Customer Profiles

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Insurance Buyers - Demographic Profile - Schools

Secondary and tertiary educational institutions typically have risk management staff or risk managers who are in charge of selecting and procuring property and casualty insurance. The demographic profile of these risk managers is not readily available in the public domain, but a number of sources offer a few insights into the demographic characteristics of this group. These few insights were supplemented by insights about buyers and purchasing managers, who are also in procurement roles.

Job Title

  • Several sources suggest that buyers of property and casualty insurance at secondary and tertiary educational institutions are typically called risk managers. An article published by Risk & Insurance, for example, shows that an insurance buyer at Butler University in Indiana has the following job title: Director of Risk Management & Insurance.
  • In an interview with Risk & Insurance, Austin Oldham, a director of risk management and insurance at Butler University, shared the following statement: "I’ve been in risk management now for six years and even in those six years a lot has changed. I would say more broadly, in my experience, it’s becoming crucial to have a strategic partner as your broker, coming from the perspective of an insurance buyer as a risk manager." Oldham describes his job as enterprise risk management.
  • An article by Risk Management Magazine also suggests that universities and colleges typically have risk management departments.
  • According to an article published by University Business, Lehigh University in Pennsylvania has a risk management unit responsible for procuring property and casualty insurance, and Yale University also has a risk manager who is in charge of purchasing insurance. Based on this article, insurance conversations at universities and colleges typically include staff from the following units: risk management, general counsel, development office, facilities office, department heads, library directors, and curators.
  • Moreover, according to a slightly older source, which is an article published by WVLT TV, the Palm Beach County School District in Florida has a risk and benefits management office that is responsible for procuring insurance.


  • The LinkedIn profiles of some school, university, or college risk managers offer a few clues as to the typical education of risk managers. It appears the college and post-graduate education of these risk managers is mostly related to risk management and underwriting, finance, and business administration.
  • Walter Pizzano, a director of risk strategy and insurance at Harvard University, has a Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering, a Master of Science degree in fire protection, a program certificate in negotiation for senior executives, and a program certificate in financial planning.
  • Kevin Bebb, a director of risk management at |Stanford University, has a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in finance, a Master of Business Administration degree, and an Associate degree in risk management.
  • Christina Dobleman, an assistant vice president for risk management at Stanford University, has a Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter certification from the Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters.
  • Eric Jacklin, a director of risk management for the Riverside Unified School District, has a bachelor's degree in business and a Master of Business Administration degree.


  • According to salary resource Comparably, enterprise risk managers in the United States have a median salary of USD 180,000, while insurance and risk managers in the country have a median salary of USD 128,196, which consists of a base salary of USD 118,427 and a bonus of USD 9.770.
  • The salaries of enterprise risk managers range from USD 144,000 to USD 216,000.
  • The salaries of insurance and risk managers, on the other hand, range from USD 111,358 to USD 156,483.
  • Comparably also reports that the job title 'Director Risk Management' has a median salary of USD 139,496, the job title 'Director of Risk Management' has a median salary of USD 90,719, and the job title 'Sr. Director, Risk Management' has a median salary of USD 200,000.
  • PayScale, on the other hand, reports that the job title 'Director, Risk Management' has an average salary of USD 115,343 and that the job title 'Risk Management Director' has an average salary of USD 118,217.


  • Insights specific to the age of insurance buyers at schools, colleges, and universities are not publicly available. Data USA, however, reports that purchasing managers in the United States are 46.9 years old on average.
  • Similar to risk managers, purchasing managers also have procurement responsibilities.


  • Insights specific to the gender of insurance buyers at schools, colleges, and universities are not publicly available. Data USA, however, reports that 50.2% of purchasing managers in the country are male.

Research Strategy

Before we could determine the demographic profile of individuals responsible for selecting insurance for schools, we had to identify who these individuals are. A number of articles, including those published by University Business and WVLT TV, suggest that educational institutions such as secondary and tertiary educational institutions have risk managers who are in charge of buying property and casualty insurance. To find the demographic profile of these risk managers, we looked for surveys, articles, and reports describing the age, gender, income, education, job title, and other demographic characteristics of these risk managers. We also consulted the websites of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Data USA, as they provide profiles of various occupations. We also examined the blog posts of companies that sell insurance to schools, the LinkedIn profiles of some risk managers in secondary and tertiary education, and the websites of salary resources Comparably and PayScale. The demographic profile of risk managers at educational institutions could not be readily located in the public domain, but a number of sources offer some insights. To provide a more robust response, we supplemented these insights with details about purchasing managers who, like risk managers, are also in a procurement role.
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Insurance Buyers - Demographic Profile - Youth Camps

The demographic profile aspects that are specific to the individuals responsible for selecting the general property and casualty insurance plans for youth camps were not available. Based on several industry sources, Camp Directors and Camp Owners in general are the ones who are shopping for or deciding on the relevant insurance plans for their camps. Based on Zippia's analysis of the demographics of Camp Directors, 51% are women, 45.1% are men, and 3.9% have other genders. Meanwhile, based on the demographic aspects of the actual clients of youth camp insurance providers, most of them belong to the baby boomer generation. The rest of the available details on this topic were presented below.
Camp owners or Camp Directors are usually the ones deciding on the purchase of key camp necessities such as insurance policies.

