Country-Level Commuting Mode Share

Part
01
of eight
Part
01

Commuting Mode Share: U.K., Germany, China

In the UK, about 7% of people commute using public transport, while in Germany and China, about 28% and 31% commute using the same. The requested information about transportation ways in the UK, Germany, China has been entered in rows 2-4 of the attached spreadsheet, and main findings have been provided below:

United Kingdom

  • The total population in the UK is estimated to be 66.41 million.
  • According to the recent National Travel Survey (NTS) by the UK Department for Transport, about 7% of trips were completed using public transport in 2018. Alternatively, about 61% of trips were completed using cars, and 27% of trips were completed by walking.
  • The NTS survey also revealed that about 80% of all trips under 1 mile were completed by walking while 70% of trips less than 5 miles and 80% of trips greater than 5 miles were traveled by cars in the UK.
  • It is found that people completed 9 trips on private transport for each trip on public transport in the UK.
  • According to the 2019 Transport Statistics report, about 986 trips were taken by an average British citizen in 2018. It comprised 891 trips with private transport and 95 trips with public transport.
  • According to Statista, about 14.67 million people used online ridesharing services in the UK.
  • The population that does not travel includes children (1-19 years) at 15.58 million (23.46%) and elderly (65+ years) at 12.16 million (18.31%).

Germany

  • The total population estimated for Germany was 83.01 million.
  • According to Statista, about 28% of the German population used public transport for commuting in 2019.
  • In 2019, about 6% of the population commuted by ride sharing modes of transportation, comprising car sharing at 2%, taxis at 2%, bike sharing at 1%, and local ride sharing at 1%.
  • According to a recent survey by Inrix Research, about 59% of commuters in Germany traveled distances of greater than 3 miles. Alternatively, the number of commuters traveling 0-1 mile was 15%, 1-2 miles was 34%, and 2-3 miles was 9%.
  • Germans that do not travel include children (1-17 years) at 13.59 million (16.37%) and elderly (65+ years) at 17.88 million (21.54%).

China

  • The total population for China is expected to reach 1.439 billion in 2020.
  • In China, about 59.5% used cars, 16.1% used rail, 14.5% used buses, and 9.8% used air for traveling. Alternatively, about 126.23 billion passengers commuted using public transport in 2018.
  • According to recent data published by Statista and Research and Market, about 207.4 million people used ride sharing apps in China in 2017. Moreover, the total population that would be using ridesharing services would reach 15% in 2020.
  • It is found that commuting ride sharing accounted for 45.6% of all ridesharing trips in China, followed by dynamic ride sharing at 32.3%, and fixed long distance ride sharing services at 22.1%.
  • The population that does not commute in China includes children (0-15 years) at 17.8% and the elderly (65+ years) at 12.6%.

Research Strategy

After scouring through official websites, research studies, database sites, and media publications, we could not find the recent details for personal vehicle commuting based on distance in China. The lack of information could most likely be attributed to the language barrier in finding the information for China. Some notable sites for our search included gov.cn, D1EV, ResearchGate, China Daily, SCMP, NewsGD, Li Qiao, and NBS China.

We also did not include screenshots of Statista's graphs as most of these were locked even when viewed incognito. However, all attached Statista sources included a summary of relevant data in their preview pages. We made sure to add the screenshot of the referenced charts in the attached document.
Part
02
of eight
Part
02

Commuting Mode Share: Singapore, Netherlands

Rows 5-6 of the attached spreadsheet have been filled with the requested data for Singapore and Netherlands.


Findings

Singapore

Public Transport

  • 46.1% of daily rides in the country are by public transport.
  • The figure was calculated based on the most recent data on daily rides. Out of 15.4 million of daily rides, 3.4 million are bus rides, 2.7 million by Mass Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit, and one million by taxis and private-hire cars.
  • Therefore, (3.4 million + 2.7 million + 1 million)/15.4 million * 100% = 46.1%.
  • We provided the percentage of daily rides that are made by public transport instead of the percentage of the population that uses public transportation. After the analysis of Singapore media, transportation media and industry reports, and government websites, we discovered that all the relevant articles and reports cite the results of Household Interview Travel Survey by a Land Transport Authority. The breakdown of daily rides by different means of transport is the closest metric.
  • Another helpful metric is that during peak hours, public transport accounts for 67% of all rides.

