CBD Education Research

Part
01
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Part
01

Hemp, Cannabis, and Marijuana - Differences

In this study, we found that cannabis is the term used to describe the family of plants that are mainly classified as cannabis sativa and cannabis indica. Marijuana is a colloquial term for the cannabis strans with psychedelic effects. A marijuana plant can belong to the cannabis sativa or cannabis indica species, and it needs to have a chemical makeup of 5% to 40% tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC) to be considered psychoactive. On the other hand, hemp is a member of cannabis sativa with less than 0.3% THC in its chemical makeup and it is an industrial plant. Below is a detailed explanation of our findings.

MAIN FINDINGS

Cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis are the species of cannabis. This means that cannabis is a family of plants. Marijuana is the colloquial term for cannabis indica and cannabis sativa. Cannabis ruderalis is “rarely farmed due to its naturally low tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC) and small yield”.

There are quite a few differences between cannabis indica and cannabis sativa though it is still debatable whether they should be considered as distinct species. “Sativa strains are typically taller, loosely branched and have long, narrow leaves”, while indica has shorter strains that are densely branched and have wider leaves. Sativa is better grown outdoors because it can grow as high as 20 feet, while indica is better grown indoors. Sativa contains a higher concentration of cannabinoid enzymes that do not have mind-altering effects, while indica has a higher THC concentration, and THC is the compound that gives people the feeling of being under the influence. On the other hand, hemp and Marijuana are types of cannabis that can be differentiated in the following:
APPEARANCE
Marijuana’s leaves tend to be broad-leafed, with a tight bud, nugget-like with hairs, while hemp has skinnier leaves concentrated on the top. Marijuana looks like a short fat bush from a distance, while hemp is taller, and it can be up to 20 feet tall.
CHEMICAL MAKEUP
The chemical compounds in cannabis that respond the body’s cannabinoid receptors are called cannabinoids. THC is the most common cannabinoid responsible for marijuana’s psychological effect. Hemp has less than 0.3% THC, while marijuana has around 5% to 40%. Hemp has also high cannabidiol that makes THC ineffective.
CULTIVATION ENVIRONMENT
Hemp is grown closely together (4 inches apart) in cooler climates, while marijuana is grown in warmer/humid temperatures in a controlled environment. Hemp usually takes about 108 to 120 days to mature, while marijuana takes around 60 to 90 days.
USES
Hemp has more than 25,000 applications including automobiles, body care, clothing, construction, food, plastic, soap concrete, and many more, while marijuana is used for recreational and medicinal purposes.
ESTIMATED MARKET VALUE
The US hemp market is valued at $452 million, while the marijuana market is valued between $10 billion and $120 billion.
LEGALITY
As of December 2018, according to a signed farm bill, hemp is considered an agricultural product in the U.S. aside from Idaho, South Dakota, Kansas, and Nebraska. Marijuana is still considered a drug and it is illegal in most states in the U.S.
SPECIES
Hemp is only classified as a member of cannabis sativa, while marijuana can either be cannabis sativa or cannabis indica.
Part
02
of thirteen
Part
02

Hemp versus Cannabis - Major Cultivation Processes

The major cultivation processes for harvesting Hemp are soil-draining, retting, combining/straight combining and baling while the major cultivation processes for harvesting for Cannabis are seed sampling, germinating process, lighting processes and storing.

Hemp

Soil-draining is an essential cultivation process for hemp because the plant requires loose, well-drained, and well-aerated soil with high fertility and abundant organic matter so that it will not damp off. Additionally, the soil needs to have a pH between 6 and 7 to keep the hemp healthy.

Retting is another cultivation process for hemp. This process helps break the bonds between the two different fibers that exist within the hemp plant, and it also helps with the seed production process of the plant. The process is done in a field because it requires dew, rain, wind, and sun and other natural factors for it to work. The process usually takes 21-28 days to complete, but certain conditions such as dry weather and low dew conditions affect the duration of the process. This cultivation process is also known to be a “microbial process.

The combining or straight combing process is done before harvesting hemp for its seeds. The process involves lifting the header to cut the crop below the seed head, which is about one-third of the plant. Combining is recommended to be done on the 110th day of the plant. Additionally, it is vital to take note of the hemp variety when choosing the right size, type, and material for the combining equipment.