Camp Director Demographic Profile

  • Based on Zippia's analysis of the demographics of camp directors, 51% are women, 45.1% are men, and 3.9% have other genders.
  • The study also revealed that most Camp Directors are white (66.3%). The rest are Hispanics or Latinos (13.6%), Black or African American (11.5%), Asian (4.9%), unknown (2.9%), and American Indian and Alaska Native (0.8%).
  • Most of the camp directors are based in New York, NY and Philadelphia, PA.
  • Most of them are employed in private companies (53%). The rest are employed in the education sector (27%), government firms (17%), and the public sector (3%).
  • They are usually employed in the following sectors: nonprofit firms (28%), hospitality (13%), education (12%), health care (8%), and government (6%).
  • The states where Camp Directors can earn the most include Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana.

Camp Owners Sample Demographic Profiles

  • The following are some of the demographic profiles of actual clients of firms that provide insurance plans to youth camps. The clients typically hold both the positions of Camp Owner and Camp Director.
  • The Morrow Insurance Agency offers various insurance coverage options for all types of camps such as youth camps.
  • One of the customers of Morrow is Allen McBride. Based on his picture, he is male and white.
  • He is both the Camp Owner and the Camp Director at Camp Mac.
  • His current age was estimated based on the year when he started to attend college (1975).
  • As most students graduate from high school and start to attend college courses when they are around 18 years old, Mr. McBride could be 18 years old in 1975.
  • Based on this, his present age is likely around 18 + (2020 - 1975) = 63.
  • Yates Pharr is another customer of Morrow Insurance. Based on his picture, he is male and white.
  • He is the Director and Owner of the Falling Creek Camp.
  • His current age was estimated based on the year he started college (1986) when he is most likely around 18 years old.
  • Based on this, his present age is likely around 18 + (2020 - 1986) = 52.
  • Pepe and Ann Perron also purchased Morrow insurance plans for their camp.
  • Mr. Perron is the owner of the camp while Mrs. Perron is the Director.
  • Based on their pictures, they are white and could be over 60+ years old.
  • Perry Rollins is another client of Morrow Insurance. Based on his profile picture, he is male and white.
  • He is the Executive Director of Lake Swan Camp.
  • His current age was estimated based on the year when he started attending college (1968) when he is most likely around 18 years old.
  • Based on this, his present age is likely around 18 + (2020 - 1968) = 70.
  • Jim Nute, the Executive Director of the Mayhew Program camp is one of the clients of Redwoods. Redwoods provide various insurance plans for youth camps.
  • Based on his picture, Mr. Nute is male and white.
  • His current age was estimated based on the year when he started attending college (1988) when he is most likely around 18 years old.
  • Based on this, his present age is likely around 18 + (2020 - 1988) = 50.
  • AMSkier Insurance offers various insurance plans for youth camps.
  • Marc Honigfield is one of the clients of AMSkier. He is the Owner and Director of the Trails End Camp.
  • Based on his picture, he is male and white.
  • His estimated age based on the year he started college is around 18 + (2020 - 1984) = 54 years old.
  • Andrew Yankowitz is another client of AMSkier. He is currently the Owner and Director of Tall Pines Day Camp.
  • Based on his picture, he is male and white.
  • His estimated age based on the year he started college is around 18 + (2020 - 1984) = 54 years old.
  • Lauren Bernstein is another client of AMSkier Insurance. Based on her picture, she is female, white, and most likely to be over 50 years old. There are no other data points that can be used to estimate her age.
  • She is the Owner and Director of Camp Walden.