Ride-Hailing

  • Ride-hailing and taxi services have 32% user penetration in Singapore. A more precise figure is not available, because the largest ride-sharing provider in the country (Grab) doesn't disclose usage statistics for Singapore.
  • However, there are five million daily Grab rides in South-East Asia.

Population that Typically Doesn't Travel

  • 16% of the population is 65 or older. Also, 185.3k people are aged 1-4, 197.78k people are aged 5-9, 207.93k people are aged 10-14, and 222.22k people are aged 14-19. This means that children account for approximately 13.51% of the population [(185.3k + 197.78k + 207.93k + 222.22k) / 6.2 million * 100% = 13.51%)].
  • Also, overall 29.51% (16% + 13.51% = 29.51%) people do not typically travel in the country.
  • Please note that we verified population figures from Statista with Chart 4 of the government report "Population in Brief 2019."

Traveling by Private Vehicles

  • The data on transportation and car usage in Singapore or South East Asia in government reports and datasets, industry articles, national and Asian news media, and similar don't provide a breakdown of personal vehicle users who travel less and more than six miles. However, after analyzing multiple articles and government datasets, we discovered that 27.27% of all daily rides are by personal vehicles (4.2 million / 15.4 million * 100%).
  • Also, on average, a car owner travels 17.5k km per year.


Netherlands

  • The population of the Netherlands is 17.3 million.

Public Transport

  • Based on the number of passenger kilometers, public transport accounts for 13.26% of all transport. The total amount of passenger kilometers in 2017 (the last year for which the figure is available) is 188.5 billion. Public transport accounts for 25 billion.
  • Therefore, 25 billion / 188.5 billion * 100% = 13.26%.
  • We used data based on passenger kilometers from the KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis as it was the most relevant available metric. After analyzing multiple articles on public transport in the country in industry and news media, as well as government sources, we didn't find a number of users of public transportation.
  • The government's last extensive publication on transport and mobility comes from 2016, which is the likely reason why more data on the subject isn't available in publicly available sources.

Ride-sharing

  • Ride-hailing and taxi services in the Netherlands have a 13.5% user penetration in the country.
  • The data on ride-sharing in the country is scarce in industry, startup, tech, and news media, as well as in government sources. Most of the articles focus on innovative startups in the space or the largest providers. However, they don't provide any specific figures, which is why a more precise figure wasn't available.
  • The only other applicable data point is that 2.6% of the country's population uses a car-sharing platform Snappcar.

People Who Don't Typically Travel

  • 17.4% of the country's population is aged 0-14 and 14.9% is 65 or older. In the Netherlands, the age group that is considered economically active is 15-64. Therefore, people who typically don't travel account for 32.3% of the population (14.9% + 17.4% = 32.3%).
  • A very specific breakdown of population by age is available here.

Private-Vehicle Users

  • There is no up-to-date data on private-vehicle users that includes a breakdown based on the length of travel. We analyzed multiple reports and articles on car usage, commuting, and transportation in government and media sources. However, most of them didn't include figures needed to answer the question.
  • The most relevant source was an outdated 2016 report, according to which 77% of the people who have to commute to work use their car, with the average length of the trip being half an hour. However, the report notes that there are multiple other purposes for which people travel short distances (such as shopping or visits), without providing the breakdown by the type of transport.
  • Considering that the report was outdated and didn't provide an exact answer, we decided to mark the cells with N/As.
  • According to the report "Key Transport Figures 2018," in 2017, there were 8.2 million passenger cars in the country. Also, out of 188.5 billion passenger kilometers, 40 billion were traveled in a car.

Additional Notes

  • In case the paywall appears in one of the sources from Statista, we provided screenshots.
Part
03
of eight
Part
03

Commuting Mode Share: France, Greece

According to official reports, there are about 11% that use public transport in France while 11.9% use it in Greece. All the information has been entered in the attached spreadsheet.

France

  • Of their 65.3 million population, only about 11% use the public transport.
  • Interestingly, more people use ridesharing services, at 19.3%, than the public transport.
  • About 17.9% of the population consisted of children under the age of 15 while 20.2% of the population was 65 years and older.

