Chinese Market Research

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01
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Part
01

China - Demographic Overview

China has a vast population (expected to reach 1.41 billion by 2020), with a median age of 37.4 years. With an increase in disposable income, the poverty levels in China have considerably reduced to a record low of 3.1% in 2017. The disposable personal income in China increased to $5,676.85 in 2018 from $5,264.03 in 2017. Most Chinese students have embraced science and engineering to drive China's transition to a consumer-driven and innovations economy.

POPULATION

China's population is projected to increase by 7.23 million people to reach 1.41 billion at the beginning of 2020. This increase is due to the natural expectation that the number of births will exceed the number of deaths.

AGE

According to Index Mundi, based on 2017 estimates, China's age distribution structure is as follows:
0-14 years: 17.15% (male 127.48 million, female 109.11 million)
15-24 years: 12.78% (male 94.22 million, female 82.05 million)
25-54 years: 48.51% (male 341.47 million, female 327.66 million)
55-64 years: 10.75% (male 74.77 million, female 73.44 million)
65 years and over: 10.81% (male 71.10 million, female 78 million)

The overall median age is 37.4 years—for the male population, it is 36.5 years, while that of the female population is 38.4 years. Also, China's age dependency ratio is 35.9%, which includes the population under 15 years old, and people aged 65 and over; accordingly, the productive part of the population consists of people between 15 and 64 years.

INCOME DISTRIBUTION

According to a report by China Power, China's income distribution can be classified as Poor (<$2 per day), Low ($2-$10 per day), Lower Middle ($10-$20 per day), Upper Middle ($20-$50 per day), and High (>$50 per day).

POVERTY LEVEL

According to World Bank data, China's poverty level has been on the decline since the turn of the decade, as it the national poverty level was reported to be 17.2% in 2010, and 3.1% in 2017.

DISPOSABLE INCOME

The disposable personal income in China increased to 39,251 CNY ($5,676.85) in 2018 from 36,396.19 CNY ($5,264.03) in 2017. It, however, averaged 10,150.02 CNY ($1,467.97) from 1978 until 2018, reaching an all-time high of 39,251 CNY ($5,676.85) in 2018 and a record low of 343.40 CNY ($49.66) in 1978.

Per capita disposable income for urban and rural China reached 39,251 CNY ($5,676.85) and 14,617 CNY ($2,113.98) in 2018, up 5.6% and 6.6% year-on-year respectively. The growth of per capita disposable income in rural areas was faster than that in urban areas, indicating a narrowing of the urban-rural income distribution.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

China has sought to improve the quality of education by ensuring the enrollment of school-aged children between 6 and 15 years in school, as well as full literacy among those under 20. In Beijing and Shanghai, the student to teacher ratios in primary and secondary schools are 15:1 and 14:1, respectively—lower than the global average. Formal education in China typically starts at age 2, and students must attend school for at least nine years. Primary school education is tuition-free during the compulsory nine years, after which they must pay a small tuition fee during middle and high school.

TERTIARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION

China has largely embraced tertiary education, which is regarded as post-secondary school learning supported by universities, technical training institutes, community colleges, and research laboratories. This is essentially the country's competitiveness in an increasingly innovation-driven global economy. Chinese universities are generally divided into four tiers, with Tier 1 encompassing universities designated to receive substantial central government funding to develop China as a world-class research center. Majority of students who attend Chinese universities pursue degrees in science and engineering fields as China seeks to transition to a consumer-driven and innovations economy.

At least 60% of high school graduates in China now attend a university, up from 20% in the 1980s. The number of Chinese citizens has considerably increased over the years as has the number of higher education institutions, which have more than doubled in the past decade from 1,022 to 2,263.
Part
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Part
02

Most Popular Media Channels in China

It was found that trends seen in the US where younger generations are forgoing traditional media like television and radio are also seen in China. The change in technology may have also changed the media landscape so much that 55.5% of Chinese consumer attention is now on digital media. More of these points are discussed in greater detail below.

OVERVIEW

Chinese adults were estimated to have spent 6 hours, 23 minutes a day with major media in 2018, which is an 11-minute jump from 2017. When we look at how much of that time is spent broken down by media channels, we see that TV penetration remained the highest at 93.5% in 2018, compared with 64% for the internet. However, the Chinese media landscape is going through a dramatic shift from offline to online, and traditional offline media is fighting to survive as a result. Digital video is challenging linear TV as the best delivery channel for entertainment and advertising. As a result, advertising in China has evolved drastically. Ad spending on digital overtook traditional media in 2016, and since then, digital has continued to grow as the preferred channel for advertisers. Digital was estimated to capture 64.6% of total media ad spending.