Research Strategy

To determine the demographic profile aspects of the individuals responsible for selecting the general property and casualty insurance plans for youth camps, we looked through various industry publications on the insurance industry such as the Insurance Business America site, the Risk and Insurance site, the Insurance News, and other similar sources. We also searched various papers from consulting firms such as those from PWC and Deloitte. Based on this search approach, we were not able to find the demographic profile aspects of the individuals responsible for selecting the general property and casualty insurance plans for youth camps. What we found were general trends and statistics surrounding the overall insurance industry. We also discovered that camp owners or camp directors are usually the ones who are shopping and purchasing insurance plans for their camps. However, there was no available information on all the specific insurance plans that they are purchasing for their camps. Given the limited insights found, we focused our search on finding the demographic profile aspects of camp owners or camp directors.
We then searched through the websites, annual reports, press releases, and other articles of relevant insurance companies such as K&K Insurance, the Morrow Insurance Agency, AMSkier, and others. We hoped to find some of the actual youth camp owners or clients that purchased insurance plans from them to determine their demographic profiles. We then found several clients who gave their testimonials on these insurance firms. However, the clients' reviews were not focused on the general property and casualty insurance plans only. Their testimonies included other types of insurance options as well. There was also no straightforward information found on the demographic profile aspects of these clients. We then inferred some of their demographic aspects based on their pictures and the available data on when they started attending college to estimate their ages.
We also searched through job posting sites such as Indeed, Zippia, Glassdoor, and others to determine if these sites conducted surveys or made studies on the demographic profile aspects of the Camp Owner or Camp Director positions. Based on this search approach, we were able to find some relevant statistics from the study made by Zippia on Camp Directors in general. We were not able to find the demographic profile aspects of Camp Owners. However, given the information we found above on the youth camp clients of several youth camp insurance providers, an individual can hold both the Camp Owner and Camp Director position. Given the lack of specific data points, we then inferred that most of the demographic profile aspects we found for Camp Directors can also apply to Camp Owners.
We then summarized the relevant findings and some helpful data points in the section above.
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Insurance Buyers - Professional Profile - Youth Camps

This research revealed that the camp director is the one responsible for purchasing insurance for youth camps. Additionally, the research identified that camp directors report to a board of directors. Additional details of the requested information can be found below.

Average Organization Size and Insurance Costs

  • A survey done by CampMinder indicated that 40% of camps generated revenues of over $1 million per year.
  • A breakdown of the revenue generated by different camps revealed that 38% of camps earned revenues of between $1 million — $3 million, 25% earned less than $500K in revenues, 21% earned over $3 million, while 16% earned revenues of between $500K — $1 million.
  • According to Truic, summer camps in the US spend on average between $300 — $800 per year for $1 million in general liability coverage. General liability coverage for camps covers various risks, including bodily injury, property damage, medical payments , legal defense and judgment, and personal and advertising injury.

Camp Directors

  • Camp directors are in charge of the administrative tasks in a camp. These tasks include managing personnel and creating and maintaining a budget. Additionally, they are the ones who oversee camp programs and fostering relationships with former, current, and potential campers.
  • Various insurance websites target camp directors/operators when asking camps to purchase insurance, indicating that they are the ones responsible for selecting insurance for camps.
  • General Liability Insure identifies the camp director as the individual responsible for purchasing insurance for the camp. The company urges camp directors to work with its agents in coming up with the best insurance plan for their camps.
  • Additionally, Trusted Choice tasks the camp director with finding the best insurance for their camp.
  • Sadlersports sports and recreation Insurance also identifies camp operators as the individuals who fill out insurance forms. The insurance company provides camp operators with a hassle-free way of filling out insurance forms and getting a quote.
  • It is important to note that a camp director position is usually a staff position with the greatest authority in a camp.
  • For small camps, camp directors are usually the owners of the camp.
  • Camp directors report to a board of directors or an executive director.
  • It is the work of camp directors to hire and manage personnel. Some people that camp directors hire and manage are counselors, kitchen staff, maintenance staff, and nurses. The camp directors also manage staff in other support and administrative positions.
  • Camp directors usually earn an average of $22.57 an hour or $46,950 per year.

Professional Qualification of Camp Directors

  • For one to become a camp director, they require a bachelor's degree or a master's in camp management or a similar field.
  • They also need to be certified by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA).
  • Lastly, camp directors are required to have prior experience working in a camp or a recreational facility.

Research Strategy

The research team provided information on youth camps and summer camps since it could not find data differentiating between the two. This was after extensive research that involved combing various industry reports, trusted news websites, and websites of youth camp regulatory bodies. The team found that information pertaining to summer camps provided insights into who is responsible for selecting insurance in youth camps. Additionally, it revealed the size of summer camps in the US and the costs they incur in obtaining insurance. Lastly, the information found shed light on who individuals who purchase insurance for camps report to and who work under them.

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Insurance Buyers - Professional Profile - Schools

The average organization size and revenue of secondary schools and higher-education institutions in the US that purchase property and casualty insurance was not available in the public domain. The CFO at an educational institute makes decisions related to property & casualty insurance. The CFO is responsible for "business and financial services, physical facilities, and auxiliary services" and is answerable to the President, trustees, auditors, and regulators.

Size & Revenue (Helpful Information)

  • There has been a high demand for insurance coverage from higher education institutions, including property insurance, over the last two years "with reduced supply, leading to high premiums and a limited number of policies."
  • "Property insurance premiums have gone up alongside the uptick in claims related to natural disasters, including fires, floods, and mudslides;" the campus location decides the price of insurance.
  • "The coronavirus pandemic has also impacted property insurance premiums," increasing cost by 50%.


