Digital Media Literacy: Italy

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Misinformation / DML Prevalence: Italy

Some examples of high profile misinformation events in Italy include a project to educate high-school students on how to recognize fake news online, an online service launched by the Italian government to counter fake news, a warning by a regulator that 2017 was a year of fake news in Italy, allegations that a substantial number of ballot papers had been discovered in Sicily, a fake news story about a nine-year-old Muslim girl in Padua, fake polls in favor of Five Star Movement and a manipulated picture of Ms. Boschi. The details of the findings were entered into the project spreadsheet. Below is a deep dive into the stated events.

Education of High School Students to Enable them Recognize Fake News

  • The Italian government launched an experiment in collaboration with leading digital companies including Facebook to train students on how to recognize fake news.
  • According to Laura Boldrini, president of Italian lower house of Parliament, "fake news drips drops of poison into our daily web diet and we end up infected without even realizing it."
  • She further said that it is only right to give the kids a way of defending themselves from the lies.

Online service to counter fake news

  • The Italian government launched an online service for the public to report what they think is fake news for investigation.
  • This came ahead of the 2018 general election when senior politicians were concerned that fake news could influence public opinion.

Warning by regulator on the fact that 2017 was a year of fake news

  • The country's communications regulator, Agcom, warned about a rise in fake news and disinformation in the country.
  • It stated that "2017 was 'the year of the emergence of pathological phenomena such as the so-called fake news'."
  • At the time, social media was gaining ground as the population's means of staying informed with 7 out of 10 Italians using it for information purposes.

Fake News of Ballot Papers Discovered in Sicily

  • A false story claimed that a substantial number of ballot papers had been discovered in Sicily as part of "a ballot-stuffing operation to favor the centre-left Democratic Party."
  • The fake story was exposed in social media, but still attracted attention on the election day.

Fake News about a 9-year-old Girl in Padua

  • Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini capitalized on a fake news of a nine-year-old Muslim girl in Padua who was said to have been hospitalized after being sexually assaulted by her 35-year-old husband.
  • The story was officially denied and retracted by newspapers.
  • However, Salvini condemned the story on Twitter, a post which was later removed, but the story brought immigration to the center of the March 2018 general election.

Fake Polls in Favor of Five Star Movement

  • In February 2018, a number of Five Star Movement supporters shared a false poll that showed that the party was on track to receive 48% of the votes.
  • A high-profile journalist, Enrico Mentana, denounced the fake poll on Facebook.

Manipulated Picture of Ms Boschi at a Funeral of Sicilian Mafia Boss

  • Maria Elena Boschi, a government minister, and her colleagues attended a funeral of a Nigerian killed in a racist attack in July 2016.
  • Later in November 2017, Ms Boschi's photo at the funeral was circulated on social media with claims that she had attended the funeral of Toto Riina, "the notorious 'boss of all bosses' of the Sicilian Mafia.
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DML Government Actions: Italy

Actions that the Italian government has taken over the past five years to respond mis/disinformation include the declaration of Internet rights, curriculum for high school students, providing a red button for alerting the cyber police, proposing a law against information manipulation, creating a self-regulation initiative. They also created an online portal where people can report hoaxes and gave kids the chance to defend themselves from lies. Additional information is available in the attached spreadsheet.

Commitments to (Digital) Media Literacy

  • On July 28, 2015, Laura Boldrini, the Italian chamber, revealed a declaration of internet rights. It was a document that guaranteed diversity, freedom, and dignity of every individual.

Audience Priorities or Scope

  • During the run-up to the general election of 2018, the Italian government crafted an online service which enabled users to report mis/disinformation.

Position on Responsibilities for Media Literacy

  • The government, big tech companies like Facebook and Google, and I Rai-Italy's public broadcaster have come together during an anti-disinformation initiative called “Enough hoaxes” (“Basta Bufale”) to fight mis/disinformation.

Specific Actions/Steps Taken over Mis/Disinformation and Media Literacy

  • The government has provided citizens with a red button to alert the cyber police. A special cyber police unit under the Italian state police launched The Red Button Service to safeguard an election.
  • Additionally, they have adopted a self-regulation initiative. This initiative consists of a set of guidelines that digital platforms and other actors can voluntarily adopt to ensure equal treatment of all political parties. It was set up by The Italian Communications Authority (AGCOM).

