DML Executive Summary: Spain

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DML Executive Summary: Spain

Spain has taken several steps to promote digital media literacy including passing laws, establishing resources for the general public, and developing resources to provide training to both teachers and students. A high-level overview of the current state of DML in Spain is presented below and in the attached Google document. The data and sources for the overview were pulled from the attached spreadsheet.

Misinformation / DML Prevalence

  • According to the Digital News Report 2018, 69% of people in Spain are concerned about ‘what is real or fake’ on the internet.
  • A recent example of fake news in Spain is Catalan separatists shutting down a cancer treatment center for children.
  • In many cases, government leads initiatives against fake news. For example, "the National Security Department, Office of the State Secretary for Communication, and several Spanish ministries" launched a special unit to fight disinformation campaigns during the April 2019 elections. However, politicians are also known to use social media to influence elections.
  • The Fake News and Disinformation study by Xnet, Pompu Fabra University, and Wainwright Reform Trust reported that most of the false news are disseminated by governments, political parties, and business corporations. The study found that bot activity related to fake news increased by up to 25% during election campaigns.

DML Government Actions

DML Players

DML Initiatives

The Future of DML

  • Many experts have weighed in on the importance of DML and what it may look like in the future. These experts include notable professors, university researchers, journalists, and government personnel.
  • The majority of the opinions analyzed concluded that further investment in teacher training is required along with policy changes that can further evaluate and push the progression of the education system regarding DML and combating disinformation.
  • Other experts were of the view that digital literacy must be emphasized in ICT and education policy formation and formal skills development programs should continue to be rolled out in schools.
The complete report can also be found in the attached Google document.
Sources
Sources