MEDIA CHANNELS

Consumer attention is moving rapidly from traditional media to digital media. By the end of 2019, it is estimated that 55.5% of Chinese consumers' attention will go to digital media, which is followed by 39.8% to TV, 1.6% to print, and 3.1% to radio. Even though young people are driving the change to online media, Chinese adults overall are moving from traditional media. In 2018, 47.1% of media time, or 3 hours, was estimated to go to internet activities, which was a 19-minute uptick from 2017. By the end of this year, adults in China are expected to spend more than 50% of their media time online.

New devices are changing consumer tastes and the way they get information. 97% of Chinese people have a mobile phone, and 83% of people have a smartphone. 94% of people have a television, and 19% have a television that can stream internet content. Adults were estimated to spend over 70% of their daily internet time in 2018 on mobile devices, versus 21% on desktops/laptops, and 9% on non-mobile devices such as connected TVs. 82% of internet users watch regular television on a television set, while 25% stream television content on another device. 16% watch recorded content on a television set, and 23% subscribe to an on-demand service with their television set.

WHAT AND HOW THEY CONSUME

Chinese youngsters are driving this transformation in the media landscape, but changing attitudes and fortunes for the larger Chinese market are also changing the way people get information. Chinese young people have high adoption and usage of mobile devices and have growing wealth and income levels. However, older populations, like those over 35, also have growing wealth and income levels and are largely entrepreneurial than in previous generations. This on-the-move mindset may explain the drastic shift to mobile devices. With these mobile devices come over-the-top (OTT) apps that let people consume the media that they want. According to PwC, China's OTT sector will see a 16.3% growth in revenue from 2017 to 2022, which is twice the 7.9% growth rate of traditional television and home video. The growth will be due to 148 million new households installing high-speed internet and 381 million getting high-speed mobile internet by 2022. Even though the number of new web series titles have been down by 21.6%, the total number of views went up to 76.4 billion in 2018, which is a 56% increase from 2017.

In terms of how they get news and watch their favorite shows, Chinese youngsters prefer the internet, and in second place is the TV. Interestingly, almost 20% of Chinese youngsters never watch television, while 20.5% never read newspapers, and 50% never listen to the radio. Online media is dominated by a few internet powerhouses which include Tencent, iQiyi, and Youku. Brands like iQiyi are wildly popular with the younger crowd, where 83% of their audience is under the age of 35. Younger people also have more of an appetite for short videos, which are blowing up in China. 80% of those that watch short videos are under the age of 35.

Part
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Part
03

Sports and Extreme Sports in China

We determined that China’s government has expressed a strong desire to increase the nation’s sports primacy on an international level. President Xi Jinping has expressed a desire to increase Chinese mass sports participation to realize the nation’s dream of rejuvenation. Table tennis, badminton, soccer, basketball, and running are all popular sports in China. However, the nation’s diverse terrain makes it an appealing location for the practice of several extreme sports. While previous generations focused entirely on enrichment and acquiring property, the latest generation of middle-class children, now adults, are avidly seeking thrills from adrenaline sports.

Sports and Extreme Sports in China

According to the Telegraph, the People’s Republic of China (hereafter, “China”) has shown an interest in achieving primacy in the sporting world. President Xi Jinping has expressed the position that building up China’s sporting prowess is an integral part of the nation’s rejuvenation. President Xi has made considerable effort to encourage domestic fitness participation. China Daily indicates that the Chinese government plans to develop 1000 sports cities by 2020; the Chinese government expects that a third of the population (roughly 435 million people) will engage in regular physical exercise by that period.

China Daily also reports that the government and private entities are investing in sports (regular and extreme) with the expectation of developing local culture, logistics, technology, and tourism potential. Their ultimate goal is to bolster the local economies of towns through these investments. For example, Wuzhizhou Island generates $159 million annually from extreme sports like diving. The South China Morning Post reports that China’s sports industry reached a market value of $30.6 billion in 2017, with the potential to reach $460 billion by 2020.

Popular Sports in China

According to Sapore di Cina, China’s national sports are considered to be table tennis and badminton. You can see tables for the former in university campuses, local parks, and yards. And people play badminton before work, during lunch breaks, and in the evening.