Negative Position on Working With Tech Platforms to Solve Challenges

  • There is a proposed law against information manipulation. This bill was proposed by a group of senators and also contains a controversial provision that requires anyone who wants to start a blog, website, or discussion forum to seek official approval from the authorities.
  • The Italian government created an online portal where people can report hoaxes. According to the Pagella Politica director, The Polizia Postale promised to act in a very sensitive field, bordering censorship and the laws protecting the freedom of the press.
  • A senior researcher working for the Punto Zero Project Fabio Chiusi, who also works as a journalist, reiterated Zagni’s concerns. He believes the government should conduct more research before embarking on the initiative since the mis/disinformation clearly was not defined.

Objectives/Goals of Digital Media Literacy

  • The primary objective/goal of digital media literacy in Italy is to give kids the chance to defend themselves from lies. Education is important to help educate and create awareness for mis/disinformation.

Research strategy

We began our search by looking for relevant information from the sources provided in the spreadsheet in the useful sources and resources tab. We used the information we found to look for information specific to Italy from government sources. There was no useful information to provide 15 total actions/decisions by the Italian government to respond to mis/disinformation. We could only find seven actions/decisions.

We then proceeded to search for information using news articles such as Youth Press and Poynter. There still was not enough information on the actions/decisions taken by the Italian government to respond the mis/disinformation.

Our final strategy was to search through academic sources such as Oxtec for additional information, but still we could not find enough data to provide fifteen actions/decisions by the Italian government to respond to mis/disinformation.
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DML Players, Part 1: Italy

Euroform RFS, Eurispes, ICDL Europe, Osscom, and AIART are some of the key players in the digital media literacy space in Italy. The complete details about each company's organization type, goals, main activities, target audience, reach, start date, and relevant insights are presented in tab "3-DML Players" of the attached spreadsheet.

1. Euroform RFS

  • Euroform RFS operates in vocational guidance and training. Its main goal is to work as a channeling vehicle between the labor market’s supply and demand.
  • The company has been active since 1996.
  • Euroform RFS has an international reach and its target audience is professionals.

2. Eurispes

  • Eurispes has contributed to the emergence of numerous hidden or little-known social phenomena and has often animated the social, political and economic debate, inspiring on numerous occasions.
  • The company has been active since 1982.
  • Eurispes has an international reach and its target audience is children.

3. ICDL Europe

  • ICDL Europe is a non-profit social enterprise that develops vendor-independent standards used to define the knowledge and skills needed to effectively use digital technology.
  • The company has been active since 1996.
  • It targets individuals, students, professionals, organizations (partnerships), and the general workforce (public).

4. Osscom

5. AIART (Italian Association of Radio and Television Listeners)

  • AIART's main purpose and mission is to educate media humanity, the person-to-person as a medium that professes and protects individuals, particularly minors, in the field of media and digital communication.
  • The company has been active since 1954.
  • AIART has an international reach and its target audience is the general public.

Research Strategy:

In order to identify the key players in the digital media literacy space, we initially compiled a list of these companies obtained from EAVI's directory and those that are available in the public domain. The EAVI directory contains media, information, and digital literacy organizations globally, with some European countries including Italy.

We then reviewed each organization to ensure that they operate in Italy. Next, we reviewed the available initiatives and programs of each of these organizations that operate in Italy and then filtered them by those that appear to have a larger number of programs and/or initiatives and came up with the above-listed organizations.
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DML Players, Part 2: Italy

Some of the key players in the digital literacy space in Italy are Osservatorio Permanente Giovani-Editori, Pagella Politica, Centre for Media Pluralism and Freedom, Irex Europe, and Associazione Italiana per l’Educazione ai Media e alla Comunicazione. Details about each player can be found in the attached spreadsheet.

Key players in the Digital Literacy Space — Italy

Research Strategy

In order to identify key players in the digital media literacy space, the research team conducted a press scan to discover the organizations most commonly associated with the issue. We then checked each organization to verify its initiatives and programs to ensure they are indeed active.
It was not possible to verify if these additional players are the most active in the space. We attempted to locate publicly available lists that would rank the institutions, checked government sites, and databases. Still, after extensive research, conducted both in English and Italian, the information was not publicly available.
We then tried to obtain data about funding and spending, hoping to determine which institution was the most active. Considering most don’t publicly disclose the exact numbers, it was not possible to verify every organization.
Next, we tried to compare and contrast initiatives; however, the different ways each organization defines “project” or “initiative” made it not possible to reach an accurate conclusion.
As a last resource, we relied on qualitative information, such as important partnerships, with giants like Apple and Facebook (Osservatorio and Pagella), continued and frequent initiatives (Associazione Italiana), and constant EU funding (CMPF and Irex). For each player chosen, we verified if they had recent projects or activities.
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DML Initiatives, Part 1: Italy

Three major initiatives in Italy are the creation of a digital media literacy policy, the creation of a plan and framework for delivering DML in Italy and a program collaboratively delivered by a non-profit of journalists. The findings have been provided in this spreadsheet.

