Cloud Company Transitions

of two

Timelines-Google & Microsoft

Google started in 1996, the brainchild of Stamford students Larry Page and Sergey Grin. Today its has annual sales over $1 billion. Microsoft was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. The company has recently announced its agenda to move beyond a search and software company to focus on services and devices. Below is a timeline of key events showing the evolution of both companies. The timelines have also been entered into the attached Google doc.

Google Timeline

  • 1996: Google was created by Stamford students Larry Page and Sergey Brin. The search engine utilized an algorithm that ranked pages by the number of pages that linked back to it.
  • 1998: Google received its first investment from Sun Microsystems co-founder, Andy Bechtolsheim, in the amount of $100,000. Google purchased the domain and officially incorporated.
  • 1999: Google received its second round of funding from Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital at $25 million.
  • 2000: The company began selling advertising through GoogleAdwords, allowing advertisers to buy relevant keywords.
  • 2001: Eric Schmidt, former CEO of Novell and VP of Sun Microsystems, was named Google CEO. Brin and Page are names as company presidents.
  • 2002: Google launched Google News, a content aggregation service that would change the way content was published and distributed on the internet.
  • 2004: Google launches the webmail service Gmail. Later in the same year, Google went public with shares at $85, valuing the company at $23 billion.
  • 2005: Google released Google Maps, featuring satellite imagery and driving directions, and Google Earth, a 3-D mapping technology. In addition, Google Chat was released as a feature of Gmail.
  • 2005: The company purchased Android, a struggling mobile phone company, for $50 million.
  • 2006: Google acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock.
  • 2007: DoubleClick is acquired by Google for $3.1 billion. This acquisition allows Google to work directly with publishers to display advertisements across the internet.
  • 2007: Google began work creating Google Streetview to complement Google Maps.
  • 2008: Google released Chrome, a minimalist web browser, to compete with Explorer and Safari. The same month, the Android operating system debuted in the HTC Dream phone, allowing Google to compete with Microsoft and Apple in the mobile phone sector.
  • 2010: In partnership with HTC and T-Mobile, Google began selling its first direct to consumer mobile phones called the Nexus One. Google also entered the internet delivery market in Kansas with the introduction of Google Fiber, an ultra-fast internet service.
  • 2010: Google introduced a fleet of 7 Priuses, hybrid cars loaded with sensors and AI technology. This would mark Google's interest in self-driving car technology.
  • 2011: Schmidt stepped down as CEO and was replaced by Page. Schmidt moved to the position of executive chairman.
  • 2012: Google purchased Motorola for $12 billion. This largest acquisition marked Google's move from a search-and-software company into the consumer gadget arena.
  • 2013: Chromecast is launched. Though not revolutionary technology, the $35 video streaming device competed with Amazon and Apple due to its low cost.
  • 2014: Google sold Motorola for a loss but acquired Net Labs for $3.2 billion. With Net Labs, Google would begin its entry into the smart home device market with smart thermostats, cameras, and smoke detectors. The same year, Google acquired the London-based company DeepMind, a leader in AI technology.
  • 2015: Google consolidated all of its companies such as Nest, GoogleX, Fiber, and Ventures under the umbrella of Alphabet. Sundar Pichai became the CEO.
  • 2016: Google launched its AI powered assistant speaker to compete with Amazon Echo. Five months later it released Google Pixel, the first completely Google owned mobile phone.
  • 2016: As a spin off of Google X, Google formed Waymo, a company focused on self-driving car technology.
  • 2017: Google acquired HTC for $1.1 billion after years of partnering with the company on mobile phone design.
  • 2018: Alphabet, Google's parent company, announced it had topped $100 billion in annual sales.

