Electric Truck Battery Use
Eight leaders in the electric truck market include BYD, Chanje, Daimler Trucks, Nikola Motors, Rivian, Tesla, Volvo, and Workhorse. Details of actual battery use by class have been provided in the attached spreadsheet.
Battery Use By Class
- Class 3 electric trucks have a battery capacity of 14.2–28.4 kWh and will use 25 kWh of power in 8 hours. With a 3.3–6.6 kW charger, it will take the battery approximately 1.76 hours to charge.
- Class 4 electric trucks have a battery capacity of 100-150 kWh and will use 20-50 kWh of power in 8 hours. With a 40-100 kW charger, it will take the battery 2-3 hours to charge.
- Class 5 electric trucks have a battery capacity of 100-150 kWh and will use 20-50 kWh of power in 8 hours. With a 40-100 kW charger, it will take the battery 2-3 hours to charge.
- Class 6 electric trucks have a battery capacity of 200-300 kWh and will use 45.6 kWh of power in 8 hours. With a 100–400 kW charger, it will take the battery 1.2 hours to charge.
- Class 7 electric trucks have a battery capacity of 200-300 kWh and will use 45.6 kWh of power in 10 hours. With a 100–400 kW charger, it will take the battery 1.2 hours to charge.
- Class 8 electric trucks have a battery capacity of 400-500 kWh and will use 41.9 kWh of power in 10 hours. With a 300 kW charger, it will take the battery 2 hours-3 hours to charge.
Electric Truck Batteries Overview
- The first electric vehicles were introduced in 1901 when Germany-based company Daimler AG produced electric powered vehicles including light-duty trucks and buses. At the time, these vehicles only had a range of 30 to 40 km and were not given charging stations as petrol cars took priority.
- From then on electric vehicles were limited to trollies and specialty vehicles that had extremely limited range and speeds. However, in 2016 fuel cell technology was integrated into electric vehicles which introduced new opportunities.
- In 2006, Tesla entered the market announcing that their vehicles would have a 200-mile range, the longest to date, paving the way for a growing market.
- Between 2009 and 2013, an infrastructure was planned and implemented nation-wide to charge and maintain the emerging vehicles which had been held back for over 100 years due to lack of resources for them.
- In 2019, electric commercial trucks began gaining popularity due to lower emissions and increased investment in the market.
Leading Electric Truck Brands
- BYD: The company currently has a class 8 truck with a range 125 miles and a top speed of 65 miles per hour.
- Chanje: The company has a 30-foot van with a lithium-ion battery pack that has a range of 150 miles.
- Daimler Trucks: The company has an all-electric truck, Freightliner eM2 106, with a range of 230 miles.
- Nikola Motors: The company is currently developing both fully electric or hydrogen fuel cell powered semis with an anticipated range of 500-700 miles.
- Rivian: The company has not released any vehicles yet, and their range is not published, however, they have a contract with Amazon to produce 100,000 all-electric delivery vehicles.
- Tesla: The company has 2 semis in production, one with a 300-mile range and one with a 500-600 mile range.
- Volvo: The company has not released their truck's range yet, however, they have 23 trucks in production that are set to release by the end of 2020.
- Workhorse: The company developed the Workhorse W-15 Truck and is contracted to make 950 electric delivery vans for UPS.
- The current market is expected to grow as new technologies develop, however, there are very few trucks currently on the road. The growth will be driven by a growing demand for lower emission vehicles in the commercial space.
- In the United States, the Zero Emission Vehicles Program implemented by the EPA and NHTSA expects to have 12 million zero emission vehicles to be on the road by 2030.
- Innovations on the market include development of batteries that could potentially replace lithium-ion batteries. These batteries could potentially double the mile range of electric vehicles.
- New batteries could produce 1,100 watt-hours per kilogram and be integrated into current vehicle conditions. Nikola described this innovation as "free-standing/self-supported electrode with a cathode that has 4x the energy density of lithium-ion."