Electrification

Part
01
of three
Part
01

Electrification in Aviation

The key developments in electrical aviation include a plane without movable parts which utilizes electrically charged ions rather than using conventional engines to work and an electric engine powertrain that caters to sustainability due to no jet emissions.

1. PLANE WITHOUT MOVING PARTS

Future Impact

  • Planes without moving parts could impact the future by creating safer planes as a regular airplane requires fast-turning turbines to foster enough thrust and power to lift the plane and stay in the air. This new technology would not require this as it powers itself without any engines.
  • These types of planes would be quieter within the airspace they travel as well as the environment as they do not utilize traditional engines to power them.
  • Another potential impact is that it would be easier to take care of the planes hence, using fewer resources than required by a regular airplane.
  • The technology used by the electrical feature would mean no gas emissions will be available to harm the environment.
  • The propulsion systems utilized would facilitate fuel efficiency.

2. ZEROVIA ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN

Future Impact


RESEARCH STRATEGY

In seeking to employ this study, the first step taken was to look into developments within the aviation field. This was found through websites such as The Guardian and Green Car Congress. The next step was to explain what the development was and describe how it worked. After this we looked into how the development is moving the industry forward. Lastly, we got information on the future impacts of the development by visiting websites specific to sustainability. One specific website was Green Car Congress.

Part
02
of three
Part
02

Electric Vehicles

Key developments in electric vehicles (EV) in the US automotive industry, specific to battery technologies and approaches to EV charging are state-led electric vehicle charging policy changes, such as New York's initiative in the building of 1,075 fast-charging EV stations to help in its goal of having 800,000 zero-emission vehicles on US roads by 2025. A second key development is the increase in EV battery range for all models, with the average range of battery range for all models being greater than 200 miles in 2019. A detailed description of the key developments is in the next section.

1) STATE-LED ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING POLICY CHANGES

WHAT IT IS

  • For example, in New York, the governor announced in February 2019 that the state was providing $31.6 million to its partners to build 1,075 fast-charging EV stations and recover the costs over seven years from ratepayers.

HOW IT IS MOVING THE INDUSTRY FORWARD

  • The policy changes are encouraging people in the US to purchase EVs by making it easier for those who own EVs to be able to easily charge them.

COMPANY BEHIND THE DEVELOPMENT

  • States such as New York, California, and Maryland, are behind the electric transportation policy changes that give incentives to those using EVs and private investors in their states.

POTENTIAL FUTURE IMPACT OF THE DEVELOPMENT

  • The building of 1,075 fast-charging EV stations is to help New York achieve its goal of having 800,000 zero-emission vehicles on US roads by 2025.

2) INCREASE IN EV BATTERY RANGE FOR ALL MODELS

WHAT IT IS

  • There has been a recent steady range increase with existing battery technologies. EV manufacturers have updated their battery pack which has led to battery range increases.
  • According to Forbes, 2019 is the first year the average range of battery range for all models is greater than 200 miles.
  • From 2011 to 2019, EV car makers are projected to have increased EVs models battery range an average of 38 miles per upgrade, a total of 15% average increase per year.

HOW IT IS MOVING THE INDUSTRY FORWARD

  • More vehicle models for heavy and medium duty use means that 2019 will provide a big opportunity for transit agencies to electrify their fleets.

COMPANY BEHIND THE DEVELOPMENT

  • Kia Soul EV’s battery range increase in 2019 was 186, up from a 2018 increase of 111. Nissan LEAF EV’s battery range increase in 2019 was 225, up from a 2018 increase of 151. BMW i3 EV’s battery range increase in 2019 was 153, up from a 2018 increase of 115.

POTENTIAL FUTURE IMPACT OF THE DEVELOPMENT

  • Better EV battery range and more options will increase the number of people in the US who buy EVs. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in 2017, 46% of people in the US thought that EVs were better or as good as regular gas vehicles.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

To find some key developments in electric vehicles in the US automotive industry, specific to battery technologies and approaches to EV charging, our first research strategy was to look for relevant information in credible industry databases and publications. This strategy led us to sources such Clean Technica, Project Finance, and Forbes, which provided information on the topic. Our second strategy was to go through the information we found and find information that was referred to as key and recent in the EVs battery technologies and charging in the US. This strategy provided two key developments that were included in our findings.
Part
03
of three
Part
03

Electrification in Power / Utilities

One significant development in the electrification of power/utilities in the United States energy industry includes a focus on renewable power generation technologies such as wind technology. Other notable developments include growth of solar technology, use of energy storage systems, and less dependence on non-renewable energy sources such as coal. Renewable energy generation is becoming cheaper. The costs of wind energy without subsidies in the United States averages between $26/MWh and $56/MWh, while utility-scale solar costs between $36/MWh and $44/MWh. These costs are challenging to the average prices of existing U.S. coal plants, which fall between $27/MWh and $45/MWh.

USE OF WIND TECHNOLOGY

  • Over 90 cities and towns in the United States have committed to sourcing electricity from sources that are 100% renewable, including wind technology.
  • Utility experts estimate that the quantity of electricity generated from wind technology across the United States will grow by 42.5 megawatt-hours between 2018 and 2022.
  • The single most significant driver of the United States clean energy transition in 2019 towards wind technology is its "increasing competitiveness."
  • In October 2018, the Northern Indiana Public Service Co. (NIPSCO) revealed an analysis showing that it stands to save ratepayers about $4 billion within 30 years. This would be possible by retiring two coal generators and substituting them with wind and solar energy.
  • According to experts, advances in wind and other renewable technologies such as storage technology would continue to play a vital role in shortening the time needed to achieve safe carbon emission levels.

