Digital Media Literacy: Spain

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Misinformation / DML Prevalence: Spain

What follows is a description of high profile misinformation or disinformation events in Spain. The majority of these events are tied to rising political tensions occurring before an election. These research findings have been included in the attached spreadsheet.

Far-right Propaganda on Facebook Ahead of Parliamentary Elections in the European Union

  • Far-right propaganda from fake Facebook accounts spreads divisive, white-nationalist, anti-immigrant content. The number of followers accumulated by these fake groups and pages was larger than that of actual far-right groups operating in Spain.
  • For example, fake news was disseminated about Catalan separatists shutting down a cancer treatment center for children.

Confronting Fake News and Misinformation

  • The Spanish government created an inter-institutional group to identify and rectify fake news before the April 28, 2019, general election.

AVAAZ Tackles Fake Far-Right Accounts on Facebook

  • AVAAZ, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, discovered that Facebook's current risk assessment policy for Spain failed to adequately identify threats and disinformation. Social media platforms that rely on high volumes of traffic cannot be trusted to adequately regulate popular topics of disinformation.

Growing Distrust of Traditional Media in Spain Leads to a Demand For Increased Transparency

  • The mainstream media's influence was weakened after the Catalan referendum when content creation began following social divisions. This led to an increase in the number of and trust in digital-born media outlets.

Distrust of Internet Content Linked to Polarized Political Situations

The Majority of Fake News Circulating in the Spanish Public Sphere is Created by Political Parties, Governments, and Corporations

  • It has recently been discovered that political parties, governments, and corporations contribute to the majority of fake news and propaganda circulating in the Spanish public sphere. This could potentially have dire consequences for the democratic process.

Closing the Digital Media Literacy Gap

Research Strategy

To answer this question, we've searched for direct answers by looking at places where one would expect to find information on the impact of high profile disinformation events on Spain's general population, such as digital communications and consumption news reports, digital trend reports, news reports, and publicized government reports. An emphasis on high profile events with far-reaching consequences was taken into consideration while fulfilling this request.
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DML Government Actions: Spain

The Spanish government has taken a variety of actions to promote and encourage education in digital media. It has done so at the federal level, but also at the regional levels. Actions taken include laws, partnerships, conferences, courses and the release of best practices.

All the 15 actions are included in the shared document under the tab "DML Government Actions".

Some of these actions are outlined below:

(In) Formate

  • This is an initiative launched by Google, the Spanish government and Fad to promote digital media literacy and critical thinking for kids between the ages of 14 and 16.

Best Practices Guide for Misinformation in Cyberspace

  • The National Criptological Center in partnership with the National Intelligence Center has publicly released in February 2019 a manual of best practices aimed at internet users to be able to critically assess digital media.

Gijon Conference on Digital Misinformation

  • A seminar has been organized in October 2019 in Gijon by local authorities with the theme "The issue of misinformation of youth and teenagers".
  • The aim of the seminar was to teach young internet users on how to recognize the veracity of media sources online.

Launch of Kids Education Programs

  • In February 2008, the Spanish Information and Digital Agenda Secretary announced a proposal to launch educational courses in critical thinking for kids to be able to critically assess media online sources.

Catalan Audiovisual Council

  • In December 2018, the Catalan Audiovisual Council released educational materials to be used by teachers to educate students on digital media.

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DML Players, Part 1: Spain

Five key players in the digital media literacy space in Spain, based on the number and size of their programs, are Consejo Audiovisual de Andalucía, Observatorio Europeo de la TV Infantil (OETI), The National Institute of Educational Technologies and Teacher Training (INTEF), ATEI — Asociación de las Televisiones Educativas, and Filmotecas e (ICAA). Find attached in the spreadsheet more findings regarding the key players.

Consejo Audiovisual de Andalucía

Observatorio Europeo de la TV Infantil — OETI

  • Established in 1997, OETI is a well-known organization in the securities for education. Its main role is to protect the rights of the children by encouraging the media to produce ethical and audiovisual content that is suitable for children.

ATEI — Asociación de las Televisiones Educativas y

  • ATEI, which aims to contribute to the development of Latin American education, science, and culture through the use of television and communication technologies, was formed in 1992 by 15 nations in Latin America.
  • The nations wanted to come up with a public television service system for educational purposes for Latin America. In 2015, the Ibero-American channel was created for that purpose.


  • INTEF is a unit of the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training that is responsible for the integration of ICT and teacher training in non-university educational stages.
  • The organization promotes the development and dissemination of curricular materials and other support documents for teachers as well as digital and audiovisual support of all areas of knowledge, maintains educational resource portals, and creates social networks to facilitate the exchange of experience and resources among teachers.

