Education System in India
We have provided below a high-level overview of the education system in India. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) is the main body that regulates the education system in India. There are approximately 260 million school students and 1.5 million schools. Also, there are 33,598,687 students in higher education in 51,534 schools. Below are details of our findings.
OVERVIEW OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA
in India, the responsibility of education is shared between the federal and state governments. The main federal institution responsible for education is the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), which regulates school education through its Department of School Education and Literacy and also regulates higher education through its Department of Higher Education. The MHRD coordinates the execution of education targets and objectives with the state governments.
The MHRD regulates teacher training through the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE). The India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) also regulates technical and vocational education and training (TVET) under the supervision of the MHRD. However, another government body, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), is responsible for developing curricula and textbooks. Education is free and mandatory for children between ages six and 14 in public schools in India.
The Indian education system involves 10 years of general education consisting of “five years of elementary education, three years of upper-elementary education, and two years of secondary education, followed by an additional two years of more specialized upper-secondary education”.
EDUCATION STATISTICS IN INDIA
According to statistics from the MHRD, published by World Education Services, there are around 260 million school students and 1.5 million schools in India. In higher education, there are 33,598,687 students and 51,534 schools.
The breakdown of the number of schools in India is as follows:
Intermediate/Senior Secondary Schools: 112,637
High/Secondary Schools: 139,539
Upper Primary Schools: 429,624
Primary Schools: 840,546
Stand alone Institutions: 12,276
The breakdown of the number of students in India is as follows:
Intermediate/Senior Secondary Schools: 24.7 million
High/Secondary Schools: 39.1 million
Upper Primary Schools: 67.6 million
Primary Schools: 129.1 million
Total: 260.6 million
Stand alone Institutions: 2,034,151
There are over 13,000 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) offering vocational education in India.
FUNDING BY GOVERNMENT AND PARENTS
In the 2015/2016 session, the state governments in India expended a total of $63.78 billion (Rs441130 crores) while the central government spent $17.19 billion (Rs118942 crores). This gives a total of $80.97 billion (Rs560073 crores). This expenditure amounts to 4.07% of GDP (3.20% for state governments and 0.86% for the central government).
A survey conducted by HSBC found that Indian parents spend an average of $18,909 on the primary, secondary and tertiary education of each child. About 89% of Indian parents are involved in the funding of the education of their children. In addition, 59% obtain the funds for their children’s education from daily incomes, 48% get the funds from “general savings, investments or insurance”, and 30% raise the funds through “specific education savings or investment plan”.
KEY ISSUES BEING DISCUSSED ABOUT EDUCATION IN INDIA
The Indian government is preparing a draft education policy which is expected to revolutionize due to the use of technology and new type of teaching-learning process. The policy is expected to operate from 2020 to 2040.
Education experts want the government to implement certain action in the 2019 budget including an increase the education budget, tax-free funding for ed-tech, better initiatives for skills acquisition, and resolution of tax issues for education startups.