Bailing is another cultivation process done with hemp. It is usually done in large, round, soft-core balers, in where the plant could dry more quickly in storage. Hemp twines are used for tying bales because products such as polyester and plastic twines could contaminate the bale. Plastic net wraps and twines are sometimes used to improve the bales’ integrity during its transportation. Bales are stored indoors and under dry conditions to prevent it from rotting. Moreover, the stalk’s moisture must be less than 15% during the bailing process and must continue to dry until it reaches 10% moisture. It is important to note that Hemp straw can also absorb air moisture.

Cannabis

One of the essential cultivating processes of cannabis is seed sampling. Seed sampling is essential because every cannabis seed is different from another. There are 29 known cannabis seeds, and it is crucial to identify which is female because the female cannabis plant has the trichome-rich cola buds which are used by users or consumers to smoke, vape, dab, or ingested, depending on their preference. Male plants are essential for pollination and reproduction. This is why there is heightened essentiality within this specific cultivation process.

Another cultivating process that is essential to the cannabis plant is germination. The process usually starts within 1-2 weeks before the plant’s planting. The process requires transferring the seed to water, and between 24 hours up to seven days, the initial root from the seed will pop out. After this process, the seed is ready to be planted. There are various ways to do the germination process. One of them is through specialized starter cubes like the Rapid Rooster. The starter cubes place the seed in a moist and warm environment, accelerating the process of germination even faster. Another way is through the use of paper towels. The recommended temperature for the germination process is between 20 degree Celsius or 68-72 Fahrenheit. This mimics the temperature of spring. Moreover, Honest Marijuana, a credible source for all things cannabis, stated that germination should only be done with female plants, never with male plants.

The lighting process is another cultivating process that is important for cannabis. Every cannabis plant must have at least 18-24 hours of sunlight. Only sufficient amounts of water are required for the plant during this process because the plant is pest-prone. Cannabis plants have different needs for light as it grows. Furthermore, different kinds of lights can have different effects on cannabis. The kinds of lights that have good effects on the plant are High-Intensity Discharge, Compact Fluorescent Lightbulbs, LED Light Bulbs, Night Lighting, Room Lights, Light Distance, and the best light source, the Natural Light. Additionally, there are some situations where the lighting process goes first before the germination process.

Storing is one of the simplest and most important parts of cultivating cannabis. It is essential that cannabis is stored in a dark and cool place, as light degrades the cannabinoids and presents that exists within the plant’s resin glands within its buds. Overall, the process aims to preserve the cannabinoid and terpene content of the plant, and refrigeration is claimed to slow down the break down of cannabinoids. It is recommended to store cannabis in jars which are placed in cool places. It is also recommended releasing the air within the jars at least once a week to preserve its freshness.
Part
03
of thirteen
Part
03

CBD - Major Extraction Processes by Solvent Chemicals


HYDROCARBON EXTRACTION USING BUTANE

This extraction process uses butane as the extraction solvent to create butane hash oil. The process starts with cannabis and liquid butane (or a blend of propane and butane) in a system that has well-regulated pressure and heat. The butane solvent is then evaporated under a vacuum which converts it from a liquid to a vapor and thus it is easily removed.
The cannabis plant materials should be stored in a cool and dark place in vacuum-sealed bags or in bags filled with Nitrogen. This is done to preserve the quality of the starting materials as their quality affects the quality of the final concentrate. The precautionary measures above limit the exposure of the starting plant materials to ultraviolet rays, heat and oxygen, which may lead to cannabinoid degradation. The hydrocarbon extraction method using butane follows the following process:

  • Cold butane is allowed to run from the butane solvent tank into the material column (the wash). The cold butane washes the cannabis plant materials and dissolves the cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis. The resultant solution can be collected directly or passed through an in-line de-waxing column.
  • The next step in the extraction process is winterization/filtration to separate the butane from the dissolved cannabinoids and terpenes. If the extraction system does not have an in-line de-waxing column, winterization/filtration is applied. For winterization, ethanol (a polar solvent) is chilled until separation is achieved. Filtration is done using micron filters of various sizes to separate out the lipids from the concentrate solution. One shortcoming of winterization is that the polar ethanol might degrade some terpenes resulting in a product with less flavor.
  • After winterization/filtration, the concentrate has to be collected. The vessel is heated to remove the remaining butane by pushing it out of the concentrate solution back to the cold butane solvent tank.
  • The final step in the hydrocarbon extraction using butane is the removal of the residual solvent depending on the desired end product. For wax, the concentrate solution is whipped to remove the remaining butane but if the desired end product is shatter, the concentrate solution has to be spread on Teflon sheets.
ADVANTAGES OF HYDROCARBON EXTRACTION USING BUTANE

  • Butane is the most efficient solvent for cannabis extraction since it is a low pressure system and extractions occur between 0 psi and 30 psi (pounds per square inch).

DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROCARBON EXTRACTION USING BUTANE
  • Butane is highly flammable and is outlawed in countries like Canada and in some states in the United States.

THE SUPERCRITICAL CO2 (SCCO2) CANNABIS EXTRACTION METHOD

This extraction process uses supercritical Carbon (IV) oxide as a solvent in the cannabidiol extraction process. The pressurized Carbon (IV) oxide pulls CBD from the cannabis pant materials. The gas is in a supercritical state because its gaseous state cannot act as a solvent and its liquid state is not a suitable solvent for this extraction process. In the supercritical state, CO2 has the density of a liquid, the diffusion properties of a gas, and low viscosity. These properties give CO2 the ability to hold a lot of material, the ability to penetrate even the smallest of spaces, and very little resistance to flow. Its density and polarity can also be altered when it is in a supercritical state. This process runs as follows:

ADVANTAGES OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION

  • Safety: CO2 is a common food additive and is used to produce carbonated soft drinks so it is largely safe and poses no serious hazards during the extraction process.
  • Effectiveness: Carbon (IV) oxide has been widely used as an extraction solvent for years by food companies. It is mostly applied in the removal of caffeine from coffee and as an extraction solvent in the production of essential oils.
DISADVANTAGES OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION
  • Expensive: The process of freezing and compressing the CO2 gas into a supercritical state requires sophisticated and extremely expensive equipment.
  • Technical Ability: CO2 cannabis extraction needs special technical know-how to be successful.

SOLVENT EXTRACTION METHOD USING ETHANOL

Ethanol has the ability to extract the full range of cannabinoids and terpenes making the end product safe for consumption. Ethanol also extracts chlorophyll from the plant materials which may pose harmful side effects. Ethanol has a low boiling point and is an efficient solvent in the extraction of CBD oil but the end product may have a lower concentration of terpenes and CBD and have a higher concentration of THC. An undesirable residue also remains after the process that is not good news for the immune system.
ADVANTAGES OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION USING ETHANOL

DISADVANTAGES OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION USING ETHANOL
  • This method is hazardous since butane and ethanol are highly flammable.


Part
04
of thirteen
Part
04

Broad Spectrum & Isolate CBD

Broad spectrum CBD is full spectrum CBD without any or with very minute amount of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), leaving the cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, fatty acids and other constituent compounds intact. CBD isolate is a pure form of CBD containing over 99% of pure CBD. CBD isolate comes as a white powder or as a mix with a carrier oil such as coconut oil.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BROAD SPECTRUM AND ISOLATE CBD

Cannabinoid (one of the constituents of CBD) work in synergy with terpenes (natural essential oils that give hemp plants their strong aroma) to produce what is known as the entourage effect. The entourage effect is a phenomenon that posits that the entire hemp plant, rather than an isolated active ingredient (CBD isolate in this case), allows the mix of essential constituents to work together with one another in a more natural and effective way. Broad spectrum CBD consumers can still get the benefits of full spectrum CBD without a professional or legal incapacitation by THC. CBD isolate contains no terpene or any other active ingredient and so cannot generate the entourage effect.

DIFFERENCES IN EXTRACTION PROCESSES

Broad spectrum CBD is obtained by filtering out the THC from full spectrum CBD using a special chromatography process. In some cases, broad spectrum CBD is derived from CBD isolate with additional cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes added in.
CBD isolate is obtained from full spectrum hemp extract. This extract is run through a distillation process, at carefully controlled temperature, inside a sealed environment to evaporate and separate the desired product from the mix. During the extraction process of CBD isolate, all constituent compounds of the plant are removed, including traces of chlorophyll, waxes, fatty acids, terpenes and THC.