Sapore di Cina reports that the three most influential sports in China are soccer, basketball, and running. Currently, there are fewer than 11,000 soccer fields in China, but President Xi (a player and fan of the sport) plans to increase that number to 70,000 by the end of 2020. With the expectation that 50 million Chinese people, including 30 million students, will play the sport regularly. Meanwhile, Forbes (via Sapore di Cina) reports that 18% of Chinese who are athletically involved play basketball. And Bloomberg reports that, despite President Xi’s efforts to build soccer as the national sport, the NBA is extremely popular in China. Lastly, Sapore di Cina reports that the number of marathons in China has increased over the last seven years. In keeping with the expected 2020 growth in sports, the number of runners is expected to increase by 10 million, and the number of planned events is expected to reach 800.

We close this section with a note on the popularity of winter sports in China. With China’s hosting of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games, President Xi expects the event to boost the popularity of winter sports in China. With 300 million people expected to participate in winter sports (at an industry value of ¥1 trillion). Sapore di Cina reports that China’s annual ski industry report recorded 646 ski resorts and 11.3 million people who ski (at least once a year) at the end of 2016. The Chinese government expects to increase the number of ski resorts to 800 and build 650 skating rinks by the 2022 Winter Olympics

Extreme Sports: Participation and Feelings

Chinese interest in extreme sports first manifested in 2004 with the formation of the National Association of Extreme Sports. That event was followed three years later with Shanghai’s Kia X Games, the first extreme sports competition held in China. In the years that followed, extreme sporting events blossomed across the country. From the International Extreme Sports Festival (FISE) held in Chengdu, the FB-Festival’s 4x4 rally in Inner Mongolia, a surf competition held on the Qiantang River, air motocross demonstrations on the Shanghai Bund, and to kayak races held in Nujiang Canyon.

Marketing to China indicates that extreme sports are popular in China and not just because of the potential for profit (which is considerable). Rather, the terrain across the land is ideal for the practice of nearly every conceivable form of extreme sport. The mountains of Tibet provide excellent hiking opportunities, the island of Hainan has the perfect climate for surfing, the cliffs of Yangshuo make for excellent rock climbing, Hebei Province provides negative 20-degree skiing weather year-round, and Qiandao Lake provides excellent diving conditions. But the potential for extreme sports is not excluded from the urban areas. Though the government is still developing the plans, Chinese and foreign entrepreneurs have looked at the possibility of using Beijing and Macao for BASE jumping sites.

From the very beginning of extreme sports in China, the government has supervised its development in Chinese territory. In practical terms, this would suggest that extreme sports in China have managed to thrive and grow due to government approval. As we stated above, the Chinese government has an interest in increasing China’s sport primacy; the Chinese government’s position on extreme sports is part of its overall interest in that overarching goal. However, we neither imply nor suggest that extreme sports are being imposed on China’s citizens by the government.

Marketing to China reports that young, urban Chinese are increasingly demonstrating themselves to be thrill-seekers, with a strong interest in adrenaline sports. This attraction to extreme sports represents a shift in the priorities and attitudes of China’s citizens. Previously, recreational sports were considered the province of the especially well-to-do classes, but the new middle class’s increased purchasing power has allowed it to enter the recreational sporting realm. The latest generation of children (now adults in their 20s and 30s), far from holding the traditional goal of focusing all effort on enrichment and property acquisition, are now more interested in leisure. Marketing to China reports that these adults aspire to a way of life detached from the previous generation’s social constraints; within this context, sports and extreme sports have found fertile soil to take root.

Conclusion

The Chinese government has expressed strong interest in making China a sports superpower in the coming years. The government plans to develop 1000 sports cities by 2020 and to have a third of the citizenry regularly engaged in physical exercise. China’s sports industry reached a market value of $30.6 billion in 2017; that figure is expected to increase to $460 billion by 2020. Popular sports in China include table tennis, badminton, soccer, basketball, running, and, eventually, winter sports. Extreme sports practices in China include hiking, surfing, rock climbing, diving, surfing, kayak races, air motocross, 4x4 rallies, and others. Finally, the increased purchasing power of the middle-class has allowed them to get involved in recreational sports; the adult children of the middle-class, seeking an escape from the social constraints of the previous generation, have demonstrated a keen interest in extreme sports.
Part
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Part
04

Chinese Consumers - Passion Points.

After reviewing credible sources, including reports published by Mintel, the Financial Times, and the World Tourism Cities Federation, we have determined five of the top activities (passion points) that Chinese consumers engage in. These include fitness exercises, online interactions (instant messaging), traveling abroad with family members, karaoke, and reading. Below we have presented an overview of our research strategy, along with the relevant findings from our research.