Media and Information Literacy Policies in Italy (2013)

  • The Ministry of Education promotes public policies in the area of digital literacy through the Office "Digital Innovation at school: the Digital School" at the "General Directorate for Research, Statistics and Informatics Systems".
  • All the initiatives are developed and monitored through INDIRE (Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione, Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa), the National Institute for Research and Innovation on Education which coordinates teachers training programs, research on innovation in digital technologies' usage for educational aims, connection with European policies in education and digital agenda."
  • "Two main strategic aims: to increase the Italian population's ICT skills and digital skills and to introduce teaching innovation, encouraging more personalized educational paths and promoting active learning. We cannot find a detailed definition of digital literacy; they are generally referred to as ""skills for the information and knowledge society."
  • In the "digital agenda," cross-governmental initiative to encourage digital solutions for the development of the economy and society and more efficient government action, the Ministry of Education led the digital skills task force which identifies the priority in the scaling up of ""the digital school model: school access to broadband; cloud resources for teaching and learning; transforming learning environments; digital contents and e-books; teacher training through blended e-learning; interactive whiteboards; e-participation.
  • This policy document was the beginning of digital media literacy skills in the Italian education system. It proposes "four initiatives: a fund to equip classrooms with interactive whiteboards (Piano LIM), and three test bed projects in which pilot schools, selected through open competitions, experiment ICT solutions:
1) cl@sse 2.0. This project is similar to the Spanish project Escuela 2.0 and the British project Capital. It aims at
transforming the traditional class into a training laboratory where digital tools introduce new content and new
ways of learning and teaching.
2) scuol@ 2.0. This project is targeted at the entire school, and the introduction of new technologies is linked to a
wider transformation that affects both organizational systems of human resources and curricular paths.
3) Editoria Digitale scolastica is the creation of the content.

Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale — PNSD (Italian National Plan for Digital Education)

  • The Italian National Plan for Digital Education (Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale — PNSD) is an implementation plan launched by the Ministry of Education, University and Research for setting up a comprehensive innovation strategy across Italy's school system and bringing it into the digital age. It is one of the pillars of "La Buona Scuola" school reform (Law 107/2015), a vision for concrete action reflecting the government's response to the most significant challenges for innovation in the public administration system. Innovation in the school system and digital education opportunities are critical drivers of this vision.
  • The plan (MIUR "Piano Scuola Digitale," has been designed on these objectives:
1) introducing ICT as part of the daily tools of student activities;
2) experimenting with new models of school organization and teaching;
3) phasing out of paper concerning only textbooks (e-book and digital book law), which could be achieved through
and educational digital contents. In other words, it dealt with one strategy consisting of more actions. The IWB
action was addressed towards numerous schools and based on a gradual and motivating approach to
provide classrooms with IWBs, to promote interactive teaching activities."
  • Eighty-three thousand six hundred seventy-one teachers with 772,530 students were funded with computers.
  • After the submission of proposals for DML programs, 416 were approved and implemented by 2922 teachers for 8916 students.
  • In the next stage, the government ran a pilot program in several schools with radically different learning environments, applying new teaching, organizational, and management models. The MIUR selected about 13 schools among which participated in the call for tender "Patto per la Scuol@ 2.0".
  • The last action of the national plan was the introduction of educational digital content." This document outlines the staged plan for the implementation of the digital media strategy outlined in the above-described policy document. This is a very deliberate, measured approach to implementing digital media literacy into the school system. Unfortunately, the rate of change in the digital world (Moore's Law initially stated processing speed doubled every 18 months) is accelerating, and the implementation plan is too slow to keep up with these changes. By the time the curriculum is rolled out, it could be outdated.