DIFFERENCES IN OBSERVABLE EFFECTS AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES

Although there is much debate on which of full spectrum CBD products and CBD insulate is better, a 2015 study by Israeli scientists leans in favour of full spectrum CBD products. Many consumers believe that the full profile constituents of full spectrum CBD provides a synergistic performance advantage over CBD isolate, due to the entourage effect. For this same reason, there tends to be a preference for broad spectrum CBD over CBD isolate, being that it contains all the constituents of full spectrum CBD except THC [source 4].
Broad spectrum CBD is a favoured choice for consumers who are looking to not having traces of THC in their bodies for legal reasons or for sports drug tests. Some advantages of CBD isolate are:
  • It does not possess any flavour so it can easily be taken orally. It can also be used for cooking or for mixing other substances.
  • Since it does not contain THC, it can be used by THC sensitive people.

Part
05
of thirteen
Part
05

Entourage and Ensemble Effects - THC/CBD Processing

After exploring numerous media sources, research papers, and industry-specific sites, we have determined the Ensemble and Entourage effects as it relates to THC/CBD processing in the Endocannabinoid System. We compiled the Entourage and Ensemble effects based on the credibility of information provided by industry experts operating in the medical cannabis industry. THC connects with the brain's receptors and develops diverse strains of cannabis, which produce various forms and levels of relief and when CBD links with THC, it behaves differently creating an Entourage effect. This is due to CBD's modification of THC's psychoactive effects that result from getting too high. The Ensemble effects are useful in circumstances where CBD could relieve the antagonistic side effects of THC but could interfere with the medical benefits offered by THC.

EFFECTS

Various compounds located within the cannabis plant blend together to offer several recreational and medical effects. Cannabinoid serves as a group of molecules that possess the capacity to secure themselves to the endocannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the human body. CBD and THC attach to the CB1 and CB2 receptors located in the body's Endocannabinoid System. Both CBD and THC operate as the most biologically active cannabinoids capable of simulating human endocannabinoids at their receptor binding destinations. Though CB2 receptors are displayed on immune cells, CB1 receptors are revealed in the following areas of the body:


The Endocannabinoid System is capable of regulating the mood and immune function in human beings.

ENTOURAGE EFFECTS

The effects of cannabinoids on individuals depends on the receptors in which they bind to. While CBD primarily adheres to receptors established in the body, THC connects with receptors in the brain. Hence, distinct strains of cannabis will generate varying forms and levels of relief. When CBD is linked with THC, it reacts uniquely, which is referred to as the Entourage Effect. With the Entourage Effect, THC attains its full potential only if it is supplemented by additional compounds within the cannabis plant. The method of cannabis ingestion defines its impact, as well as the ways THC cooperates with the Endocannabinoid System. For instance, when an individual consumes a cannabis brownie, the THC advances to their liver where it is dissolved in 11-hydroxy-THC. In contrast with THC, 11-hydroxy-THC is about "five times more active at the CB1 receptor" in terms of psycho activity.

Meanwhile, when an individual smokes cannabis, the THC avoids the liver and goes into their bloodstream. The result is it is around five times less powerful than when it is consumed. The interaction between THC and CBD in the body system is complex, and those that utilize cannabis state that CBD adjusts THC's psychoactive effects of becoming too high, such as paranoia and anxiety. Therefore, CBD is currently being examined as a possible anti psychotic remedy in scientific research. Edibles with high levels of THC are remarkably powerful since they do not benefit from CBD's adapting effects.

Cultivators frequently produce deeply intoxicating, intense THC cannabis strains at the expense of CBD. For example, Marinol is a medication that includes synthetic THC and is considerable in appetite stimulation, but the drug causes patients to become paranoid and high after it arouses the CB1 receptors. Also, the patients usually do not tolerate it adequately. Nevertheless, drugs similar to Sativex that contain CBD and THC indulges patients because the CBD safeguards against the racing heart, anxiety, and paranoia that THC generates.

The psychoactive CB1 receptor is stimulated by THC, while CBD typically does not permit a similar effect. Therefore, if a person ingests THC and CBD together, fewer receptors may be available to help the THC activate and manage the psychoactive consequences (e.g., paranoia). CBD is psychoactive because it is capable of altering brain function as well as behavior. THC delivers relaxation and sedation primarily by being an "agonist of CB1 and CB2 receptors of the Endocannabinoid System." Since CBD maintains about 14 various methods of operation within the central nervous system, CBD's anti-paranoia/anxiety effects cannot be ascribed merely to CB1 occupancy.