METHODOLOGY

We began our research by examining surveys, statistical data, media news reports, and industry reports for information on the top activities (passion points) among Chinese consumers. However, we were unable to locate articles encompassing different activities or a ranking that listed passion points that meet the research criteria. Next, we searched for the activities considered to be the most popular amongst Chinese consumers supported by statistics (e.g., the volume of consumers performing them). Afterward, we cross-referenced the passion points we discovered to find any impact that the activities have had on numerous markets in China. We also searched for high-time consuming passion points for Chinese consumers using the sources mentioned above.

Using the research strategy outlined above, we compiled a list of five activities as well as sources that discussed the amount of time consumers in China spend engaging in them. We selected the activities that are performed regularly or daily and are time-consuming. Additionally, we chose those that were mentioned frequently across different reports.


FIVE OF THE TOP ACTIVITIES/PASSION POINTS THAT CHINESE CONSUMERS ENGAGE IN

FITNESS

According to Mintel, Chinese consumers believe that a healthy work/life balance is valuable. Nearly half (45%) acknowledge that maintaining a healthy lifestyle is one of the most crucial matters in one's life. As result, many consumers in China are concentrating on their health/fitness more while lifestyles are getting more hectic. A recent study indicates that 76% of Chinese consumers in urban regions have formed a tendency of performing fitness activities and sports. Some of the most common fitness activities in the country include jogging (39% of respondents), walking (6% of respondents), and yoga (5% respondents), according to a recent survey. Meanwhile, about 4% of Chinese consumers engage in basketball, 4% in swimming, 3% in cycling, and 3% partake in a gym fitness program.

China is one of the most active nations, with 87.8% of the population receiving sufficient exercise, which is considered to be "75 minutes of high-effort activity or 150 minutes of moderate-effort exercise per week." Around 64% of consumers in China desire to enhance their overall health, while about 44% are driven by the urge to look healthier. Finally, up to four in ten consumers in the country confess to exercising to diminish stress.

ONLINE ACTIVITIES (INSTANT MESSAGING ON WECHAT)

In China, there are roughly 800 million internet users, which makes the nation the largest market for tech corporations in the world. About 98% of users in the country utilize their mobile phones to gain access to the web. Millennials rule internet usage in China. Online chatting has become prevalent in China, as two-thirds of the population likes to converse on the internet using their laptops or mobile device, according to Marketing China. The majority of Chinese consumers (90% to 95%) use the internet for messaging. WeChat consumes the largest portion of time relating to online chatting. WeChat is "an all-in-one platform that combines social messaging, mobile payments, and in-app mini-programs." Over 300 million of its users contributed at least 90 minutes of their time on WeChat in the previous year.

TRAVEL ABROAD WITH FAMILY

As reported by the World Tourism Cities Federation (WTCF), Chinese consumers enjoy traveling internationally. More than half (56.1%) of consumers in China state that sightseeing is a vital objective of their travels abroad. Regarding outbound tourism, individuals traveling abroad with family members comprised 62.50% of visits. In the year 2017, outbound tourists from China amounted to 130.51 million, indicating a year-on-year increase of 7%. Also, the overseas consumption of this group hit $258 billion in 2017, representing a growth of 5%. Nearly half, (48.61%) of consumers in China traveling abroad reside in first-tier municipalities. The most common locations for them are Europe (60.69%) and Asia (61.25%). Additionally, holidays represent the most popular time choice for international travel for Chinese consumers with 33.68%. The Chinese New Year and National Day provide around seven free days of travel.

KARAOKE

One of the most popular activities among Chinese consumers involves attending KTV or karaoke. Several KTV establishments in the nation are open 24 hours per day. The majority of individuals frequent these shops at 8 or 9 p.m. or the evening time. Karaoke allows friends and loved ones to connect by consuming alcohol, eating, and singing simultaneously. Typically, karaoke takes up around four hours of an individual's time. China maintains the "record for the longest karaoke session, which lasted 456 hours, two minutes, and five seconds" as a total of 6,281 songs were covered. Throughout China, about 20,000 karaoke mini-booths were installed in various shopping centers because of its popularity, helping to attain a profit of approximately 3.18 billion Yuan, or $470 million.

READING

On average, adults in China read 7.78 books per year, according to a survey on the reading practices of consumers in the area. In 2017, more than two-thirds (67.5%) of residents in the nation's urban regions and 49.3% of those in rural areas displayed a habit of reading books. Roughly 73% of adults in China utilize various platforms to browse books, including digital readers, smart pads, and online channels. As reported by Publish Drive, 812 million Chinese citizens, or 58.34% of the country's population, has a consistent reading habit. Females in the nation read books for entertainment, and males tend to do it for educational purposes.

Amazon China surveyed around 11,000 Chinese readers on the amount of time spent reading in 2016. It found that up to 80% of respondents read for over half an hour per day, while 50% had studied more than ten publications during the past year.