Microsoft Timeline

  • 1975: Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It was originally founded to write the BASIC programming language for MITS computer Altair.
  • 1981: IBM introduced its first personal computer using MS-DOS, Microsoft's 16-bit operating system.
  • 1985: Microsoft Windows was released.
  • 1986: Microsoft went public.
  • 1989: Microsoft released Microsoft Office, an early version of a suite of productivity applications.
  • 1995: Microsoft Windows 95 was released and sold over one million copies in four days. Microsoft also released the web browser, Internet Explorer. Almost 90% of the world's personal computers were running on Microsoft's operating system and using the company's office products.
  • 1998: Windows 98 was released.
  • 2000: Steve Ballmer became President and CEO of Microsoft.
  • 2001: Microsoft released Office XP, Windows XP, and Xbox.
  • 2002: Microsoft released the Tablet PC.
  • 2003: Microsoft released Windows Server 2003 and Microsoft Office System.
  • 2005: The Xbox 360 was released.
  • 2007: Windows Vista and the 2007 Microsoft Office System to are released to customers worldwide.
  • 2008: Windows Server 2008, SQL Server 2008 and Visual Studio 2008 were launched.
  • 2009: Microsoft launched the Bing search engine and releases Windows 7.
  • 2010: Office 2010 was released; Microsoft released the Kinect for the Xbox 360. The company launched Windows Phone 7 and Microsoft Lync. In a move toward cloud computing, Microsoft also released the Windows Azure Platform.
  • 2011: Microsoft released Office 365.
  • 2012: Ballmer announced that Microsoft would be moving away from software in order to become a “devices and services company,” focusing on phones, tablets and other hardware such as Xbox; Microsoft released its first tablet called the Surface.
  • 2014: Ballmer stepped down as CEO and was replaced by Satya Nadella, only the third CEO in 39 years. In addition, Windows Azure was renamed Microsoft Azure, to signify its growth beyond the Windows platform.
  • 2016: LinkedIn was acquired by Microsoft for $26.2 billion.
  • 2018: Nadella announced that Microsoft would restructure into two main divisions: “Experiences & Devices” and “Cloud + AI.”
of two

Timelines-AT&T, Amazon

The history of AT&T dates back to 1876 when Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, the major focus on the company was primarily phone service and phone equipment. However, after an anti-trust settlement in 1982 and several corporate divisions and restructuring, AT&T began to broaden its focus into telecommunications, computers, and consumer services. Amazon began in Seattle, Washington as an online bookseller and has quickly become one of the most valuable companies in history. Below is a historic timeline for both companies. In addition, the timelines have been entered into the attached Google doc.

AT&T Timeline

  • 1982: AT&T settled an anti-trust lawsuit filed in 1974. The company divested itself of 7 regional companies but retained its long distance telephone, manufacturing, and research and development operations.
  • 1991: AT&T acquired computer maker NCR Corporation in an attempt to enter the computing industry.
  • 1993: AT&T completed a merger agreement with McCaw Cellular Communications Inc, then the largest provider of cellular service in the United States. The acquisition was named AT&T Wireless.
  • 1995: In September, AT&T announced that it was restructuring into 3 companies: AT&T, a services company; Lucent Technologies, a products and systems company; and NCR, a computer company.
  • 1999: AT&T acquired TCI, the second largest cable company in the U.S. The acquisition became AT&T Broadband.
  • 2000: AT&T Broadband acquired Media One, becoming the largest cable company in the U.S.
  • 2000: AT&T again restructures into AT&T (to include AT&T Business and AT&T Consumer), AT&T Wireless, and AT&T Broadband.
  • 2001: AT&T Broadband is acquired by Comcast for $72 billion.
  • 2004: AT&T Wireless is acquired by Cingular Wireless for $41 billion.
  • 2005: AT&T was acquired by former subsidiary SBC for $16 billion. The AT&T name and stock symbol was retained.
  • 2006: AT&T Uverse launches as the only 100% Internet Protocol (IP)-based television service in the U.S. By the end of 2006, the service had over 1.5 million customers.
  • 2007: Previously purchased by SBC, AT&T took control of Cingular Wireless after the being acquired by SBC. Cingular was rebranded in 2006 as AT&T.
  • 2007: AT&T acquired Dobson Communications in order to expand its mobile services into rural areas. AT&T also purchased Interwise, allowing AT&T to enter the IP video and web conferencing space.
  • 2009: AT&T acquired Centennial Wireless expanding their 3G coverage to more than 200 sites.
  • 2013: AT&T announced its expansion into Latin America through a partnership with Carlos Slim's America Movil.
  • 2014: AT&T acquired satellite television provider DirecTV.
  • 2016: AT&T acquired TimeWarner Cable for $85.4 billion, creating new abilities for AT&T to expand into "both producing content and distributing it to millions with wireless phones, broadband subscriptions and satellite TV connections."
  • 2018: AT&T announced the launch of Xandr, that will act as the umbrella company for all of AT&T's business data and analytics services.