Osservatorio Permanente Giovani-Editori (Permanent Youth-Publishers Observatory)

  • An organization that believes in young people and that invests in them to foster a process of education and citizenship education, including digital. For this path of individual growth and civil learning to be completed, to the point of contributing to making the young person of today the free citizen of tomorrow, our organization is committed and strives to make the new generations more master of themselves.""
  • The Observatory has welcomed over the years all those Italian newspapers and all the publishers who believed in its civil and social challenge. Permanent Youth-Publishers Observatory has become the protagonist of a new civic education lesson in Italian high schools.
  • Over 45,000 teachers have been trained in the program, and, in the 2015 school year alone, over 2 million students went through the program.
  • The newspaper industry provides this program in Italy, several foundations, and corporate sponsors. It is a high-profile organization whose leaders have met with senior government officials, celebrities (Andrea Bocelli), and Pope Francis. They recently received a substantial yet undisclosed sum of money from Apple, as well as a commitment to annual funding.
  • This program began in the early 2000s to teach critical thinking of news stories. In 2015, it expanded to digital media literacy. The program appears to be well funded, professionally staffed, and well respected. The program offers training to high school teachers who then take the knowledge and resources into the classroom. It expanded in 2015 to include digital media literacy. It is a national program.

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DML Initiatives, Part 2: Italy

The two end-user targeted literacy programs described below are Growing up together What's Up (where the mental health of youth is the purpose, and digital media literacy is seen as a tool to contribute to that goal) and Digital Media Literacy Program at the International School of Florence Education in which 528 students from 38 countries receive digital media literacy training for all 12 years. Our findings have also been provided in this spreadsheet.

Crescere Insieme What's Up (Growing up together What's Up)

  • "Crescere insieme What's Up (Growing up together What's Up)" is a primary and secondary education program that engages teens / older students at school to teach media use and critical thinking.
  • "Media literacy ... is concerned with being literate in a digital age, and possessing the skills required to navigate digital media and technologies successfully. It is also, however, considered a 21st century learning approach which enables learners to access, evaluate, analyze, and create media, in different forms. This is particularly relevant for the so-called Net Generation, who have grown up surrounded by the Internet, and more recently, digital and social media. Research emphasizes the need for having innovative classrooms which are embedded in, and surrounded by increasingly mobile and digital information and communication technology (ICT), to foster modernized, inclusive learning practices which are centered on innovative teaching, and creative learning: where students are able to develop their thinking abilities and practice new skills. These approaches to education will allow this Net Generation of students to be critical and to interpret what is right and what is not, when they, for instance, engage in/with social networking platforms."
  • 6000 students have taken part in this program.
  • In most programs offering digital media literacy, the literacy is the goal. In this program, the mental health of youth is the purpose, and digital media literacy is seen as a tool to contribute to the mental health of the student.
  • This upstream prevention and health promotion program, from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (north-eastern Italy), is designed to harness the protective effects of developing and strengthening life skills to move beyond risk factors to prevent youth suicide.
  • Media literacy is a promising means of developing well-informed, reflective and engaged youth who are essential for a functioning democracy. Teachers and other stakeholders consequently need to understand how to motivate students so that they can engage in learning and behave positively in a changing society.

Digital Media Literacy Program at the International School of Florence Education

Junior School

  • Digital literacy is progressively developed in the Junior School as students grow in their understanding of themselves and their world. Students begin in Pre-Kinder with a weekly lesson to learn how to use computer-based tools.
  • Over time, they learn how to use different applications that will help them perform as digital designers and authors. iPads are introduced by 3rd grade, and in 5th grade, each student uses a school iPad daily for researching and authoring. Throughout the program progression, students learn how to make responsible decisions as digital citizens — which includes internet searching, information privacy, and understanding plagiarism.

Middle School

High School

  • The students complete units of work on information literacy, report writing, spreadsheets, production of user guides using Desktop Publishing Software, and robotics in the workplace. Students also have the opportunity to make and program their own robot, demonstrating an understanding of basic programming concepts and the use of sensors and complete a project where the pupil takes on the role of working for a company producing a new computer game."
  • Five hundred twenty students from 38 countries receive digital media literacy training for all 12 years. Unlike most digital media literacy programs in Europe, which are designed nationally by experts, this private school delivers a program developed by the faculty. It is unknown if they avail themselves of any pre-approved online resources.
  • Because this school offers the International Baccalaureate® (IB) program, there is no formal curriculum for DML. It is therefore not possible to evaluate the program. "The International School of Florence (ISF) is one of the oldest international schools in Europe, culminating in the International Baccalaureate Diploma, the surest path to accessing the broadest choice of colleges and universities throughout the world.
  • Students who are interested in further digital and information management can chose one of their IB courses to be about information technology. The curriculum for this course provides both critical thinking and media use as part of its required outcomes.