Filmotecas e ICAA

  • Established 1997, ICAA's main roles are to promote the Spanish cinematographic and audiovisual activities in production, distribution and exhibition; to recover, restore, conserve, investigate and disseminate film heritage; to contribute to the training of professionals in the different film specialties; to maintain relations with international and foreign organizations and institutions of similar purposes' and to cooperate with the Autonomous Communities in the field of cinematography and audiovisual arts.
  • ICAA aims to increase the production and the distribution of Spanish cinematographic productions by encouraging the application of new technologies and the external projection of Spanish cinematography and audiovisual arts.
  • They also safeguard and spread the Spanish film heritage to promote cultural communication between the Autonomous Communities in the field of cinematography and audiovisual arts.

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DML Players, Part 2: Spain

Five additional key players in the digital media literacy space in Spain are the National Center for Educational Innovation and Research (CNIIE),, the National Commission of Markets and Competition (CNMC), Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC) and Edutic-ADEI. The requested information has been added to rows 10-14, columns A-I of the DML Players tab of the attached spreadsheet.

National Center for Educational Innovation and Research (CNIIE)

  • CNIIE's main objective is to "elaborate, apply, disseminate and evaluate multiple literacy programs, which include reading and writing in the current context of media and digital convergence, paying special attention to its consideration as essential basic learning skills for social inclusion and the practice of citizenship."
  • CNIIE has two programs, namely which promotes information and media literacy, along with school library support effort programs.
  • They "study and develop proposals for the improvement of school libraries," "inform the General Education Commission about the issues related to school libraries," and "encourage cooperation with other types of libraries such as public, specialized, university and national and regional libraries."

  • was established in 2002 with a clear objective of working for digital convergence with Europe, improving public services and developing the digital economy.
  • They develop programs which boost innovation in the digital economy, including training for young people and professionals.
  • They maintain tech programs in the public service and administration fields, particularly in education, health and justice.

National Commission of Markets and Competition (CNMC)

  • Established in 2013, independent from the Spanish government, this company's mission "is to guarantee, preserve and promote the proper functioning, transparency and existence of effective competition in all markets and productive sectors, for the benefit of consumers and users."
  • Key roles of the CNMC include supervising the function of audiovisual communication markets, and regulating and supervising proper electronic communication market functions.

Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC)

  • Established in 2000, the CAC mission is to "monitor social, political, religious, linguistic and cultural pluralism in the broadcasting system" of Catalonia, ensuring honesty and neutrality in information.
  • Key duties of the CAC include ensuring rights and freedoms in broadcast media, including protection of children and other youth by controlling media programs.


  • Edutic-Adei was established in 2007 and its main aim is to aggregate services and resources "related to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Education."
  • They offer a variety of courses online including "Design of multimedia murals on the Internet as a teaching resource," "Design and creation of webquests: Internet learning," and "Blogs: a resource for the classroom."
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DML Initiatives, Part 1: Spain

Mediateca provides an infrastructure for students to develop their own projects and upload them to the web. The EMEDUS project gathered digital media literacy information and approaches from around the EU to create a place for common tools for teachers available in 13 different languages. Chaval is a program designed to include parents in the child's digital media learning program. Full information is available here.


  • The Mediateca of EducaMadrid offers videos, images, and audio files uploaded by its users. The Media Library of EducaMadrid is a Web 2.0 tool that provides each teacher and educational center of the Community of Madrid a space to host and manage their videos, images, audios, designs for 3D printers, and Scratch activities. Each user of the Media Library has its own pages (profile, videos, audios, images, lists.
  • Also, from the pages of each center, you can access the contents provided by the center itself (using the Institutional Account of the Center) and contents linked to the center provided by teachers or students.
  • This website, created and managed by the Ministry of Education and Youth for the Community of Madrid, is a place for students to develop their own projects and upload them to the web. They are then accessible to other students and teachers for review or use. Types of files include Images, Audio, 3D designs, Scratch, ePub, Routes, Documents, Lists.
  • Unless the teacher provides strict oversight, the possibility exists for inappropriate information to be loaded for consumption.
  • The idea of letting students create and post their own website content, and provide them the ability to check and see how often it has been viewed is a powerful teaching tool.

EMEDUS Project

  • The EMEDUS project is an extensive review and an in-depth bibliographical analysis of three major lines related to media literacy across Europe. Firstly, an analysis was made of the inclusion and presence of curricular media literacy in the curricula of 27 countries of the European Union (EU).
  • The study also analyzed educational initiatives in the formal and informal sectors and groups at risk of exclusion.
  • The analysis was carried out by the Office of Education and Communication of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB).
  • It describes the results achieved in the field of formal education and the relationship of media literacy with formal European education systems and specifically in this case in the Spanish one. This analysis includes a descriptive comparison about the way media literacy has been included in the national curriculum, a reflection on the skills of teachers in relation to their training in education media, as well as a brief reference to the identification of tools for measuring the media skills of students.
  • Finally, the main recommendations made to the European Commission (CE) were made with the intention of strengthening the presence and development of the curriculum of media literacy at the EU level and identifies the European Observatory on media and information literacy as a significant project result.
  • EAVI has gathered resources from around the EU and made them available in 13 different languages on a single website.
  • Information currently on the website includes an Infographic for use in the classroom about the types of Fake News, an Online News verification game, another Infographic on data usage by large websites, a data literacy primer."
  • EAVI has a small number of high-quality resources for instructors that have been designed to be used across multiple countries and cultures. A review of the website content did not uncover any pitfalls in using the material.
  • The result of this work is very solid work by a small team, creating standard information and teaching tools across the EU.