Greece

  • Only about 11.9% of the Greek population uses public transport, with 3% of them using rail while 8.9% using bus services.
  • About 17.2% of the Greek population used ridesharing services in 2020.
  • About 21.3% of the total Greek population was 65 years old and older while 14% of the total population of the country belonged to younger children (those between 0 and 14).
  • This means that about 35.3% of the total population does not typically travel.

Research Strategy

In order to address the question, we focused our research on government databases and trusted media reports. We particularly focused on the INSEE and the Greek Department for Transport and Tourism as those are the two regulating bodies in the countries. We also consulted data from Eurostat and the National Transport Plan for Greece in order to find specific statistics on the percent of people that use personal cars for traveling more and less than 6 miles. Unfortunately, information was largely unavailable for both countries, which could most likely be attributed to the language barrier in finding the information, especially for Greece.


Part
04
of eight
Part
04

Commuting Mode Share: Spain, Italy

An estimated 9.8% of Spain's 50 million population use public transport. Only 4% of Italy's 62.4 million population use public transport as 66% are estimated to own private cars. These and other findings are outlined below and encoded in rows 9-10, columns B-I in the attached spreadsheet.

Spain Transport Usage Statistics

  • According to Census.gov, Spain has a population of 50 million as of 2019.
  • Statista reported that Spain had 4.9 million public transport passengers in 2018.
  • Movmi reported that there were 4.2 million ride hailing/sharing users in Spain as of 2020.
  • Statista estimated that 21.2 million Spanish citizens owned a saloon or hatchback car in 2018.
  • Index Mundi reported that people aged 65 years and older made up 18.15% of Spain's population in 2019.
  • Transportation Research Procedia's report "Mobility Data Across the EU 28 Member States" states that the average length of European drivers' most frequent trip is 17 kilometers long.

Spain - Calculation

  • 4.9 million public transport passengers / 50 million total population * 100 = 9.80%
  • 4.2 million ride hailing/sharing passengers / 50 million * 100 = 8.40%
  • 21.2 million private car owners / 50 million * 100 = 42.40%

Italy Transport Usage Statistics

  • According to Census.gov, Italy has a population of 62.4 million as of 2019.
  • According to Union Internationale des Transports Publics (UITP), Italy's primary public transport operator ATM Milan moves 2.5 million passengers per day.
  • Statista reports that there are 323,000 active users of the rideshare company Enjoy in Milan as of 2016.
  • Index Mundi reported that seniors aged 65 years old and above make up 21.69% of Italy's population.
  • Statista reports that 66% of surveyed Italians say they own at least one car.
  • The report "Mobility Data Across the EU 28 Member States" by Transportation Research Procedia states that Europeans drive for an average of 17 kilometers during their most frequent trips.

Italy - Calculation

  • 2.5 million public transport passengers / 62.4 million total population * 100 = 4%
  • 323,000 ride hailing/sharing passengers / 62.4 million * 100 = 0.52%
  • 66% of Italian car owners represent drivers who travel for more than 6 miles, based on Transportation Research Procedia's report.

Research Strategy

We provided the requested transportation usage data for Spain and Italy using the following strategies:

First we looked into official government databases and statistics site including Datos.gob.es, and Institucio Nacional de Estadistica for Spain as well as Istituto Nazionale di Statisca and Knoema for Italy. We found related data such as number of taxis and annual passenger volume for transportation modes but no definite data points for transportation usage.

Next, we researched regional and global statistical databases and sources including Eurostat, European Data Portal, Open Data Barometer and OECD among others. Again we found broad and related data such as passenger transport by kilometers, numbers of petrol vs diesel vehicles, etc. but none directly addressing the requested transportation usage by population percentage.

Lastly, we conducted a survey of published research papers and studies regarding transportation usage in these two countries. Our sources included Research Gate and Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) among others. Similarly, only broad and indirectly related studies were found with no preexisting research on transport usage by population percentage.

Therefore we used calculation and proxy data to determine the requested data points. For population percentage by car trip duration (less or more than 6 miles), we used data from the report "Mobility Data Across the EU 28 Member States" from Transportation Research Procedia. The report states that the average length of European drivers' most frequent trip is 17 kilometers long. As there was no preexisting information on drivers who use cars for less or more than 6 miles, we used this data to represent the requested value in column F (private drivers traveling more than 6 miles) for both Spain and Italy.

