the Type 2 connectors developed by Menneke is aimed at offering a new home based alternative for refilling electric car's that could mean the vehicle's owner never has to visit a filling station at all. According to studies presented by Menneke, the average vehicle is parked for nearly 23 hours per day and nearly all users would prefer to refill their electric cars either at home or at the office during this down time rather than visit a filling station and wait for what is often a lengthy refill time.
Menneke's Type 2 connectors have been the industry standard for charging electric vehicles in stations throughout Europe since 2012 according to ACEA (Association of European Automobile Manufacturers). Menneke has been working on various matching automobile system solutions ever since that time. The end result of this work is their Amtron Home Charging Station. The only requirement for the home garage charging station is an available 11kW connection (they do note that 22 kW is optimal but not required) The system is finally available for consumer use in the home however the company points out a few caveats to the system that do restrict its use for the time being. One being the availability of a dedicated outlet to use for powering the individual vehicle, and another the likelihood that the typical 11kW outlet standard with most residential home garages may not be sufficient and 22kW is optimal but this must always be clarified with the energy provider to determine feasibility at this stage. The outlook for the Amtron Home Systems is very positive though and the company has developed their system with the future in mind. Menneke designed the Amtron based on the dream of a future when all electric vehicles will be charged with solar power self-produced by the homeowner's own system. With this in mind they developed a "batch" application to work in tandem with the Amtron Home Station tomaximize efficient use of solar power. It offers multiple charging modes to select from for the ideal match to each homeowner's specific needs. The app will allow the owner to choose either a fully automatic pre-programmed mode in which the system will select the ideal energy source to use based on what is available, as well as time of use plans when fees may be reduced for one energy type, or a solar only plan which will instruct the system to only fill when solar power is available, plus a variety of other options customizable to meet each owner's needs. They have also developed options for authorizations to fill from a non home based system which can be used in parallel with the home system. These offerings include a pre-programmed plug-in "key" to identify vehicle/owner for charging authorization for use at public fill stations, an RFID chip option ideal for semi-private filling locations like office parking lots or apartment buildings that provides users with a unique RFID card used to store authorization and utilization data and gain access to utilize the group charging station which can be programmed to read and authorize use for up to 100 individual users, and finally, a smart phone authorization app ideal for either public or semi-private use which enables the user to send an SMS message with the code for the filling station they intend to use and gain authorization with the billing of the transaction carried out through their service provider.
Menneke has also pioneered a new load management system built into its charging station apps to handle the charging of whole fleets of vehicles at one time. The load management system allows for the charging of as many vehicles as possible at once without overloading the infrastructure and overwhelming the entire charging system. Each charging point in the system has a maximum and minimum current. If only a few vehicles are being filled the stations use the maximum current to do so. If however all stations are in use at once, the system will adjust each station down to the minimum charging level to enable all vehicles to be filled simultaneously. In the event that the monitors detect that the current is insufficient for the current vehicle load even at the minimum levels, it automatically switches select charging stations off temporarily to ensure the most efficient filling of the largest number of vehicles possible. Menneke's "Charge" app keeps the owner apprised of all the details, and changes to the process at all times with accessible real-time reporting that includes charged energy, operating condition, energy consumption and any incurred electricity costs. Amtron can be integrated into the home's existing network, either with a cable or wirelessly.

CONCLUSION:

To wrap it all up. The overwhelming consensus of industry insider opinions gathered from all the source I reviewed spoke overwhelmingly of the rapid growth potential and resulting lucrative investment opportunities expected to remain very strong in Germany and throughout Europe for the electric car charging industry. The industries early adopters which have been instrumental in developing the infrastructure framework appear to have taken care of a large amount of the heavy-lifting required as far as the massive challenges that must be resolved when implementing a new technology into an established system. With a solid base established the way has been paved for savvy companies in this industry to use the framework elements and inroads made by the companies which are summarized above as launching points for their own complimentary or parallel systems or as inspiration for something as yet unseen. The companies summarized above were all selected to meet the specific criteria you requested. Each company has a significant operating footprint within Germany and the sources used to provide a snapshot summary of each company were all published within the previous three months. Please note some of the information provided within these summaries make reference to historical data for background time-line establishment of key events, however, all sources are current and contain the latest up-to-date information for each company as well.

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Part
09
of ten
Part
09

Germany Vehicle Charging: Consumer Sentiment

Hello! Thank you for your question about the consumer sentiment in Germany regarding electric vehicles. The short version is that in Germany, while 55% of consumers show an interest in electric vehicles, only 5% believe they would purchase an electric vehicle. Even with these statistics, Germany’s electric car industry is growing, partially due to the call for banning of traditional fossil fuels. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

METHODOLOGY

To research your request, I searched through academic databases, industry reports, user forums and trusted media sites to locate the consumer sediment in Germany toward electric vehicles. I focused on the past three months only as requested. I am including an overview of the German electric car market to illustrate factor effecting the growth and sentiment.

GERMANY ELECTRIC CAR MARKET

It was reported that in August 2017, electric car sales were up 137% in Germany. The sales of highbreds also increased 214%. This combination now represents 2% of all new German car sales. Some of this increase can be attributed to Germany’s new stand on increasing electric car use. Germany plans to have 1M electric cars on its roads by 2020. Currently, there are only 50,000 registered electric vehicles in Germany and 34,000 of those vehicles were sold last year. This was an increase of 33.4%.