  • "The CFO oversees and enhances the financial management of the college, which includes resource allocations, financial strategy, capital plans, debt management, cash flow optimization, and financial information systems."
  • "The CFO’s business responsibilities encompass treasury, investment, budgets, accounting systems, the audit, and accounting oversight of the endowment."
  • "Insurance is one risk management function always placed in the CFO’s organization."
  • "In some institutions, especially larger ones, the CFO sometimes carries the title of senior vice president, executive vice president, or vice-chancellor."

Reporting to

  • "The CFO is a key advisor to the President on financial and non-financial strategic issues."
  • "The trustees look to the CFO to provide the information that enables them to be prudent and effective stewards of the institution’s resources."
  • "Either a trustee investment committee, a chief investment officer, or an independent management company usually makes endowment decisions. The CFO then implements and reports on investment decisions."
  • "The CFO must assure the board of trustees, the president, the auditors, and regulators that the work of the business office is reliably performed according to GAAP and that decisions are based upon information which accurately states the institution’s financial condition."


  • The functions reporting to the CFO include "business and financial services, physical facilities, and auxiliary services."
  • "Among the functions in the business and financial services area may be accounting, financial reporting, budgeting, contract administration (including research contracts and grants), administrative computing, non-academic human resources and benefits, labor relations, procurement, student financial aid, debt management, receipts and disbursements, calculation and payment of taxes, investments (treasury and endowment management), legal affairs, risk management, payroll, and cashiering."
  • In the area of physical facilities, the CFO usually manages facilities planning (design, construction, renovation, and repair), facilities upkeep (operation and maintenance), utilities (heating, cooling, power, and telephone), energy conservation, waste management, recycling, grounds maintenance, safety and security, parking and traffic control, motor pool, and environmental health and safety.
  • "In the auxiliary services area, the CFO frequently, in conjunction with student services, has administrative responsibility for campus residences, college unions, bookstores, printing and copying services, vending operations, rental properties, conferences, and other summer activities, and food service operations"


  • "In larger institutions, the CFO may then have several senior staff members who are responsible for the various functional areas and carry titles descriptive of those functions, such as: "
    • "vice president for business affairs or business manager"
    • "vice president for facilities or director of physical plant"
    • "vice president for auxiliary services or director of auxiliary services"
    • "vice president for human relations"
    • "budget officer"
    • "director of investments, trusts, and real estate"
    • "chief financial or business officer of a campus in a multicampus system"
  • "In smaller institutions, the CFO may have the title of vice president for business and finance, director of business affairs, or business manager. Those who report directly to the CFO may carry such functional titles as:"
    • "associate or assistant vice president"
    • controller
    • "director of procurement or purchasing agent"
    • "director of personnel or human resources"
    • "director of physical plant"
    • "director of auxiliary services (in some institutions, part of student services)"
  • "The controller, who may be the CFO or report directly to the CFO, handles financial reporting. This role includes arranging for full cooperation with auditors and carrying out their financial management recommendations."
  • "The Enterprise Risk Management function at a college can be assigned to a separate department, such as Internal Audit. Wherever risk management is located, however, the CFO has the authority to review and take actions that reduce risks to the institution."


  • "The CFO has a central role with senior administrators in allocating resources annually and strategically. All senior administrators want the CFO’s assistance in developing financial plans that will achieve their goals and plans."
  • "The CFO, in tandem with the chief academic officer (CAO), often drives the strategic planning process."
  • "Institutions often assign the IT function to a chief information officer (CIO), who may report directly to the president, chief academic officer (CAO), or CFO. Some institutions split the reporting relationship, assigning administrative IT functions to the CFO and academic IT functions to the CAO. Even when the IT function does not report to the CFO, the CFO and CIO must work closely to ensure that financial reporting systems function accurately, reliably, and with minimal risk to data security."

Research Strategy

We searched research reports, insurance industry and education industry-specific portals, websites of companies offering insurance and risk management services such as United Educators, Hanover, Marsh, Church Mutual Insurance, and USI for the revenue and size of the typical higher-ed institute purchasing P&C insurance. However, this information wasn't available in any of the aforementioned sources. We then specifically searched for the target groups of P&C companies selling to educational institutes in order to better understand the segmentation and demand within the industry but met with little success. We also searched in P&C industry reports for any insights related to the education segment.
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Insurance Buyers - Pain Points - Schools

Deciding which insurance plan is appropriate for a particular school can be quite overwhelming, however, certain challenging features need to be accounted for, which have been highlighted below. In this research, we also addressed key insurance coverage options that are commonly purchased by schools to manage risks and liability. Finally, we also discussed some special considerations that require merit in selecting school insurance.

Challenges for School Insurance:

1. High cost or premiums for school insurance:

  • The difference between school insurance and small business insurance is that the kids' lives are at stake, hence the cost of a school tragedy is going to be much higher than any other small business. Since the liability factor is higher, the school needs to pay for more coverage.