For the percentage of Spanish and Italian populations who did not travel, we used data from Index Mundi. While population percentage data was available for children ages 0 to 14 years old in both countries, we only considered seniors 65+ years to roughly represent people who did not travel. This is because the age range for children was too broad and included elementary and secondary students who go to school.

We also did not include screenshots of Statista's graphs as most of these were locked even when viewed incognito. However, all attached Statista sources included a summary of relevant data in their preview pages. We made sure to add these as source quotes in our research.

In summary, we have provided all requested information for Spain and Italy's transportation usage by population percentage using the above mentioned sources and strategies. We have outlined our findings and completed rows 9-10, columns B-I in the attached spreadsheet.
Part
05
of eight
Part
05

Commuting Mode Share: Romania, Sweden

The requested information about transportation ways in Romania and Sweden has been entered in rows 11-12 of the attached spreadsheet, and main findings have been provided below:

Modes of Transportation Used in Romania

  • The current population of Romania is estimated to be 19,253,665 based on the latest United Nations data. As of June 2018, the active population was nearly 9.21 million.
  • About 13% of the Romanian population (2.5 million) use ridesharing apps, with Uber claiming one million users as of August 2019.
  • A 2019 survey revealed that 32% of respondents prefer public transportation to travel, while 50,6% would instead use personal cars.
  • The portion of those unlikely to be highly mobile (young children aged 0-5 and the elderly over 65) accounts for 20.8% of the population (523,211 and 3.5 million, respectively).
  • As of November 2019, there were approximately 6.5 million private vehicles registered in Romania. As people aged less than 18 can't drive a motor vehicle (the portion of the population above accounts for about 2.8 million), we can estimate that roughly 40% of the Romanians adults own a vehicle.
  • A 2017 study revealed that 20.8% of Romanian drivers accumulate nearly 4700 miles per year (~12 miles per day), while 41% drive on average 9300 miles per year (~25 miles per day).
  • The total of Cols C-G is 66% (32+13+20.8).

Modes of Transportation Used in Sweden

  • The current population of Sweden is estimated to be 10,090,997 based on the latest United Nations data. As of December 2019, the active population (aged 15-74) was about 5.5 million, with those aged 10-14 to nearly 0.5 million. In 2019, 78% of Sweeden's residents had a valid driving license (B category).
  • The portion of Sweden's inhabitants unlikely to be highly mobile (young children aged 0-9 and elderly over 74) accounts for 40% of the population.
  • According to the Swedish Transport Administration, "on a regular day, nearly 1 million people take a bus, almost as many people choose to cycle, 4.5 million take a car, and 370,000 take a train. Every day, there are 70,000 passenger transports with a road ferry." Hence, 14% of the population use public transportation, and 45% use a car.
  • A 2017 statistic shows that the average mileage per car in Sweden is nearly 700 miles, which means almost two miles per day.
  • In 2019, there were 4,887,904 passenger vehicles registered in Sweden, out of which private individuals owned 79%.
  • In Sweden, the most prominent existing market players in the car-sharing industry are Aimo, Sunfleet, Move About, and Zipcar. Altogether, these companies have a fleet of almost 2,000 vehicles. However, there is a lack of studies of Swedish car-sharing members.
  • The total of Cols C-G is 54.4% (14.4+40).

Research Strategy

Information was unavailable for Sweden's population that uses rideshare services. Moreover, no data was available on how many people use private cars with a breakdown by less or more than six miles for both countries. We searched through government databases, transport industry reports, and scholarly articles, but ultimately could not find the requested figures. Your research team used calculation and proxy data to determine the requested data points.
Part
06
of eight
Part
06

Commuting Mode Share: Belgium, Japan

The requested details about commuting mode shares in Belgium and Japan are explained below and in the attached spreadsheet. Notably, several of the percentage statistics found for Belgium that are listed below describe the commuting mode shares of its working population and not the overall population. Comprehensive statistics on public transportation, ridesharing, and personal car usage were not found, so relevant information on these commuting modes are also listed below.

