Correctly Citing New Forms of Media
In academic work, the best way to reference/cite podcasts and social media posts is by using one of the three major academic citation styles: APA, MLA, and Chicago. To ensure the examples and rules provided are correct, we compiled this brief solely from academic library guides, education websites, and the official websites of the American Psychological Association and the Modern Language Association.
OVERVIEW OF THE BEST WAYS TO CITE NEW FORMS OF MEDIA
- The best way to cite new forms of media will depend on which academic discipline a writer is working in.
- A professional academic journal will also identify which specific citation style should be used.
- Academic work recognizes three major citation styles: APA, MLA, and Chicago.
- The Chicago Style has two distinct styles: Chicago Notes and Bibliography and Chicago and Chicago Author-Date.
- Typically, APA is used in social sciences, engineering, and education while MLA is used in the humanities.
- Chicago Notes and Bibliography is used in history papers and in the humanities.
- Chicago Author-Date is used in the physical, natural, or social sciences.
- Other citation styles used in academic work include Bluebook, which is used in Law; CSE, which may be used in sciences; and IEEE, which is used in computer science and engineering.
- All 3 of the major academic citation styles recognize specific rules for citing new media.
EXAMPLES OF FORMAL CITATION RULES FOR NEW MEDIA
- According to the APA Style Blog, when citing a podcast it is important to follow the basic citation rules of "who, what, when, and where".
- For a podcast citation at the end of a document/in a reference list, a writer should place the name of the producer (or writer/speaker) first and then the title of that person: e.g. Smith, J. (Producer).
- A full APA podcast citation at the end of a document should proceed exactly as follows: Smith, J. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of Podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://websiteofpodcast.com
- The title of the podcast should be placed in italicized font.
- An APA in-text/parenthetical podcast citation should include the last name of the "who" followed by the year, for example: (Smith, 2019).
- A writer who wishes to cite a section of a podcast should place a "timestamp" in the in-text/parenthetical podcast citation, as in (Smith, 2019, 1:28:03–1:57:42), but should not include this timestamp as part of the end of a document/reference list citation.
- A Twitter social media post should proceed exactly as follows: Smith, J. [username]. (Year of post, Month Day). Text of Tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitterpostetc.com.
- In MLA style, a Twitter social media post should proceed exactly as follows: @username. "Text of Tweet." Twitter, Day Month, Year of post, time posted, https://twitterpostetc.com.
- Note that the sources of the new media, such as Twitter, Facebook, should be placed in italicized font and months should be abbreviated, as in Feb., Mar.
- In MLA style, a specific example of a time stamp would look like: 9:07 a.m.
- A full MLA podcast citation at the end of a document should proceed exactly as follows: Smith, John, producer. "Title of Podcast." Name of Podcast, season x, episode x, date, https://websiteofpodcast.com.
- Within in-text/parenthetical citations, a timestamp should be used if an author wishes to cite a specific section of an audio or video file.
- An in-text/parenthetical citations to a section of a podcast should be formatted as follows: (Smith, 1:28:03 – 1:57:42).
- A Twitter social media post should proceed exactly as follows: Smith, Jon. (@username). "Text of Tweet." Twitter, Month Day, Year of post. https://twitterpostetc.com.
- In Chicago style, there are rules for how to format each citation as an endnote/footnote as well as how to format the citation as part of the bibliography/reference list.
- The endnote/footnote is taking the place of the in-text/parenthetical citation that is used in the MLA and APA formats.
- An example of a properly formatted podcast footnote/endnote citation would be: 1. John Smith, "Title of Podcast," Month Day, year, in Name of Podcast, produced by Company, podcast, file type, running time, accessed Month Day, Year, https://websiteofpodcast.com. (Source 11, corroborated by 12)
- An example of a properly formatted bibliography citation would be: Smith, John. "Title of Podcast." Produced by Company. Name of Podcast. Month Day, year. Podcast, file type, running time. Accessed Month Day, Year. https://websiteofpodcast.com.
- The name of the podcast (as opposed to the title of the podcast) should be placed in italicized font. (Source 11)
- If the writer references a specific section of an audio or video, the timestamp should be placed before the URL in both the footnote/endnote and bibliographic citation.