USE OF SOLAR TECHNOLOGY

  • Over 90 cities and towns in the United States have committed to sourcing electricity from sources that are 100% renewable, including solar technology.
  • Utility experts project that the quantity of electricity generated from solar technology across the United States will grow by 23.6 megawatt-hours between 2018 and 2022.
  • Like wind technology, the single most significant driver of the United States clean energy transition in 2019 towards solar technology is also its "increasing competitiveness."
  • Utility companies across the United States are battling to prevent load loss as people continue to install solar power generating devices on their rooftop. Initially, such utility companies tried to slow the renewable energy trend by offering fees and rate that were designed to discourage the adoption of such resources.
  • Renewable Resource Group plans to embark on a $600-million solar power complex powered by a 500-MW solar photo voltaic facility. The project uses a field of "solar arrays" and has up to three electric substations. The project spans 3,660-acre in Blythe and is scheduled to kick off in September.
  • Experts reveal that advances in solar and renewable technologies, including storage, would play a vital role in shortening the time needed to achieve safe carbon emission levels.

USE OF ENERGY STORAGE

  • Nearly all states in America recently took some regulatory or legislative actions focused on broad "grid modernization or utility business model reform" in the year 2018. About 42 states are acting on advanced metering infrastructure, deployment of storage facilities, data access as well as revenue reforms.
  • As utilities plan to cut down on carbon emission, experts say a current boom in power generation using natural gas is a "bridge" to a future with lower harmful emission. However, continued advancements in storage (battery) technology, might shorten the time needed to achieve safe carbon emission levels.
  • One of the utility companies in America, leading the electricity storage trend for lower emissions and a safer world is Pacific Gas & Electric.
  • In November 2018, California regulators awarded four battery projects for utility Pacific Gas & Electric. The projects cover the replacement of three gas plants that once sought ratepayer financial support. The battery projects include two of the "world's largest planned projects," and represent the first time battery storage would replace several major utility power plants.
  • Apart from California, which is known to have ambitious environmental as well as battery storage targets, large-scale storage facilities are spreading to other states. This spread is due to a decline in the prices of batteries.
  • Last summer, the generator company, Vistra, announced its plans to build a 42 MWh storage facility in conjunction with a solar farm around Texas. The facility would be Texas's most massive battery installation.
  • Data ascribed to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory reveals that by 2050, electric vehicles would likely increase the United States power demand by a factor of 38%. This increase will provide an essential source of "power demand growth for utilities" and also present an opportunity to utilize vehicles' batteries in meeting grid needs.

DECLINE IN NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION

  • Cheaper natural gas-based energy supplies and renewable sources are challenging the use of coal-powered non-renewable electricity sources across the United States.
  • Several coal-based electricity generating companies that pushed for a bailout from the United States government "are running out of time" to keep their plants operational.
  • Utility experts estimate that total megawatt-hour generated from coal across the United States will suffer set-back and grow by 0% (zero growth) between 2018 and 2022.
  • According to CNN, simple laws of economics are threatening to doom all of America's coal power plants.
  • Wind and solar energy costs have declined so rapidly that about 74% of United States coal fleet might get phased out. Their replacement with renewable energy would save energy customers some money on future payments.
  • That estimated figure of coal plants at-risk across the United States by 2025 would be 86% as the cost of solar and wind energy continues to plunge.
  • One of the companies hit by a decline in demand for coal-based electricity is FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. The power generating company has shut down about half of its power capacity as it struggles with bankruptcy.
  • FirstEnergy Solutions Corp recently deactivated unit-1 and unit-2 of its power sections at Bruce Mansfield coal plant located in Beaver County, Pennsylvania.
  • The sole climate rule was enacted to "reduce coal plant pollution." Through the sole climate rule, the already embattled coal power plants were pushed to shift away from coal towards the use of natural gas as well as renewable power.
  • President Trump's recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aims to replace the "Obama-era climate change rule" with another regulation. Experts warn that the EPA might help some of America's dirtiest and oldest coal plants to continue running. Experts believe that replacing clean energy rules would threaten the future of our environment and life as it tends to increase harmful emissions.
Sources
Sources

From Part 02
Quotes
  • "Electric vehicle (EV) policies helped the U.S. pass 1 million total sales in 2018."
  • "But not only will more EV options be available for consumers, the options will be better. 2019 will be the first year the average range of battery range for all models will be greater than 200 miles."
Quotes
  • "In February 2019, Governor Cuomo announced that the state is providing $31.6 million to its six regulated utilities to build up to 1,075 fast-charging electric vehicle stations and recover costs from ratepayers over seven years. This plan is meant to pair with the state’s goal of having 800,000 zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2025."
Quotes
  • "2019 will be the first year the average range of battery range for all models will be greater than 200 miles. "
  • "While range increases will vary by automaker, model, price point, and the level of existing battery range; we will likely see average range increases of 25 to 40 miles every two to three years for the next several years."
  • "The average range of fully electric cars (BEVs) available in the US by 2022 will be around 275 miles and could reach 400 miles by 2028."