Modes of Transportation Used in Belgium

  • About 25% of working adults in Belgium use public transportation regularly to commute to work.
  • According to Statista, user penetration of ridesharing services is 13.1% in Belgium, and a screenshot of this information is included in the attached document.
  • Within "the active population" in Belgium, over 60% of Belgians use a car to commute to work.
  • Among all cars used in Belgian, 10% are company cars.
  • In Belgium, 40% of workers live less than 10 kilometers (about 6 miles) from their workplace. Base
  • The portion of the Belgian population that is unlikely to be highly mobile (young children and the elderly) accounts for 36.43% of the population, which would make the active share of the population equal 63.57%.
  • Based on the share of the active population in Belgian and the above figures on commuting mode share in the country, the percent of Belgian workers that use personal cars to commute to work for under 6 miles versus over 6 miles can be estimated at 13.73% and 20.60%, respectively.

Modes of Transportation Used in Japan

  • According to consulting firm McKinsey & Company, "Japan’s mobility mix skews heavily toward public mass transport, which accounted for 43 percent of the total passenger-kilometers traveled in the country in 2016."
  • In Japan, ridesharing services We have faced multiple barriers to growth, including locals' preference for taxis, which make up 90% of the combined ride-sharing and taxi fleet in the country, and government regulations limiting the growth of the industry.
  • According to the Statistics Bureau of Japan, there are over 47 million passenger vehicles registered in the country as of 2018, but the agency does not provide statistics on the portion of registered vehicles that are company cars or how many unique car owners there are in the country.
  • The share of low mobility people in Japan (young children and the elderly) equals 41.58% (12.49% aged 0 to 14 and 29.18% aged 65 and over).

Research Strategy

In the attached spreadsheet, several requested data points are listed as not available because the publicly available information we found does not apply to the national population for each country. For Belgium, we were unable to find data pertaining to the rate of public transportation and personal car usage for the entire population. We searched the government databases, transport industry reports, and studies done by international consulting agencies, but ultimately could not find the requested statistics for public transportation and personal car usage. We were, however, able to find data points that pertained specifically to the working population of Belgium. For the rates of personal car usage, the percentages listed above are triangulated values that were reached using the data points listed in this report in the Belgium section. According to the information we found, 60% of "the active population" in Belgium use a car to commute to work. Using the population percentages of young children (ages 0 to 14) and the elderly (ages 65 and over) in Belgian, which were 17.22% and 19.21%, respectively, we calculated the low mobility share of the population at 36.43%, which would make the active population 63.57%. The percentages of the active population and those in the active population that use cars to commute to work had to be multiplied to find the population share of working adults who use cars to commute. That figure was then multiplied by 90%, as 10% of cars used in Belgium are company cars. The total calculation would be as follows: 0.6 x 0.63557 x 0.9 = 0.3433, which means that people who commute to work via personal car account for 34.33% of the population. To segment this data according to travel for shorter or longer than 6 miles (10 kilometers), we multiplied the 34.33% figure by 0.4 and 0.6 respectively, as 40% of working Belgians who commute by car live less than 10 kilometers (6 miles) from their workplace, which means 60% have commutes over 10 kilometers (6 miles). Based on this information, the calculations for columns E and F in the attached spreadsheet were as follows: Workers using personal vehicles for commutes under 6 miles: 0.6 x 0.6357 x 0.4 x 0.9 = 13.73% of the overall population of Belgium. Workers using personal vehicles for commutes over 6 miles: 0.6 x 0.6357 x 0.6 x 0.9 = 20.6% of the overall population of Belgium. Additionally, we found that around 25% of working Belgians use public transportation to commute to work, and that figure (Column C) cannot be used to describe the entire country's population. For Japan, we were unable to identify or triangulate the percent of the population that uses public transportation, rideshare services, or personal vehicles using publicly available sources. Instead, we included relevant statistics that we were able to identify for each of the requested categories. Instead, we found the share of public transportation usage according to the total distance traveled by people in Japan, which was 43%. We also learned that ridesharing companies have historically struggled to gain traction in the country, which is likely why we found it difficult to find statistics on Japan's user base in this industry in market reports, news articles, and other sources. Finally, we were unable to find statistics on the rate of personal car usage for trips under or over 6 miles, but we found the number of registered passenger cars in Japan, over 47 million. However, this figure could not be used with the total population to triangulate an estimated percentage of car ownership in the country as we did not find the number of unique car owners in the country and there is no way to accurately estimate how many people in Japan own one car versus multiple cars.

