Education Spend and Numbers of Students

Part
01
of four
Part
01

Education Spend and Numbers of Students 1

The number of students (primary and secondary) in the US and the annual budget of the US Department of Education between 2010 and 2019 have been provided in row 3 of the attached spreadsheet. These values have maintained an average upward trend, with the education budget and the number of elementary and secondary students both reaching $65.756 billion and 56.753 million respectively, in 2019.

Summary of the Findings

Research Strategy

We've leveraged statistical data compiled by various government agencies of the US Department of Education to provide the annual education budget and the number of students, both from 2010 through 2019. In providing the annual education budget, we found that the budgets (budget authority) are usually categorized into mandatory (funds) budgets and discretionary appropriations. The mandatory budgets fund mandatory programs — such as the Vocational Rehabilitation State Grant and the TEACH Grant, (similar to the funding of Medicare and Medicaid) — as direct spending, which are already stipulated by law. The discretionary appropriations are the funds that contain the actual budgetary resources, are usually appropriated by the US congress, and are used to fund other department-related expenditures such as paying salaries. The majority of government press releases and media reports do publish the discretionary figures as the main budget of any department. Therefore, for this request, we've provided the discretionary appropriations of the US Department of Education for all the requested years.
Part
02
of four
Part
02

Education Spend and Numbers of Students 2

The number of students (primary and secondary) in China and the annual budget of the Chinese Ministry of Education between 2010 and 2019 have been provided in row 4 of the attached spreadsheet. The annual education budget of China has consistently grown within the historical period. However, it is not the same for the total number of students, as it only picked in 2014.

Summary of the Findings

Research Strategy

The research team leveraged statistical data published by the Chinese Ministry of Education and the National Bureau of Statistics to provide the annual budget of the education ministry and the number of students from 2010 through 2018. For the budgets, from 2010 through 2016, the research obtained pre-compiled data, as it was only the most recent year provided. However, further research showed that education appropriations (funds channeled into education through national finance) in China in 2018 was ¥3.699577 trillion and ¥3.420775 trillion in 2017, 8.95% above the ¥3.139625 trillion it budgeted in 2016. For the year 2019, it was found the Chinese government are yet to make the budgets publicly available on their database; also, no press announcement has been made in that regard. Moreover, for the years that we found, we observed that the education budgets are usually published after each fiscal year. Therefore, it is expected that the budgetary details for the year 2019 will be published this year.

As an alternative, we attempted to find the estimated or projected education budget for the year 2019 through statistical databases like the World Bank database, industry sources, and local media platforms in China but found no concrete data. In the absence of this data, we resorted to triangulating an estimate since it can be observed that the budgets have maintained a significant upward trend from 2010 through 2018. Furthermore, "the Chinese government budgetary spending on education remained above 4% (or exactly 4.11% in 2018) of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2018 for the seventh consecutive year." Therefore, with the assumption that the 2019 figures will maintain similar trends and that there were no economic or national factors that affected this trend, the same education budget share (4.11%) of the GDP ($14.14 trillion in 2019) will be largely maintained for the year 2019. Therefore, this amounts to $581.154 billion (i.e., 4.11% * $14.14 trillion = $581.154 billion). Lastly, since the budgets are provided in the Chinese Yuan, except for the 2019 figure, we converted them to the USD using the average exchange rate for each year, as seen in this attached spreadsheet.

For the number of students, the most recent data was published for the year 2018 by the Chinese National Bureau of Statistics in 2019, in terms of the number of primary education students and the number of secondary education students. We compiled this data by addition in the attached spreadsheet to obtain the total number of students from 2010 through 2018. Similar to the timeline of how the Ministry of Education publishes its budget data, it is expected that the data for 2019 will be published this year. We further researched through global databases like the World Bank Data, but the recent data was still for the year 2018. No other government press releases, local or international media articles provide this data for the year 2019. Hence, using an online CAGR calculator, we estimated the data by obtaining the compound growth rate (1.53%) from 2015 to 2018 (3 years), then applying it on the 2018 data (190.152 million) to get the estimated total number of students (primary and secondary), which is approximately 193.061 million students.

In conclusion, for both data points (the annual budget and the number of students), while we leveraged data published by the Chinese government for 2010 through 2018, only estimates for the year 2019 was provided. On the spreadsheet, we have color-filled these cells to notate that they are estimated values.
Part
03
of four
Part
03

Education Spend and Numbers of Students 3

The number of students (primary and secondary) and the annual education budget of Japan from 2010 through 2019 have been provided in row 5 of the attached spreadsheet. Generally, Japan's education budget has experienced an average decline since 2011. Similarly, the country's total number of students gradually declined from 2010 to 2019.

Summary of the Findings

Research Strategy

The research team leveraged pre-compiled data published by Statista to provide the annual budget of Japan's education budget. To corroborate this data, we've also identified and reviewed the budget document as provided by Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. We also leveraged data published by the education ministry and the e-Stat, a Japanese government statistics portal, to provide the number of students. This data is published as the breakdown of the number of students in primary/elementary, lower and upper secondary, and secondary education. Therefore, for each year, we compiled them and obtained the total. This can be accessed from the attached spreadsheet. These websites, along with the budgets are mostly in the Japanese language; hence, we heavily depended on Google's online and document language translator to obtain the English translations. Lastly, since the budgets are provided in Japanese Yen, we converted them to the USD using the average exchange rate for each year, as seen in this attached spreadsheet.
Part
04
of four
Part
04

Education Spend and Numbers of Students 4

The number of students (primary and secondary) and the annual education budget of Germany from 2010 through 2019 have been provided in row 6 of the attached spreadsheet. On average, Germany's education budget increased from 2010 to 2020.

Summary of the Findings

Research Strategy

To provide the annual education budget of Germany, we leveraged an interactive database curated by the German Federal Ministry of Finance for the years 2012 through 2019. The database had no data for the years 2010 and 2011. However, we could identify and review the budget documents for 2010 and 2011. Note that these documents were provided in German and we used Google's Language Translator for documents to access the documents and obtain the necessary budget figures. Lastly, since the budgets are provided in the Euro, we converted them to the USD using the average exchange rate for each year, as seen in this attached spreadsheet.

For the number of students (primary and secondary), again we used another interactive database, curated by the Federal Statistical Office, that allowed us to generate, view, and download the number of primary and secondary students per state per gender, from 2010 to 2019. Note that a language translator must be used to access this document in the English language. We pulled this data, and on the spreadsheet, we summed up all the number of students from all the states for each year, from 2010 through 2019.
Sources
Sources