2. Umbrella Insurance over separate insurance:

  • In case of a tragic school bus accident, the school might face a big lawsuit. The commercial auto insurance might only cover a few million dollars in coverage, while the settlement reached could cost many times more than what the auto insurance covers.
  • The umbrella insurance covers these gaps, is cost-effective so that the school may not have to invest in buying a bunch of extra individual insurance policies.
  • In many instances, usually private schools opt for umbrella insurance to better manage the risks.

3. Cyber Liability Insurance

  • For online schooling, especially during the pandemic, the maintenance of the confidentiality of student data is the responsibility of the school, hence cyber liability coverage is highly warranted to protect against any future data breach or hacking.

4. Pandemic-related school closures and reopening

  • Breach of Contract Claim: Due to the pandemic, most of the schools switched to online learning, followed by various lawsuits alleging that the schools breached a contract by failing to provide in-person learning in exchange for the tuition paid by the students. In a recent lawsuit against the University of San Diego, the plaintiff highlighted that the tuition rates are higher for in-person learning as opposed to online learning.
  • Negligence Claims: the decision to reopen schools is also risky. Recently, the President of the State University of New York resigned after 700 students tested positive for COVID-19. Currently, there are no claims against the school. However, such claims in the future would be framed as negligence claims alleging that the schools: (1) owed a duty of care to the students; (2) breached that duty by failing to exercise reasonable care; and (3) caused damage to the student.

Factors to consider in purchasing school insurance:

When considering to buy insurance for a school, multiple factors need to be accounted for, to manage the cost, deductibles, and future risks. Few common types of school insurance coverages are highlighted below:

5. Types of Insurance Coverages:

5(i) General liability insurance:

  • In order to cover the claims of bodily injury or property damage. This includes student medical bills if they get hurt at school, cost of damage to school property. It does not, however, cover the claims related to the school's professional educational services; which shall be covered by a 'professional liability policy.'

5(ii) Commercial property insurance:

  • Helps cover school facilities and equipment. Coverage applies in both instances when the school owns or leases the property.

5(iii) Business income insurance:

  • Helps recover lost revenue if the school cannot be opened due to property damage (examples in case of a fire).

5(iv) Professional Liability Insurance :

  • Parents are likely to sue the school and/or staff if they believe that their child's poor grades are due to staff/school negligent behavior. This insurance is also known a errors and omissions insurance, to provide coverage even if the school is not at fault.

6. Special Insurance Coverages for School Liability:

6(i) Sexual Abuse and Molestation:

    • In western states like California and Oregon, there are increasing restrictions on insurance coverages for sexual abuse and molestation exposure.
    • Since the cost of sexual molestation is becoming quite restrictive for insurance companies so they’re starting to pull back on that line of coverage.
    • The coverage cost is also significant, hence the insurance providers are pushing up the deductibles.
    • In the case of California, very few school insurance providers are willing to provide coverage for sexual abuse and molestation, while other insurance providers have set a cap for processing up to 3-4 sexual molestation claims against all relevant claims.

6(ii) Special Education:

  • In case, when special education students are denied certain education benefits such as (a) one-on-one teacher-student education, or (b) denied funds to pay for a specific school with/without housing costs; the school district may face a lawsuit.

6(iii) Bullying:

  • Bullying is a common problem faced in almost every school. According to the CDC and Department of Education, between 1 in 3 and 1 in 4 U.S. students claimed to have been bullied at school. While most insurance providers still cover bullying, they also play a major role in proactively helping schools limit bullying exposure.

6(iv) Law Enforcement:

  • To counter the growing influence of active shooting, schools now provide campus police or school resource officers, which is not always a safe tactic. In a recent incident, a school resource officer shot a student who brought a BB gun to the campus, and now the school district is in a lawsuit. Some schools are now starting to see insurers carve out coverage for law enforcement.

6(v) Active Shooter:

  • In case of property damage due to an active shooter incident, a typical property damage insurance policy might not cover the cost, in fact, some insurers have an active shooter coverage. The coverage allows tearing down and rebuilding the classroom where the incident occurred.
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Insurance Buyers - Pain Points - Youth Camps

A changing landscape limiting their options, the growing complexity of policies, and risk mitigation are some pain points individuals encounter when selecting youth camps' insurance.