  • Since 2002 has been developing relevant work in the media literacy field encouraging safe practices amongst children. The project aims to alert parents, educators, and children about the risks of new technologies. It also aims to educate and train children about the correct use of new technologies and present them with new challenges and contents.
  • The project is designed to encourage children to ask for advice from parents and educators when they face a problem or anomaly in their use of new technologies regarding content and promote the communication between themselves and parents and teachers regarding this subject. The difference between virtual reality and reality is also explored.
  • This project is carried out by, which is the statutory institution entrusted to implement the digital agenda in Spain and is part of the Ministry of Industry, Energy, and Tourism (MINETUR)."
  • It was started in 2002 and revamped in 2016 for new digital media literacy goals.
  • Chaval is run under the umbrella of, which develops programs to boost the digital economy, innovation, entrepreneurship, training for young people and professionals and support for SMEs through the promotion of efficient and intensive use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).
  • They also deploy programs of technological implementation in the public services of the Administration — especially in Health, Justice, and Education — and work for the development of Smart Cities and Islands.
  • Many of the projects they execute from are carried out thanks to the funding of the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund (ESF).
  • This structure gives CHAVAL access to information and skills a stand-alone DML organization may not have. For example, one of success stories is the digitization of historical archives, including text and images. This information could be made available on the Chaval website."
  • The very environment that makes Chaval unique could also be it one of its pitfalls. While has a large budget, good political connections and provides the opportunity for Chaval to draw on many sources of information, it also means Chaval is a small frog in a big pond. Since most organizations have an internal competition for resources, Chaval may be challenged to be heard when aligned with a project that is building a smart city.
  • It is a unique program in that it responds to the need to bridge the digital divide between fathers, mothers, tutors, and educators regarding the progress of children and young people in the use of ICT. Their goal is to educate adults about the possibilities of ICT, teach good use, and pose challenges and content that are useful in their relationship with young people and children.
  • There are not many DML initiatives that explicitly include parents and provide support from them as well as for teachers and students.

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DML Initiatives, Part 2: Spain

The two initiatives that support the teachers in the Spanish school system are the Common Digital Competence Framework for Teachers, which outlines the outcomes expected for each competency at each level, and Edupills, a mobile app designed around the framework to provide training bites for teachers to access in their free time. More information is available here.

Common Digital Competence Framework For Teachers

  • The Common Digital Competence Framework for Teachers, finalized and distributed in 2017, is a reference framework for the diagnosis and improvement of the digital competences for teachers. These competencies are defined as those teachers need to develop in the 21st century to improve their teaching practice and for their continuous professional development. The Common Digital Competence Framework for Teachers is made up of 5 competence areas and their 21 competencies defined in 6 proficiency levels.
  • Each competence provides a detailed description as well as the descriptors based in terms of knowledge, ability, and attitude. This framework is the foundation for the Digital Competence Portfolio for Teachers, a digital tool by INTEF, to endorse the competence mentioned above."
  • That competency is widely used is demonstrated by the fact that in October 2019 alone, there were 410,000 hits on the website.
  • Apart from just releasing the digital competence framework for teachers, the site also provides multiple types of training for Spanish DML teachers. These educators are given a chance to learn in
— NOOC (in English, Nano Open Online Course) — an estimated effort that can range from a minimum of 1 hour to a maximum of 20 hours.
— SPOOC (in English, Self-Paced Open Online Course) — the development of autonomous learning management.
— MOOC (in English, Massive Open Online Courses) — teacher-led online learning experiences oriented to the development and improvement of professional skills, primarily digital educational competence. At the end of each MOOC, an open digital credential is issued in recognition of the learning acquired.
Tutoring is also provided in a "learning modality focused transversely towards professional development, guided by teaching teams that monitor your progress daily, in addition to qualifying and evaluating deliveries. It is aimed exclusively at active teachers in centers supported by Spanish public funds, from levels before the university. They have a duration of two months and are held in two annual editions, published through a single call in the BOE. The majority has a duration of 60-70 hours."
  • Like any mandated training program, there is the chance that while the teacher may attend and complete the assignments, they may not bring their skills to the level required to teach DML to a class of students effectively.
  • A review of the actual competence framework shows well-designed and well-thought-out content that should make it easy for teachers to access lesson plan material within each cell of the framework.