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The Future of DML, Part 1: Italy

Five insights about the future of Digital Media Literacy (DML) in Italy indicate that it will 1) teach students how to identify fake news, 2) become a critical skill for student development, 3) work will be done to overcome "digital divide" among students, 4) it will teach responsible use of digital media, and 5) more organizations will invest and collaborate in DML projects. The details were included in the attached spreadsheet and a summary of our findings below.

1. Focus on DML for Fake News

  • According to the opinions provided by the media, government, and education experts, the problem with disinformation on the internet is serious enough that government officials in Italy have implemented a curriculum that helps students recognize it. Italy wants to provide students with the best tools that allow them to make their own informed decisions through its digital media literacy programs.
  • The government considers education in fake news relevant to prevent damage to people and businesses caused by fake information, social instability, and concern, volatile public opinion, etc. For this reason, it is important to help students learn how to detect false information.

2. DML as a Critical Skill for Student Development

  • Digital media literacy will become an important skill all students must acquire to be efficient, prepared, and to develop autonomy.
  • DML is also becoming a significant aspect of modern education and a compensatory tool all teachers will be required to use to develop better skills in the students, while guaranteeing inclusion, for this reason, knowledge of DML is becoming a part of the requirements for educators.

3. Overcoming "Digital Divide" Among Students

  • There is a division in digital media knowledge that comes from a socio-economic factor. Italian schools and education experts are working on overcoming the digital divide by making digital practices similar to commercial products.
  • The lack of DML in adolescents is being tackled by allowing them to use their own devices during practices, digitalizing school tools, creating adequate environments to learn, and creating the necessary conditions in school to educate in ICTs.

4. DML Focused on Responsible Use of Digital Media

  • One of the concerns with DML is that students won't use the resources and education responsibly but spend too much time browsing and in social media. For this reason, a set of actions is in motion with collaboration between different organizations and institutions to regulate their use within the school.
  • With the ease of access to social media, the internet, and information online, it is a concern for educators to develop critical thinking in the students when it comes to the information they read, what they spend time on, and the proper use of digital media and smartphones.

5. Organizations Investing and Collaborating in DML

  • Policymakers are interested in creating strategies to develop their youth in digital media knowledge. The purpose is that by educating them in digital media, they will be benefiting Italy by making people aware of the potential of technology.
  • Many organizations are interested in collaborating, and investing in digital media education, they believe that by investing in DML, they are driving force to the development of the entire country.

Research Strategy

To determine five opinion pieces and commentaries made by the media, experts, leaders, and organizations about DML in Italy, we searched media publications, articles, communications, public statements, and official documentation by education organizations and the government. We looked for the information in English and Italian, under the terms "educazione ai media digitali" and "l’alfabetizzazione ai media digitali."

The most valuable information was found through Italian sources, in which case we provided the official quote in the original language and a direct translation to the statement using the sites' language options and advanced translation tools online.

We identified five insights provided by experts, government, media, and organizations about DML in Italy, what they seek through their strategies, their attitude, and feeling towards this insight.
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The Future of DML, Part 2: Italy

Five insights about the future of digital media literacy (DML) in Italy are 1) educating to protect minors from external risks on the web, 2) control the consequences derived from excessive smartphone usage in kids and teenagers, 3) adopting digital minimalism at home and school as part of DML, 4) educating about "hate speech", and 5) focusing on digital civic education.

The details are included in the attached spreadsheet and a summary of our finding below.

1. Focus on Protecting Minors

  • One of the main insights from the SCATTI Organization about DML is educating minors to fully enjoy the benefits of technology and guarantee the correct use of it to make sure they stay protected. With the openness of the internet, children are the most vulnerable to danger and exposure to unsuitable content.
  • According to the policymakers, one of the purposes of DML is recognizing this vulnerability and ensuring that children have enough education to navigate alone, develop their personality in this digital world, while at the same time stay protected from precarious situations.