Part
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Part
05

Chinese Consumers - Photography and Video

In China, consumers are increasingly engaging with photo and video, although more people take photos than video. These consumers also like to edit their photos and videos and use filters, meanwhile, a smaller percentage is engaging in live broadcasting. Overall, consumers in China enjoy taking photos and videos related to things like food, friends, family, selfies, nature, travel, physical activity, school, and wealth/luxury goods/fashion, and most of the photo and video being taken appears to be done using smartphones, however DSLR cameras are seeing an increase in demand. A majority of Chinese consumers are sharing photo and video via social media, in particular, on short video apps. Some of the most popular social sharing apps being used by Chinese consumers are WeChat, Weibo, and Badu. Below, you will find a deep dive of these findings!

BEHAVIOR

A 2018 report published by Deloitte found that 61% of Chinese consumers take photos, which is a bit lower than the global average (70%). When creating photos and videos, Chinese consumers tend to use filters more often than the global average (33% and 24% respectively). Deloitte also found that 32% of Chinese consumers spend time editing their images and photos, compared to 23% of consumers globally. In the Chinese market, there is a strong consumer demand for image and video editing software, including things like filters and beauty software. Additionally, when it comes to live broadcasting, 19% of Chinese consumers partake in this form of video compared to 14% of the general global consumer base.

SUBJECT MATTER

Collectively, our research findings suggest that some of the most popular video and photo content being created by Chinese consumers involves subject matter such as food, friends, family, selfies, nature, travel, physical activity, school, and wealth/luxury goods/fashion. For example, according to a report by the World Tourism Organization, Chinese consumers want to make 'sharable' memories, particularly while traveling. Travelers take photos of things like authentic local foods, their traveling companions, and tourist destinations.

According to the South China Morning Post, there is an increasing trend in China of taking photos and selfies in arctic areas in Northern Europe, including images from arctic cruises, the Northern Lights and hot springs. Additionally, content uploading to Chinese photo and video sharing app, Kuaishou, commonly includes food/cooking, workouts, dancing, and spending time with family. One of the biggest photo trends on Weibo as of 2018 were images related to flaunting wealth (one such hashtag challenge related to this garnered over 2.3 billion views) including things like cars, clothing, makeup, and other luxury goods. This trend consequently spurred an anti-movement of flaunting things like diplomas, military credentials, and study materials.

DEVICES

Chinese consumers are creating a lot of photo and video content using their mobile devices. The use of digital cameras in China is growing as a result of prospect development activities in the country, which is further illustrated by the rising demand for DSLR cameras in China. However, the use of low-end pocket-sized digital cameras in China is increasingly being replaced by the use of smartphone cameras. As of 2019, 83% of people in China had a smartphone.

SOCIAL SHARING/PREFERED SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS

According to Deloitte, Chinese consumers share photos on social media a lot more than the global average (52% and 38% respectively). Chinese consumers also share videos on social media more than the global average (48% and 26% respectively). Additionally, Chinese consumers spend a lot of time on 'short video platforms.' In 2018 there was a boom in the use of short video apps in China. In alignment with this, the number of Chinese consumers participating in cross-platform sharing of photos and videos increased during 2018. According to a report by Hootsuite, WeChat is the top social media platform in China as of 2019 with 79% of Chinese internet users on the app; this is followed by Badu Teba (72%), QQ (68%), Sina Weibo (60%), Youku (59%), and Qzone (59%).

FREQUENCY

Although there are large number of credible surveys and reports regarding the social media and mobile use of consumers in China, we did not come across much information regarding the frequency at which Chinese consumers are taking photos and videos. Despite this, we were able to locate some related information that we feel illustrates how the use of photo and video among Chinese consumers is widespread and is occurring frequently. A 2019 Hootsuite report noted that in China, the average time spent using the internet was almost 6 hours a day, and almost 2 hours a day using social media.

According to QuestMobile, 5.5% of time spent on mobile devices in China is dedicated to the use of short-video apps as of 2017, which was a drastic increase from 1.3% in 2016, while another source more recently pinned this figure at around 11.4%. As of 2016, 47.5% of Chinese social media users post content weekly, and 32.7% share content daily. Overall 76.2% of people in China report sharing content actively on social media platforms, and 10% say they share videos. Overall, 80% of China's total traffic and data usage is allocated to the use of audio and video apps. On WeChat, 410 million audio and video calls are made every day.
Part
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Part
06

Chinese Consumers - Travel Behaviors

Chinese consumers prefer to travel to familiar-known areas to them, like Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan; other international preferred destinies are the USA, Australia, and France. Chinese consumers spend about 261.1 billion in tourism annually. This increases by 4.5% every year. Additionally, the majority of Chinese people prefer to travel with family or friends.