  • EduPills is a micro-learning app for teachers, first available for download in March 2017, aimed at enabling teachers to acquire and develop digital skills, skills, and competencies in a fast and straightforward way. This mobile application has been developed by the National Institute of Educational Technologies and Training of Teachers (INTEF), Ministry of Education and Professional Training, Government of Spain. The educational pills are categorized according to the Areas of the Common Framework of Digital Competence Teaching 2017 of INTEF.
  • Each educational pill you complete is an achievement you can share on your social networks. You can bookmark educational self-training pills on the topics that interest you most and access them quickly.
  • With over ten thousand downloads, this popular tool provides teachers with an instantly accessible training tool that they can use in the teacher's lounge, on public transit, or sitting in front of the TV. Teachers can consume small bits of information in short bits of time, making keeping their DML skills current relatively painless.
  • Since the content is professionally developed on a national level through a government Ministry, one can expect the material to be accurate and relevant. While the website is in Spanish and therefore, could not be reviewed, the idea is sound, and it is difficult to see any pitfalls.
  • This app is a brilliant solution targeted to make use of time by putting the information at the fingertips of all who would use it. The reviews on the download site are uniformly positive.
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The Future of DML, Part 1: Spain

According to research and opinions from notable professors, university researchers, and government personnel detailed in the attached spreadsheet, the current state of DML (digital media literacy), especially in education, is lacking in methodology and competence. The majority of the opinions analyzed concluded that further investment into teacher training is required along with policy changes that can further evaluate and push the progression of the education system regarding DML and combating disinformation.

The future of Digital Media Literacy in Spain

  • Teachers, generally lack in understanding and competence regarding DML.
  • Education authorities need to have a more active role in developing and defining literacy curricula.
  • Deeper studies into how attitudes play a part in media literacy might be necessary to further understand proper education methods.
  • Student and children are susceptible to disinformation and refined more holistic approach to teaching may be required.
  • New skills are needed in order to properly navigate narratives in news to prevent the influence of disinformation.
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The Future of DML, Part 2: Spain

Five additional opinion pieces / online commentary around the future of digital media literacy in Spain have been compiled in the attached spreadsheet. The research findings were collected from an opinion piece by a research expert Blanca Almandoz de la Funte, an opinion piece by Carlos Rodríguez-Hoyos and Aquilina Fueyo Gutiérrez, opinion piece or online commentary published by All Digital Week and EUCRATIV.


  • A research study by Blanca Almandoz de la Funte suggests that "ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and education policy formation need to give an appropriate emphasis to digital literacy to ensure that crucial enabling digital skills, both for working and for living, are fostered among young people."
  • According to Blanca Almandoz de la Funte, "specifically, formal skills development programmes should continue to be rolled out in schools to provide a structure for teaching digital skills and to provide a concrete outcome for students to take with them into the workplace."
  • All Digital Week launched an All Digital Campaign to increase awareness around DML (digital media literacy) through workshops and training. It was published that "digital Media Literacy is an important part of this campaign. In fact, one of it aims to contribute to the development of a critical thinking and digital media literacy, including being aware of fake news, hate speech and social media abuse."
  • Carlos Rodríguez-Hoyos and Aquilina Fueyo Gutiérrez suggested in research that "the education authorities and university teachers should rethink training for future teachers and include contents that facilitate understanding the functioning of the media as a way of accessing diverse cultural representations."


From Part 07
  • ""While media and digital literacy are defined as key competences for teachers today, research on the topic has shown that, generally, teachers have low levels of digital skills and their training on digital education fails to meet the needs.""
  • ""This finding is consistent with other previous studies that suggest a limited presence of the contents of media studies in teacher training""
  • "In short, despite the motivating power of technologies, the lack of clarity in the ICT strategies and projects in higher education is an urgent challenge that must be addressed. "
  • "Media literacy initiatives have been shown to lessen the vulnerability of children to disinformation. The development of critical thinking and analytical competences are key components of a successful educational intervention."
  • "We can’t achieve public access to information when public can be taken for a ride by disinformation."
  • "This eMEL competences framework is innovative as it is the first existing frame based on in depth analysis and collection of media literacy frames implemented in 6 european countries."
  • "The globalisation process is irreversible. It transforms societies, changing them at an unequal yet very dynamic pace. Universities become an indispensable instrument for supporting and replicating change. Education systems must shift towards the knowledge society and generate the meaningful knowledge it needs. Innovation should be understood as a process and not simply as a product."
  • "“Firstly, it’s an oxymoron, if it’s fake, it’s not news”, Posetti said, adding that “News is verifiable information shared in the public interest”."