Part
07
of eight
Part
07

Commuting Mode Share: Mexico, Taiwan

We were able to find or estimate most of the requested data points for Mexico and Taiwan, except for personal vehicle usage less or more than six miles. All the information that we were able to find about the countries is both included in the attached spreadsheet and provided below.

Mexico

Population

Public Transportation

  • We looked for, but couldn't find the overall percentage of Mexico's population that uses public transportation, as that information was either outdated (as is true of this 2013 article from The World Bank) or pertained to Mexico City (as is illustrated in the sources cited below).
  • However, we found an April 2016 article published by Fast Company which stated that Mexico City's public bus system had approximately "14 million daily riders."
  • Mexico City's subway system (called the Mexico City Metro) transports approximately "4.4 million riders per day."
  • Together, daily ridership on Mexico City's public bus and subway systems equate to at least 14.27% of Mexico's population that uses public transportation (18.4 million (4.4 million + 14 million) (daily bus & subway ridership) / 128.93 million (population)).
  • We also found a May 2019 article published by Smart City Lab which stated that during one work day, there are 32 million trips made to, within, or from Mexico City. Public transportation accounts for 18.98 million trips.

Rideshare

  • We looked for, but couldn't find the overall percent of Mexico's population that uses rideshare in general. The information we found was either company-specific or demographic-specific.
  • In Mexico, Uber has been downloaded 15.6 million times and Lyft has been downloaded 540,000 times (16.14 million downloads combined). If we reasonably assume one download per person, that would equate to 12.51% of Mexico's population that uses rideshare via Uber and Lyft (16.14 million (combined Uber & Lyft downloads) / 128.93 million (population)).
  • A September 2018 article in TechCrunch stated that 58% of people in Mexico "with smartphones that live in urban areas" "have used an app" for ridesharing.

Personal Vehicles

  • We looked for, but couldn't find nor determine the percent of the population that uses a personal vehicle when traveling less or more than six miles.
  • This journal article is an example of why we had to expand the scope of our research to focus on overall vehicle ownership, as it discussed both vehicle usage and distance traveled, yet still didn't provide the information we sought.
  • As an expansion of our research scope, we found the vehicle-ownership rate in Mexico. Survey results from 2018 published by Statista show that 48.43% of people in Mexico surveyed owned at least one personal vehicle. A screenshot of that data graph from Statista is also included in this Google Doc.

Adults Who Don't Typically Travel

  • With regard to the percentage of Mexico's adult population that either does not typically travel or is least likely to do so (elderly individuals), 8.9% of the country's population was elderly as of 2018.

Taiwan

Population

Public Transportation

  • Among total vehicle rides that occurred in Taiwan in 2016 (the most-recent year we could find this data for), 18.1% were accounted for by public transportation.
  • Thus, we can reasonably infer that approximately 18.1% of the population uses public transportation. That percentage was also the highest it had been since at least 2009 (the first year of that particular survey) when it was 1.8% lower.

Rideshare

  • We looked for, but could not find/determine the percentage of the population that uses rideshare overall, as the only information we found on this topic pertained to Uber. The Taiwanese government has also been strict in terms of allowing ridesharing within the country, which is another reason why data might be limited.
  • A March 2019 article stated that Uber had about three "million registered users" in Taiwan. Thus, the percent of the population that uses rideshare is at least 12.59% (three "million registered [Uber] users" / 23.81 million (population)).

Personal Vehicles

  • We looked for, but couldn't find nor determine the percentage of the population that uses a personal vehicle when traveling less or more than six miles. Thus, we had to expand our research scope to focus on the vehicle-ownership rate because other sources we found either focused on that aspect or types of vehicles used.
  • According to 2019 survey results published by Statista, 52.8% of people in Taiwan surveyed owned a personal vehicle.