Amazon Timeline

  • 1994: Jeff Bezos and wife MacKenzie open an online bookstore in Seattle, Washington with $10,000.
  • 1997: Amazon went public with opening shares at $18.
  • 1997: Amazon opens a distribution center in New Castle, Delaware due to increased demand on the East Coast.
  • 1998: The online bookstore began carrying music and DVDs.
  • 1999: Amazon patented the "1-Click" technology that allowed customers to purchase items with one click of the mouse.
  • 1999: In September, Amazon launched zShops, allowing third-party sellers to set up shop on the site. Within four months over 250,000 customers purchased something from the service. This is now called Amazon Marketplace. The ecommerce platform also began to expand its offerings into toys, electronics, video games, software, and kitchen goods.
  • 1999: Jeff Bezos is named Time Magazine's Person of the Year, calling him "the king of cybercommerce."
  • 2002: Amazon added clothing to its product mix through a partnership with several major clothing brands.
  • 2002: Amazon launched its web hosting services in order to generate extra income by licensing its platform to other e-commerce sites. It is now the biggest revenue driver for the company.
  • 2004: Amazon enters the China market through the purchase of Joyo, the largest book and electronics seller in the Chinese market.
  • 2005: Amazon Prime was launched for $79 a year and included free 2-day shipping on any order. It is now Amazon's biggest asset with over 100 million members worldwide.
  • 2006: Amazon S3 was introduced as part of AWS. S3 is a highly scalable, inexpensive data store infrastructure.
  • 2007: Amazon unveiled the Kindle at a retail price of $399. The Kindle allowed users to download books, magazines, and newspapers on the wireless device. At the same time, Amazon announced it would consolidate its headquarters in a 1.6 million square feet complex in Seattle.
  • 2008: Amazon purchased Audible for $300 million, acquiring the company's library of 80,000 programs now available for the Kindle.
  • 2009: Amazon acquired Zappos, the online shoe retailer for in an all-stock deal worth $900 million.
  • 2011: Amazon launched Prime Instant Video, an unlimited video streaming service available to paid Prime members.
  • 2012: Amazon acquired Kiva Systems, a maker of warehouse robots, for $775 million, allowing Amazon to upgrade automation at its fulfillment centers.
  • 2013: Bezos announces his plan to purchase the Washington Post for $250 million.
  • 2014: Amazon tried its hand in the cellphone market with the release of the Amazon Fire. It did not do well in the market and production was ceased in 2015. The same year, Amazon offered its smart speaker, Echo with Amazon Alexa to select customers.
  • 2014: Amazon acquired Twitch Interactive, a video game streaming service, for $950 million, in order to complement work being done on an Amazon game service.
  • 2015: Amazon opened its first brick and mortar bookstore in Seattle. It now has 15 physical retail locations.
  • 2017: Amazon acquired Whole Foods for $13.7 billion. The customers of the 471 grocery stores have access to Amazon's Prime service.
  • 2018: Amazon stock prices increased the company value to over $1 trillion, making it the second company after Apple to reach this threshold.