The New Marketplace

  • In the past, insurance companies used to offer broader coverage to youth camps. After multiple catastrophes and sexual abuse claims, the industry is looking at camps differently, with some large companies in certain states no longer offering any insurance options to camps.
  • Trying to balance increasing insurance costs with growing liabilities and exposure seems to be a key pain point in a "limited-choice market." For example, most camps endured property losses in 2019. The wildfire, in particular, created a chaotic environment for camps and insurers. Undervalued and undermaintained buildings "resulted in losses far exceeding projections based on policies." This incident, associated with reinsurance, led to an exponential increase in premium rates.
  • Many insurance companies are working with reinsurers, but not all risk managers and camp directors anticipated how this would affect them. The reinsurance company demands more from the insurance company, which then demands more from camps. However, those in charge of buying insurance are constantly caught off guard by higher premiums, deductibles, and coverage alterations.
  • Camp leaders reported being surprised by the new premiums and limited coverage, with some adopting self-insurance as a more viable choice. One camp director stated that if a non-essential building burned off, he would not replace it all due to the premium and deductible. Others choose only to insure vital buildings and are self-insuring the remaining ones, increasing deductibles, or dropping smaller coverages.

Growing Complexity

  • The evolving marketplace leads to a second pain point: the growing complexity of maintaining multiple insurance policies. Youth camp insurance usually needs to go beyond a standard commercial general liability coverage. Liabilities are extensive and damages can be unpredictable, as proven by the recent wildfires.
  • One expert interviewed by ACA stated that all carriers in his region stated they would be providing limited options for camps. As such, camps are increasingly being forced to find several companies to take small coverages at rates significantly higher than the standard marketplace. As a result, those in charge of negotiating the camp's insurance are juggling multiple policies and trying to choose which properties will be insured.
  • Some do not entirely understand their coverage or limits. They try to copy what other camps are doing without fully taking into consideration their policies and procedures, creating their own negligence situation, which shows a need for better guidance and more transparency.
  • The risky nature of being responsible for kids also interferes in how much attention and time is devoted to properly assessing insurance. As one camp director stated, "Our focus and dedication is 100 percent on the kids. Sometimes, we’ll get overcharged for items, or we will find there’s some sort of issue with the amount we are paying our insurance company. Something will come up, and we tend to keep all that until the season is over because they’re not time-sensitive items."
  • Furthermore, they are often frustrated and confused by the alterations and requirements encountered during the renewal process, particularly those acquiring insurance for small youth camps. One of the trends noted by the American Camp Association (ACA) in 2020 was "reduced limits of coverage at renewal."

Risk Mitigation

  • Overall, most camps only opt to get general liability insurance, which is not enough to cover all relevant scenarios. Camps that try to improve their coverage, and reduce their exposure, are encountering barriers, as previously noted. The added costs of the new reality go beyond premium rates.
  • Nowadays, it is up to camps to convince insurers that they would be suitable clients, according to ACA's experts. One analyst explains that camps must be "storytellers" to find a reasonable policy, persuading insurance companies with their risk mitigation plans, safety audits, fire department inspections, among other expensive measures.
  • With the increased costs of insurance, COVID-19 impact, and rising claims, the added expenses from the "storytelling," such as defensible zones, new infrastructure, professional consultants, and certifications, create uncertainty and a relevant pain point for decision-makers, with many looking for ways to reduce costs. Some camps are trading carriers without realizing the full impact of the reduced coverage on their business.
  • For example, day camps that "transport their campers have greater exposure to risk than a day camp that uses an independent contractor to provide transportation. Day camps that transport their campers in buses have a greater catastrophe exposure than day camps using vans. Similarly, resident camps with trip programs have a greater exposure and may need higher limits of liability than resident camps without these trips."
  • Strategies that used to be ways to get discounts from insurers, such as extensive sexual abuse prevention workshops or fire prevention training, are now a requirement. As stated by experts interviewed by the ACA, youth camps are not likely to be able to secure insurance unless they have these initiatives in place.
  • Robert Monaghan, President of Hibbs Hallmark Insurance Agency and a specialist in insurance to the outdoor recreation industry, explains, "If a camp cannot show insurers that they are taking the proper measures to mitigate damages, they are not likely to obtain good results in the marketplace, as insurance companies are reducing their own exposure."
  • For example, in Western states, carriers are not providing many property coverages for camps, and even when they are available, the rates are up anywhere from "30% on the low end to 1000% on the high end." Therefore, a "compelling story" is critical.

Research Strategy

There is limited information available regarding the pain points encountered by those selecting property and casualty insurance for youth camps. The research team scoured through multiple articles and reports published by industry associations, youth camps, insurance companies, as well as articles written by experts and risk managers, and reports from related associations, such as Girls Scouts of America. Unfortunately, reports addressing the pain points of individuals responsible for selecting insurance for youth camps do not seem to be readily available in the public domain. In our search, we discovered a webinar hosted by the ACA in 2020, in which specialists discuss insurance options for youth camps, the current landscape, trends, and answered questions from camp directors, owners, and risk managers. The questions and experts' opinions were used to define the pain points and then supplemented with additional insights.
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Insurance Buyers - Drivers - Youth Camps

Three drivers that ultimately lead the responsible individuals to selecting insurance for youth camps are concerns for property loss, getting serious about reports of abuse, and the frequency and severity of workers’ injuries. Details about these drivers are provided below.