Adults Who Don't Typically Travel

  • With regard to the percent of Taiwan's adult population that either does not typically travel or is least likely to do so (seniors (ages 65+), 14.94% of the country's population was comprised of seniors in that age bracket as of July 2019.
Part
08
of eight
Part
08

Commuting Mode Share: South Korea, Australia

Despite a well-developed (but expensive) public transportation system, the majority of Australians get around by car. South Koreans use public transport much more frequently, and don't use rideshare services like Uber. The following information has been added to rows 17 and 18 in the spreadsheet.

Australia

  • Population: 25.5 million
  • Public transport usage: 26.2%
  • Rideshare usage: 24.5% (22.9% of Australians over 14 use Uber, and 93% of people using rideshare use Uber, 1.07 x 22.9 = the total percentage using rideshare).
  • Personal vehicle use (less than 6 miles): 55.8% is the total percentage of Australians owning, and therefore using private cars is (14,258,620 passenger vehicles / 25.5 million population). Of course, use and ownership are different. Surveys have found that 77% of Australians travel to work or study by personal vehicle, while 88% of Australians use a personal vehicle to get to other places. We have used this final figure in the spreadsheet.
  • Personal vehicle use (more than 6 miles): see above
  • Percentage of adult population that doesn't usually travel: 15.3% (People aged 0-9 1.46 million + 1.5 million and people aged 80 and over 0.46 million + 0.48 million = 3.9 million people / 25.5 million)
  • Calculations: The total of Cols C-G is 154 (26.2 +24.5 + 88 +15.3)

South Korea

  • Public transport usage: 60%
  • Rideshare usage: Ridesharing isn't common in South Korea, and Uber isn't able to operate there. The main or only ridesharing company is Kakao T. Kakao T was only launched recently, however, and numbers are scarce. Some 35% of people use Kakao T, but note this includes taxis.
  • Personal vehicle use (less than 6 miles): 45% (private car ownership is 23,444,165 cars / 51.8 million people).
  • Personal vehicle use (more than 6 miles): see above
  • Percentage of adult population that doesn't usually travel: 7% (0.54 million men over 80 + 1.12 million women over 80 + 1 million males under 4 + 1 million females under 1 / population of 51.8 million)
  • Calculations: The total of Cols C-G is 147 (60 + 35 + 45 + 7)

Research Strategy

All surveys from Australia on public transport use focused on how people get to work, so this was the figure that was used. For personal vehicle use, Australian government surveys provided total annual distance traveled, but didn't provide a breakdown based on use for more or less than six miles (9.6 km, rounded up to 10). For South Korea, English language content on public transport focused exclusively on Seoul, where 10 million, or one fifth of the country live. From the World Bank, to news sites, all data focused on the capital, so that is what we have used. Korea's national statistics organization doesn't provide a breakdown of transport by use (like Australia, it provides a breakdown by ownership and also by medium — water v land v sky). There was no data on how many people use private cars with a breakdown by less or more than 10 km. Like the statistics organization, Korea's transport ministry focused on ownership. For the age groups who don't travel, given that people over 5 or so go to school, and that retired people do tend to stay active, we focused on age groups over 80 and on children under 4 or 9.
Sources
Sources

From Part 01
Quotes
  • "Using this estimate, China’s passenger vehicle share of person travel in 2015 is provisionally estimated at 59.5 percent. Rail is second, at 16.1 percent, buses third at 14.5 percent and air at 9.8 percent (Figure 4)."
Quotes
  • "The overall ride sharing member size in China has achieved 207.4 million in 2017. The percent share breaks down as follows: commuting ride sharing 45.6%, dynamic ride sharing 32.3%, and fixed long distance ride sharing services 22.1%."
From Part 04
Quotes
  • "In 2018, approximately 4.9 million individuals used the Spanish public transport system, which represented an increase of roughly 150 thousand travelers compared to the previous year."
Quotes
  • "In 2018, an estimated 21.2 million people in Spain owned a saloon or hatchback car."
Quotes
  • "As of the survey period, the company Enjoy counted 323 thousand active users in Milan."
Quotes
  • "Italians seem to love cars and according to the data, 66 percent of respondents reported owning one car . 14 percent stated they have more than one car. On the other hand, 20 percent of the interviewees declared not having a car at all. "
From Part 07
From Part 08