Methodology

We started our research by looking into essential sources that report about the statistics of traveling Chinese consumers. In this search, we found a document from the Nielsen website titled “Outbound Chinese Tourism and Consumption Trends,” which reported about how often Chinese people travel, alongside other information like the budget of Chinese consumers when traveling. Additional information included the main tourist destinations that Chinese consumers visit during their travels, who they usually travel with, and what kind of payment applications they use.

After analyzing this information, we used other reliable sources, such as McKinsey, to corroborate with the given report. We also visited the Telegraph, which provided additional information about how often Chinese people travel and the top destinations of Chinese travelers. Lastly, it is important to note that the report from these reliable sources came from data from Chinese organizations such as the China National Tourism Administration.

How often do Chinese Consumers Travel?

The China National Tourism Administration reported that Chinese tourists traveled on 131 million occasions in 2017. Moreover, in 2016, they spent $261.1 billion in tourism alone. This increases by 4.5% every year. Additionally, a 2017 survey by the Outbound Chinese Tourism and Consumption Trends found that the average Chinese consumer travels to 2.1 countries per year. In 2018, the number of countries that Chinese consumers would like to visit increased to a rate of 2.7 different countries.

Top Destinations for Chinese Consumers

Chinese consumers like to travel to places familiar to them like Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. This is because these places provide “simpler visa procedures, affordable prices, and convenient transportation.” Other places they like to visit are Japan, Thailand, South Korea, the United States, Singapore, Taiwan, Australia, and France. The percentage of Chinese consumers who traveled to Asian countries reached 67% in 2017. Among these consumers, 51% traveled to Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan. On the other hand, 38% traveled to Europe, 25% to North America, and 20% to Australia or New Zealand.

Do Chinese People Travel Alone or with Their Families?

About 41% of Chinese consumers like to travel to theme parks. These consumers are usually married couples who were born during the 1980s. Additionally, they usually bring their children when they travel during the holidays. On the other hand, those who were born during the 1990s like to travel with their friends.

Moreover, in 2017, it was found that 70% of Chinese consumers like to travel with family and friends. They also have the highest amount spent on international trips among global travelers.

Other Data

The younger Chinese demographic enjoy self-guided or semi-self-guided tours in Asian destinations like Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. The older Chinese demographic (45-60 years old) enjoy packaged tours or group tours that visit international destinations like Europe. Furthermore, Chinese consumers who travel usually use digital platforms like WeChat, Alipay, and Applepay as their payment applications. This led to the rise of mobile payments because about 77% of Chinese consumers pay through mobile apps during their overseas trips.

The typical Chinese tourist archetypes consist of the following: 20% Value-seeking sighter, (19%) the Shopper, (19%) the Individualist, (13%) the Backpacker, (12%) the Aspirant, (11%) the Sophisticated traveler, (10%) the Unplugged, and (5%) the Novice traveler. Value-seeking sighters are usually parents who are part of the low to middle-income bracket, the Shoppers are usually married couples aged between 30 to 40 years old, the Individualists tend to be high-income earners who are aged between 20 to 30 years old, and the Backpackers tend to be part of the low to middle-income bracket aged between 20-30 years old. Furthermore, the Aspirants are usually low-income earners, the Sophisticated travelers are middle-aged and high-income earners, the Unplugged tend to be part of the middle-income workers who are single, and Novice travelers are usually middle-income workers.

Part
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Part
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Chinese Consumers - Social Media Content

In this study, we found that Chinese travelers share social media content that usually contain memories and experiences during their travel. Millennial Chinese travelers generally share content pertaining to attractions, travel guides, food experience, travel experience, hotel experience, shopping, question and answer regarding travel, recommendation about tour routes, and entertainment shows and activities. Post-90’s (or those who were born during the 90s) Chinese travelers generally share content regarding walking, going to local markets, food experience, and interacting with the locals. Lastly, young Chinese travelers generally share content that include video-savvy destinations, food and restaurant locations, and hotels. Below is a detailed explanation of our findings.

BEHAVIOR OF CHINESE CONSUMERS IN SOCIAL MEDIA

According to Mailman X, a destination marketing firm in Shanghai, there is a great change in the Chinese travelers’ use of digital and social media platforms including their travel behavior, research, and decision-making. Chinese travelers are noted to be into technology (techy). The younger Chinese generation usually aims to be the first to post or share content rather than to follow what has been posted or shared.