Concerns for Property Loss

  • According to the American Camp Association (ACA) 2020 Roundtable, most camps and insurers felt the effects of property losses in 2019 due to wildfire, floods, and wind damage.
  • The losses mainly occurred in the West, but the value of the damages was far greater than that which was projected based on the insurance policies.
  • Youth camps are possibly more driven today to get property insurance because the damages caused an interruption of business which further lead to loss of income. Additionally, insurance companies have since increased premium for coverage by 200%.

Getting Serious about Reports of Abuse

  • In 2019, there was an increase in the number of reports of abuse, especially for peer-to-peer. While some reports weren’t considered as serious in the past, the “definition of abuse has broadened” under the influence of the #MeToo movement in camps.
  • The claims associated with abuse in camps have increased and the awards are staggerishly high. Additionally, some states are passing survivor statutes while other groups (e.g. venture capitalists) “are looking to capitalize in states with higher limits”.
  • Companies like the Great American Insurance Group are also using scenarios of abuse to advertise the importance for camps to get coverage for abuse and molestation to protect the camps.

Frequency and Severity of Workers’ Injuries

  • The types of accidents that lead to workers’ compensation claims at camps in 2019, were avoidable. In fact, they were minor accidents such as poorly stepping, and over participation.
  • However, incidents like falling off a ladder can happen at any time to workers or volunteers but with the appropriate coverage, camps don’t have to suffer “steep costs in defense expenses.

Research Strategy

To determine the drivers that ultimately lead the responsible individuals (insurance buyers) to selecting insurance for youth camps, we first searched for common motivating factors/themes in camp insurance policies (e.g. General Liability’s Camp Insurance, Nationwide — Youth Day Camp Insurance) and the types and number of claims made in youth camps in reputable news sources (e.g. New York Times). We were able to identify drivers based on trends observed by camps in 2019 but with limited information about them. These were reported by the American Camp Association (ACA) 2020 Roundtable.
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Insurance Buyers - Drivers - Schools

Legal Reasons and Customer & Employee Protection are two driving factors that ultimately lead insurance buyers in schools to select general property and casualty insurance coverage.

Legal Reasons

  • Most states in the US require businesses to have insurance, and this is no different for schools where the cost of casualty is a lot higher than it typically would be for a restaurant or grocery store.
  • For example, "a school's commercial auto insurance covering its school buses might only offer a few million dollars in coverage. However, a tragic accident could leave the school facing a big lawsuit, that would require a settlement offer many times the cost of coverage."
  • Also, there's a more extended timeframe for which kids (students) can file a lawsuit against the school. While adults have a two-year timeframe to file a personal injury lawsuit in Alabama, the same statutes do not often apply to kids, as they would only take effect when they turn 18 years. As such, if a child in kindergarten sustained an injury at school, they would have a 13-year timeframe to sue the institution.
  • According to Microsoft Security Intelligence, "61% of nearly 7.7 million enterprise malware encounters reported in May 2020 came from those in the education sector, making it the most affected industry."
  • With the increased use of technology for learning and the extensive database of student information that schools have, they are prone to cyber threats and data breaches, resulting in legal issues. The school's liability coverage would be useful in such situations to take care of any associated legal fees.

Customer & Employee Protection

  • The business of educating and taking care of children is risky. However, parents place their children under school care and protection and prepare them for life as adults. Schools are thus responsible for many situations that could lead to bodily injury for both staff and students.
  • For example, if a student slips and falls due to an employee's mistake to place a "caution" sign after mopping the floor or if the "gym teacher throws out their back," the school's property & casualty insurance would be useful to take care of medical costs.
  • Also, the constant use of school equipment and property could lead to wear & tear. Commercial property insurance helps manage repairs, which would ultimately prevent harmful outcomes from students' future use and keep the institution running.

Research Strategy

We began our research to identify motivators/driving factors that ultimately lead the responsible individuals in schools to select insurance for such institutions by thoroughly researching property and casualty (P&C) insurance to determine what it represents for the school system. We leveraged investment and insurance sites such as Investopedia, The Hartford, and Trusted Choice. Here, we found information regarding the types of insurance coverage used in educational institutions (private schools in this case). After obtaining a proper understanding of the topic, we proceeded to find the driving factors that lead to choosing insurance for schools. We leveraged insurance trends and news websites such as PropertyCasualty360, and consultancy organizations such as Bain & Company to obtain such insights. However, we could not find the required information, as the sources only provided information regarding what motivates insurance agents and brokers and insurance customers' needs.
Furthermore, we attempted to identify case studies of P&C-related insurance purchases for schools to serve as a proxy to identify the reasons for selecting them. For the same, we researched case studies provided by Society Insurance. However, we were unable to find any that provided useful insights into the topic.
Lastly, we expanded our research to determine why individuals select insurance for their businesses, intending to link such reasons to school needs. We leveraged sites such as Poms & Associates, The Hartford, and Markel Corp for the same. We found some useful information from the first two and used the same with earlier findings from our initial research to prepare our report.
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Insurance Buyers - Communication Channels - Schools

After an exhaustive search, information about the preferred professional communication channels of the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for schools in the U.S. was not readily available in the public domain.

