Dengue Fever

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Dengue Fever - Awareness

Several studies show that there is a high level of dengue fever awareness in high-risk zones such as Malaysia. In terms of information dissemination, television appeared to be the main source of dengue fever information in high-risk zones.

Dengue Awareness

  • In a survey conducted in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia where dengue cases are rampant, 97.1% of the respondents knew what dengue fever is and 96% know that it can be fatal.
  • Also, 64.1% of the respondents stated they have sufficient knowledge to prevent dengue.
  • In another study conducted in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, 52% of the respondents had sufficient knowledge about dengue vectors, signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission.

How People Obtain Information

  • In Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia, when asked about how they want to receive early warnings about dengue, 91.7% respondents chose television (66.4%) as the medium to receive early warnings about dengue.
  • In Malaysia, television/radio is the predominant source of information about dengue fever.
  • Indigenous Brazilians in Tapera said that television programs (57.7%) were their main source of information on dengue, while lectures (40.5%) and health workers (35.9%) were less cited.

Progress Made

  • In a study conducted for three years in Thailand, the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue was elevated.
  • In Malaysia, the Dengue Patrol 2019 campaign was said to be a success as more participants were involved.

Challenges Encountered During Awareness Campaigns

  • In Malaysia, even with an early warning system about dengue, 64% of the respondents said that they did not check dengue situations or hotspots around their vicinity regularly.
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Dengue Fever - Awareness Campaigns/Educational Programs

Some regional or global awareness campaigns or educational programs that have been organized for dengue fever include the 10 Hafte 10 Baje 10 Minute Dengue campaign, Eliminate Dengue: Our Challenge, the World Mosquito Program (WMP), Dengue Awareness Campaign by Red Cross, and Anti-Dengue, Clean-Up campaign.


1. 10 Hafte 10 Baje 10 Minute Dengue Campaign

  • Here is a link to a news article discussing the campaign.

Results

  • Although the result for current campaign has not yet been published, "the chief minister had earlier said efforts like establishing Mohalla Clinics and fever clinics have led to an 80 percent decrease in dengue and chikungunya cases in the last four years."
  • Also, while comparing data from previous years, it was observed that in the year 2015, there were over 15,000 different cases of dengue, resulting in 60 deaths. This figure decreased in 2018.
  • There were 2,798 cases of dengue and four deaths due to the illness in 2018.
  • In 2019, 75 cases of the disease have been documented in Delhi and 35 of the instances were reported in the month of August.

Barriers to the Awareness Campaign

  • Although no barriers have been reported in any of the published reports or articles, some potential barriers include the poor participation and awareness of individuals, primarily in those that are not well-educated.


2. Eliminate Dengue: Our Challenge, the World Mosquito Program (WMP)

  • The WMP, or the World Mosquito Program, functions as a non-profit initiative that began as a global awareness program for dengue fever. It was once referred to as "Eliminate Dengue: Our Challenge."
  • It was meant to safeguard the world from mosquito-borne illnesses, including dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya.
  • According to its website, the organization takes Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which serve as the principal source of such viruses, and inserts Wolbachia into them.
  • The site further illustrates that "Wolbachia are naturally occurring bacteria found in 60% of all insect species, and are safe for humans, animals and the environment."
  • Currently, the organization operates in 12 nations in the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and Asia. In Australia, it is a pioneer program.
  • This particular program has developed "from a single focus on dengue to tackle other diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, including Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever."
  • The program has two regional hubs in Asia (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) and Oceania (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia). They uphold projects within their areas, while assisting with core operations globally.
  • Here is a link to the program's website.

Results

  • As published by the FNIH (Foundation for the National Institute of Health), the results and accomplishments of the program are that "in early 2016, the team discovered that the presence of Wolbachia bacteria in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes also inhibits replication of the Zika virus, in addition to dengue and chikungunya viruses."
  • Afterward, the WHO, or the World Health Organization, called an emergency session for the Vector Control Advisory Committee concerning the development of a counter to the emerging Zika outbreak.
  • The WHO advised that the Eliminate Dengue initiative should continue with the deployment of the organization's Wolbachia procedure to develop the ability to support operational utilization.
  • The Wolbachia method was deemed to have insignificant risk by the Australia CSIRO risk assessment.
  • In 2011, the small trials were initiated and city-wide trials commenced in 2014 in Northern Australia.

Barriers to the Awareness Campaign


3. Dengue Awareness Campaign by Red Cross

  • This particular campaign involved a collaboration between the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the Solomon Islands Red Cross.
  • It was a four-month operation that received support from the disaster relief emergency fund (DREF) of the IFRC. It involved the mobilization of 75 different volunteers from the Solomon Islands Red Cross, and they performed activities related to health awareness in dengue hotspots with communities and learning institutions. They collaborated with partners such as the Ministry of Health.
  • Here is a link to a news story on the campaign on the IFRC website.

Results

  • The awareness campaign was a success as it was able to reach more than 16,000 individuals.

Barriers to the Awareness Campaign


4. Anti-Dengue, Clean-Up Campaign

  • Here is a link to an article on the campaign published by The Star Online.

Results

  • In one weekend, over 18 tons of garbage was gathered in the Miri district.
  • The Bakam housing region reported that 180 volunteers collected around 1.6 tons of trash on October 20, 2019.
  • Approximately 800 volunteers in different clean-up operations gathered trash from the housing estates of Taman and Tudan that weighed around 16 tons.

Barriers to the Awareness Campaign

  • As reported by The Star Online, "Taman Tunku and Tudan housing estates, located about 15km from city centre, are already confirmed dengue-outbreak zones."
  • Combined, each of these regions have a population that amounts to 120,000 residents.
  • Public cooperation is required to cleanse the district.

Research Strategy:

Although we were able to find four regional or global awareness campaigns or educational programs organized for dengue fever, most of them did not disclose data or statistics showing the result of the campaign or direct information on any barriers. Initially, we examined each campaign's website, where we found information related to the operations. However, as mentioned above, none of these sources could provide the desired information.

Next, we searched through media articles, hoping they contained information related to the awareness campaign, results, and barriers. However, these sources also discussed details on the campaigns. We also looked through various research articles published by journals, which did not present the information we were seeking. They mostly gave an overview of the campaign and general data related to dengue fever around the world and in that particular region.

Later, we decided to present alternative data due to the absence of any direct information the result and barriers of the campaigns. Therefore, we scoured the campaign websites, media articles, research studies, etc., such as India Today, News 18, Relief Web, IFRC, and Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism. We were able to extract alternative data on the results and accomplishments and derived some barriers.
Sources
Sources