2. Smartphone Usage

  • According to the media, one of the biggest concerns that come from digital media is that it has evolved so fast that society and culture weren't prepared to control its effects on new generations. Excessive smartphone usage is affecting 30% of the kids in Italy.
  • Schools need to include smartphone education as part of their DML strategies to ensure kids understand the negative effects that excessive use can cause. It's specially relevant to create regulations, for their use in school, educate nannies, teachers, and parents on how to control the situation, as failure to do it can lead to psychological and social problems in children.

3. Adopting Digital Minimalism Initiatives in Combination with DML at Home and School

  • Based on the insights provided by consumers and public, DML is of importance not only at school but also at home, parents need to take responsibility and adopt initiatives like "digital minimalism" to educate their children in the proper use of digital media and avoid digital dependency. The feeling towards this action is concern to guarantee that children develop the proper social and real-life skills but balancing the time in front of a digital device.
  • Schools are also working on DML programs that use digital minimalism in Italy, including the Digital Well-Being project conducted in public schools to educate children on the proper use of digital media, proper tool management, and attention management on digital devices. The purpose is to prevent mental overload, uneasiness, and confusion caused by having too much information.

4. Educating on "Hate Speech" through Digital Media

  • According to the SCATTI Organization, one of the main insights and works on DML include education about "hate speech," making sure that students know what to do when facing it, and reducing it to give students a better social life and better management of their relationships.
  • Additionally, professors need to be educated on what to do when their students are dealing with "hate speech" to take the best actions, know how to teach them about "hate speech" through digital media, and motivate them to take action. Hopefully, through these actions, they will tackle this phenomenon and improve their students' relationship with the world.

5. Digital Civic Education

  • One of the main insights presented by the organizations is the impact that digital media has in the values and societal norms, due to the amount of time that younger generations spend learning from them. For this reason, they decided to create programs that include civic education through digital channels as a way to ensure that children and teenagers are being educated in how to be a responsible, citizen, who cares for democracy and has a critical spirit.
  • A consequence of ignoring the importance of digital media in today's education of civic values include lack of responsibility for what people send or text online, lack of social values for their actions, and individuals who participate in violent behavior online, illegal activities, discrimination, etc. With the creation of this project, policymakers expect to have educated individuals who participate and benefit the country.

Research Strategy

To determine five additional opinion pieces and commentaries made by the media, consumers, experts, leaders, public, and organizations about DML in Italy, we searched media publications, articles, communications, public statements, and official documentation by education organizations and the government. We looked for the information in English and Italian, under the terms "educazione ai media digitali" and "l’alfabetizzazione ai media digitali."

Since most of the information available was in Italian, we used the websites' language tool and advanced online translation tools. Additionally, we provided the quote, either from a comment, interview or from an official publication by the organization with the translation for easier access. We were able to find five additional insight about the future and expectations in DML in Italy and the reason behind these statements from different sources including consumers and regular public, such as parents, experts in education, organizations and government.

From Part 07
  • "Diventa fondamentale dunque che il docente sappia adottare delle tecniche pedagogiche utili a favore dell’informazione e dell’alfabetizzazione ai media digitali, garantendo uguale accesso e inclusione a tutti gli alunni, fornendo il supporto necessario quando questi riscontrano delle difficoltà."
  • "Perché le tecnologie siano davvero efficaci è necessario che, lo studente sviluppi delle competenze, usandole con la guida di insegnanti che sappiano condurlo ad un reale coinvolgimento attraverso un percorso finalizzato allo sviluppo dell’autonomia che, con il raggiungimento della piena integrazione nel gruppo e una scelta curata degli strumenti compensativi, è molto importante."
  • "occorre che il docente utilizzi delle tecniche pedagogiche che favoriscano l’alfabetizzazione ai media digitali, e l’accesso a tutti gli studenti per quel che riguarda l’inclusione e l’educazione digitale."
  • "Italy added a new item to schools' curriculum: recognizing fake news. With help from leading digital companies, the government hopes to train students to differentiate between fake and real stories."
  • "Educazione ai Media Digitali e Fake News: un’esperienza laboratoriale. Il progetto descrive un’esperienza laboratoriale sul fenomeno delle fake news sperimentata da TALENT dentro un modulo PON con una classe di studenti. Alla base di questa progettualità c'era l'intenzione di trovare una modalità efficace per comunicare ai ragazzi un tema così attuale e significativo per l'educazione digitale."