Useful Information

  • According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO), insurance is among risk management functions under the CFO's organization.
  • Private schools in the U.S. select private school insurance, and it has to blend with five aspects, including liability insurance, commercial property insurance, commercial auto insurance, workers' compensation, and umbrella insurance.
  • United Educators (EU), an insurance company serving 1600 members from U.S. schools, colleges, and universities, uses various communication channels.
  • United Educators has a website, a LinkedIn page, and a telephone number (301) 907-4908).
  • Hanover, one of the insurance providers to U.S. learning institutions, communicates through LinkedIn, Twitter under the handle @The_Hanover, Facebook, LinkedIn, and telephone communication.

Research Strategy

To determine the preferred professional communication channels of the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for schools, the research team searched through surveys, reliable articles, and insurance industry reports. We anticipated finding public information about various communication channels used by people like CFOs and the Board of Directors who select insurance for schools. We hoped to identify the communication channels that feature most. Unfortunately, we could not find the desired information under this strategy. Two sources obtained in this strategy touched on schools' increased purchase of insurance against mass shootings and insurance coverage types used in educational institutions.

Next, the research team tailored the research focus to various companies that offer insurance and risk management services to learning institutions in the U.S. We consulted websites of companies such as United Educators, Hanover, Marsh, and Church Mutual Insurance. We assumed that people who select insurance for schools engage with insurance providers. We anticipated finding information about communication channels used by these companies to communicate with agents of schools. We could then conclude that the most featuring communication channels are preferred by people selecting insurance for schools. Regretfully, there was no direct information on the common channels used for communication between insurance providers to schools and people representing schools. The only information close to communication under this strategy was listing specific companies' contact details, including telephone numbers, email addresses, and website links.

Finally, we expanded the research scope to look for preferred professional communication channels of Chief Financial Officers in schools in America. The strategy was informed by the article "National Association of College and University Business Officers," showing that insurance is one of the risk management functions within the mandate of the CFO. We assumed that details about communication channels mostly used by schools' CFOs would reflect preferred professional communication channels because insurance matters are within their mandate. Unfortunately, the desired information was not readily available.

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Insurance Buyers - Communication Channels - Youth Camps

Telephone, email, round table presentations, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook are among the preferred professional communication channels of the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for youth camps. The channels were classified as preferred because they featured in all the top youth camp organizations highlighted in this brief and these organizations are involved in the youth camp insurance industry.

ACA Insurance Committee

  • The American Camp Association (ACA) is among the top authorities in youth development in the US and its goal is to enhance the youth camp experience.
  • ACA is over 100 years old and it has more than 1,200 members who work together to ensure that youth camps offer quality service. The association reports that it accredits over 2,400 camps and these camps meet the recommended standards for health, safety, and program quality.
  • The American Camp Association Insurance Committee indicates that its professional communication channels include telephone, email, round table presentations, LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube. We assumed that since ACA is among the top youth camp organizations in the US, its professional communication channels are a reflection of the preferences of the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for youth camps.

Trusted Choice

  • According to Crunchbase, Trusted Choice provides the best independent insurance agents in the US and its agents develop solutions that meet client needs. Since 2013, Trusted Choice has created about 13 million agency impressions and close to 150,000 referral opportunities in the independent insurance industry.
  • Trusted Choice provides expert advice to buyers of youth camp insurance and it communicates to the buyers using various communication channels, including telephone, email, special articles on its website, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. A sample website article for youth camp insurance buyers can be found here. It is likely that these communication channels used by Trusted Choice reflect the communication channels used by the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for youth camps

The Susquehannock Camps

  • According to World Camps, the Susquehannock Camps is among the best summer camps in the US. Susquehannock offers multi-sport athletic development & confidence-based Learning to children aged 7-17 years.
  • The Susquehannock Camps professional communication channels include telephone, email, LinkedIn, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. We assumed that the communication channels used by Susquehannock are the same ones used by its staff that are responsible for selecting insurance.

Research Strategy

  • To determine the preferred professional communication channels of the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for youth camps, your research team looked for information that highlighted the official communication channels used by top players in the youth camp insurance industry. The team found information showing the official communication channels for leading organizations involved in youth camp insurance, including ACA, Trusted Choice, and the Susquehannock Camps. We assumed that these channels reflected the preferred professional communication channels of the individuals responsible for selecting insurance for youth camps.

From Part 01
From Part 05