Germany is considering the use of quotas to increase the electric car industry. This ambitious goal is in response to Europe’s call to ban petrol and diesel cars by 2040. Germany is slowly getting on board with the rest of Europe, however, they are cautious due to the 600,000 jobs that could be at risk if combustion engines are made obsolete. This could put a strain on Germany’s auto industry and in return, to Germany’s economy.

GERMAN CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE

Studies show that to increase electric car acceptability in Germany, there needs to be an increase and changes made in the charging station infrastructure. The study showed, “First, there is a preference for semi-fast (22 kW AC) charging stations. Second, we find that slow charging (3.7 kW AC) is acceptable for frequently used stations, whereas fast charging (50 kW DC) is desired for infrequently used stations. Third, slow charging is acceptable for locations where vehicles are parked over a longer period of time. For public charging infrastructure strategies, a mix of all station characteristics is critical.”

Germany is currently planning 1,000 new EV charging stations to be in place along the German Autobahn by the year 2020.

GERMAN CONSUMER SENTIMENT

Local and Global pressure to limit emissions by going electric is influencing the German consumer. It was shown in the Die Welt newspaper that 73% of Germans stated. They want politicians to take a tough line with car industry on air pollution. Some of this can be attributed to the Volkswagen emissions scandal. A survey showed that 85% of all German respondents that’s were interested in buying a new car sited that the purchase of electric vehicles was too expensive.

Another study showed that while 55% of consumers show an interest in electric vehicles, only 5% believe they would actually purchase an electric vehicle. Even with these statistics, Germany’s electric car industry is growing, partially due to the call for banning of traditional fossil fuels.

In August 2017, electric car sales rose 137% and combined with hybrid sales, currently make up 2% of Germany's new car sales. A survey showed that “electric car drivers expect an average range of 463 kilometers (288 miles) per charge, with 60% of respondents saying a charging time of up to 30 minutes was the maximum acceptable. Electric car intent varied slightly across the demographic segments. Men were more interested than women (6% vs. 4%), with the same percentage distribution between younger and older (6% vs. 4%).”

The sale of electric vehicles could possibly increase even more if they were marketed better. Currently, the average in Europe, including Germany is car makers are only spending 2.1% of their market budget on electric or zero emission vehicle.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, in Germany, while 55% of consumers show an interest in electric vehicles, only 5% believe they would purchase an electric vehicle. Even with these statistics, Germany’s electric car industry is growing, partially due to the call for banning of traditional fossil fuels.

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Part
10
of ten
Part
10

German Vehicle Charging: Market Opportunity

INTRODUCTION
Hello! Thanks for your question about recent regulations in Germany that impact the German electric vehicle charging points market. The short version is that while the German government is moving towards promoting electric vehicle charging points, the only potentially upcoming legislation is the introduction of electric car quotas. Below you will find a deep dive of my findings.

GERMAN GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
Currently, the German goverment has the goal of having over "1 million electric vehicles on German roads" by 2020 and are actively working to increase the amount of electric vehicle charging points. Currently, there are only 77,153 electric vehicles and "7,404 public charging stations" for these vehicles. This accounts for less than 0.1% of all vehicles registered in Germany. Currently there are about 10,700 charging points, but 77,000 points are necessary for the 1 million electric vehicle goal.

Sortimo, a German firm, is building a fast-charging station with over 144 ports and allow over 4000 cars to charge daily in 2018. The German government is also working on the eHighway project, which aims to "install overhead electric vehicle chargers on [the] Autobahn." Currently, there is an immediate plan to implement the eHighway for a 10 kilometer span of the Autobahn. This eventual rollout of the eHighway could have many positive implications for the electric vehicle industry, as the most powerful vehicles like Porsche currently need 15 minutes to charge. Therefore, it would increase the likelihood of people taking their vehicles on longer road trips.

CONDOMINIUM ACT
§ 22 of this act essentially prevents private electric vehicle charging stations. Section 1 of this act states that " Structural changes and expenses did go beyond the orderly maintenance or repair of the common property may be taken or required as each condominium owner Agrees." Effectively, this bars all condo owners and renters from installing these private charging stations.

ELECTRIC CAR QUOTAS
The German environment ministry expects the European Commission to propose quotas for electric cars in the European Union (EU). The "junior partner in Chancellor Angela Merkel’s ruling coalition" which runs the environment ministry expects EU quotas to meet emissions targets. There is an ongoing debate in Germany about banning diesel vehicles, due to the Dieselgate scandal, which could have significant implications for the electric vehicles market. Currently, the government is still waiting on the EU decision before making any regulatory changes.

If there is a quota implemented, the benefits include reliability, as consumers and manufacturers would know the schedule and quantity of electric car production. The effects of the proposed quota will also provide job security to employees and technological innovators in this industry. Many German firms are already gearing up for this quota, including BMW, VW and Mercedes.

CONCLUSION
To wrap it up, while there are not many clearly articulated regulations by the government to promote electric vehicles and charging points, the current government seems supportive of the industry. Additionally, there are current projects to increase electric vehicle charging points and the potential introduction of quotas. Thanks for using Wonder! Please let us know if we can help with anything else!
Sources
Sources

From Part 07