CONTENT THAT CHINESE TRAVELERS POST OR SHARE IN SOCIAL MEDIA

According to the South China Morning Post, Chinese tourists primarily look for a holiday experience to share or post on social media. Chinese travelers generally post and share content that include memories that can be posted and shared through selfies on social media platforms such as WeChat. These content emphasize the travel experiences that can help in enhancing the popularity of the place shared/posted. The same research stated that Chinese travelers love to receive compliments and positive comments on their social media posts regarding travel including asking “how they edit and post photos”. Communicating with the other people through comment is considered as travel essentials of the Chinese travelers. Social media posts of Chinese travelers related to their travel experience is not only for the aim of sharing. It also deals with the Chinese culture showing that each generation is close with each other. They tend to get emotional support from family and friends through posting and sharing in social media.

GENERAL INFORMATION ACROSS DIFFERENT AGE RANGES

MILLENNIAL CHINESE TRAVELERS
According to Mafengwo, a social travel site and the leading travel application for photo, sports, language learning, and many more, the most popular posts and shares of the Millennial Chinese travelers include attractions, travel guides, food experience, travel experience, hotel experience, shopping, question and answer regarding travel, recommendation about tour routes, and entertainment shows and activities. 70% of the Millennial Chinese travelers spend 14 minutes on editing photos through different applications before posting them to social media. Chinese travelers mainly go out for a trip in the morning at 10 am, and by 10 pm, they commonly stay at the hotel. This means that from 10 am to 10 pm, Chinese travelers use social media applications to post and share their travel experience content. At 11 am and 4 pm, Chinese travelers increase their social media posts and shares when they have their lunch or dinner.
POST-90’S CHINESE TRAVELERS
According to UNIU’s Post-90’s Tourism Consumption Report, post-90’s Chinese travelers look for shareable travel destination to post or share in social media. Their posts usually contain a lot of walking, going to local markets, food experience, and interacting with the locals. 97% of the post-90’s Chinese travelers prefer to walk around the place and visit the local market of the particular destination. 90% of them look forward night markets and attempt to try local food specialties. 87% of them aimed to watch local performances. Finally, 70% of them prefer to interact with the destination’s locals.
YOUNG CHINESE TRAVELERS
Young Chinese travelers typically to take videos and photos of their travel destination. Their posts and shares usually contain video-savvy destinations, food and restaurant locations, and hotels.

EXAMPLES OF PHOTOS OR VIDEOS POSTED BY CHINESE CONSUMERS/TRAVELERS

2018’S TOP 5 TRENDS FOR CHINESE TOURISM AND DIGITAL MARKETING
An article published by Dragon Trail Interactive shows the social media content post and share of a particular Chinese traveler regarding recommendation about tour routes and food experience.
WEIBO
Weibo is the number one social media platform in China where Chinese travelers typically post and share their content regarding travel experience. Using the website’s filters, which are mainly focused on posts with travel hashtags, many results of travel photos and videos about the content that Chinese travelers like to post or share will appear.
TRAVE IN HONG KONG
This video showcases the travel experience of a Chinese traveler to understand what most post-90’s Chinese travelers do, which includes walking, going to local markets, food experience, and interacting with the locals.

Sources
Sources

From Part 04
Quotes
  • "Chinese consumer spending over the last year, reveals that urban Chinese consumers, today, value the importance of an enjoyable job and work/life balance more so than they did just five year ago."
  • "Mintel research indicates that consumers are recognising the importance of their well-being and personal values. However, ‘making more money’ continues to be a priority, as 25% of consumers today include this on their list of the most important things in life"
  • "Eating well has become a spending priority, as Mintel research reveals that 54% of urban Chinese consumers in tier one-to-three cities have increased their spending on in-home food, up from 46% in 2016, making it the top spending sector for 2017."
  • "Transport expenditure is mainly made up of spending on the daily commute, both on public and private transportation. In 2017, the sector saw 17.3% growth over the previous year, reaching RMB 2,276 billion."
Quotes
  • "New research from global market intelligence agency Mintel reveals that three in four (76%) urban Chinese consumers have developed a habit of doing sport and fitness activities."
  • "Running (39%) is overwhelmingly the most popular sport/fitness activity (includes jogging), with walking (6%) a distant second, and yoga (5%) rounds out the top three most common sport/fitness activities done in the six months to May 2017. Further down the list are swimming and basketball (4% respectively), and cycling and fitness programmes in gyms (3% respectively)."
  • "Improving overall health (64%) is the most common motivator for urban Chinese consumers who exercise regularly, while looking better is a motivator for 44%."
  • "Aside from physical fitness, urban Chinese consumers are also paying close attention to healthy eating."
Quotes
  • "China has more than 800m internet users, according to government figures published earlier this week, cementing the country’s status as the world’s biggest market"
  • "Of China’s 802m internet users, 788m access the web via mobile devices such as smartphones, according to the China Internet Network Information Center, a government agency."
  • "Millennials dominate the Chinese internet. Three-quarters of users are under the age of 40, with a heavy concentration of 20-something consumers."
  • "The largest chunk of time was spent in Tencent’s WeChat, an all-in-one platform that combines social messaging, mobile payments and in-app mini programs"
  • "Half of WeChat’s 750m users last year used the app for more than 90 minutes each day."
Quotes
  • "But also with the development of new technologies, surfing online becomes quite easy and popular where there are also 2/3 people chatting or doing other activities on the Internet through their mobile or laptop. "
  • "Karaoke is also a common social activity in China. Alcohol is often involved, and skill in singing is not a prerequisite."
Quotes
  • "In 2017, China’s outbound tourists reached 130.51 million, a year-on-year growth of 7%."
  • "With the rapid growth of the number of China's outbound tourists, the total overseas consumption of Chinese tourists has also hit record highs. "
  • " in 2017, it reached 258 billion US dollars (about 1.69 trillion yuan), an increase of 5%."
Quotes
  • "If you are in China and want to live an authentic Chinese life with local people, KTV is one of the places to be. Karaoke is a really famous activity among Chinese people, and experiencing it with locals can help you to get closer with them and enjoy parties that are totally different from western culture. "
  • "Most of the KTV places in China never close. Most Chinese people go there during the evening around 8 or 9 pm. However, since this is the most popular time slot"
  • "However, when going to KTV with your friend, average singing sessions will usually last for four hours or more."
  • "China holds the record for the longest karaoke session with 456 hours, two minutes and five seconds (that’s 19 days!) and a record 6,281 karaoke songs sung."
  • "You can find mini karaoke booths in shopping malls and enjoy short singing sessions. Last year, already 20,000 of them were implemented throughout China and made a profit of 3.18 billion yuan (US$470 million). "
Quotes
  • "A survey of reading habits shows adult Chinese read 7.78 books a year on average, and children and teenagers under 17 read 8.81 books, according to survey results released on Wednesday in Beijing."
  • "Xu said although the number is rising steadily, the average of books Chinese people read are outnumbered by Japan with 11, South Korea with 9, France with 8 and the United States with 7."
  • "The survey covered 18,666 samples collected from 29 provincial-level administrations in the country. After certain sociological and statistical calculations by computer, it can accurately reflect the whole population."
  • "73 percent of adult Chinese read digitally, including online, mobile, digital readers and smart pads"
  • "When it comes to favorite categories of books, Chinese love literature most, followed by lifestyle, history and psychology. As for digital reading, urban love stories are the most popular, followed by history/military, literature classics and fantasy."
Quotes
  • "According to data by Chinese Academy of Press and Publication, 58.4% percent of the population regularly reads books. This amounts to around 812 million people altogether. Increasing the percentage of readers is part of the state agenda."
  • "They have received answers from more than 11,000 participants from 500 Chinese cities. According to the results, 80% of the participants have read more than half an hour every day. 50% of the participants have read over 10 books the past year."
  • "Another interesting finding of the same survey is that women tend to read more for pleasure, while men read more for knowledge acquisition or career planning."
Quotes
  • "Meanwhile, in China, only 12.2 percent of women fail to get enough exercise, outperforming their counterparts by almost 4 percent, according to 21-Century Finance."
  • "The WHO defines sufficient exercise as 75 minutes of high-effort activity or 150 minutes of moderate-effort activity per week. "
From Part 07
Quotes
  • "With new technology and better accessibility to a variety of travel digital resources, we are seeing a major shift to free independent travel (FIT) when it comes to researching and planning outbound travel."
Quotes
  • "It’s a tectonic shift in consumer identity that has a direct manifestation in the type of experiences sought by tourists, and can help to explain the burst in popularity for homages to famous sightseeing spots and the surge in bookings for unique recreational experiences recommended on social media."
Quotes
  • "The post-’90s Chinese travellers are also more flexible in their holiday times, as they seek to save money on their vacations by traveling during non-peak times. "
Quotes
  • "Young Chinese travellers like to take short videos at their travel destination. With an increase in video sharing, video-savvy destinations, food establishments, and hotels may capture the attention of Chinese travellers and become popular."
Quotes
  • "During their trips, Chinese travellers open Mafengwo travel apps an average of 5.6 times/day. "