Also, CBD improves the anti-cancer qualities of THC. Research has inferred that implementing CBD and THC to cancer cells within a lab is more efficient than utilizing THC solely to frustrate growth and eliminate cells. Finally, CBD functions discursively through "modulation of the THC/CB2 receptor interaction."

ENSEMBLE EFFECTS

The term "entourage" may indicate that just CBD upholds the central ingredient (THC). When vaporized, however, the cannabis plant contains about 24 additional anti-inflammatory molecules. Therefore, some researchers choose to apply the word Ensemble as opposed to Entourage. Another element in the cannabis plant are terpenoids, which are tiny molecules that plants employ to thwart insects. They also provide a noticeable smell for cannabis. Some terpenoids (e.g., linalool) possess anti-anxiety and sedating attributes. Consolidating the anti-anxiety effect of linalool with CBD assists them in supporting one another.

The Ensemble effects are particularly relevant when utilizing medical cannabis such as for the treatment of glaucoma. In this instance, THC performs capably on its own. As it pertains to CB1 receptor signaling, THC and CBD oppose each other. Moreover, the Ensemble effects are also critical in situations where CBD could alleviate the adverse side effects of THC but may also obstruct some medical advantages provided by THC. The terpenes in citrus fruits and cannabis (limonene) can elevate one's mood. Meanwhile, the terpenes in hops and cannabis (myrcene) has relaxing qualities.

Part
06
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Part
06

Third Party Testing Players - CBD

Our research identified five third party major testing players for CBD. They are, Evio Labs, ProVerde, Steep Hill Labs, SC Labs, and Digipath Labs. To identify each of the third party testing players for CBD we looked at industry reports, new reports and industry websites.

Evio Labs

Evio Labs provides testing for companies in Oregon, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Florida and Canada. They offer fully accredited lab services, and full service testing. Evio has the ability to quantify up to 17 cannabinoids. Evios Labs' clients include, Health Canada, and Diamond. They are viewed as one of the leaders in the third party testing industry. While the lab does not directly deal with consumers they go through the results with their clients and work with them to optimize their products.

ProVerde

ProVerde is one of the leading third party testing laboratories in the United States. ProVerde provides services to cannabis manufacturers, producers, and retailers, and also to patients and health care professionals. For patients the lab offers basic testing, the tests can help them better understand what is in their products and how it can be used effectively. ProVerde's clients include, Green Gorilla, Made by Hemp and CBD Thera.

Steep Hill Labs

Steep Hill Labs is a leading third party testing laboratory in the United States. The company's mission is to provide transparent science to cultivators, dispensaries, manufacturers, and consumers. The company has the ability to test up to 20 cannaboids. The company's website provides downloadable information for consumers, to help to educate them. Steep Hill's clients are primarily based in California.

sc Labs

SC Labs is a leader in third party testing for CBD in the United States. SC Labs has over 5,000 customers. The lab tests samples and then offers an interactive, web-based customer portal. The portal allows customers the ability to run reports, and download certificates. For consumers, they provide videos and ailment guides to help them understand the products they are using. SC Labs' clients include, CV Science, and Palm Springs Dispensaries.

Digitpath labs

Digipath Labs is a Nevada based third party testing laboratory. The lab provides testing based on the intended use of the CBD. The tests include strain testing, heavy metal testing, potency, and foreign matter inspection. Digipath does not provide product recommendations to consumers but they offer analytical testing, quality assurance screening, consultations, and research services. Digipath's clients include, Green Life, and Polaris MMJ.
Part
07
of thirteen
Part
07

Commonly Reported Effects of Ingesting CBD - Non Medicinal Use

Cannabidiol is different from THC and largely due to the fact that CBD does not have any psychoactive agents and cannot be used to get a user in a "high". CBD is therefore beneficial for its medicinal purposes and does not have any adverse effects on users. Unlike a similar cannabinoid, THC, CBD cannot be used for recreational purposes. A journalist used CBD for a week and journaled her experiences which were; feelings of sleepiness, relaxation, deep relaxation and "nothing".

Below we will take you through a deep dive into our findings.

METHODOLOGY

We began our research by searching through industry reports, news articles and related journals to finds the reported effects of ingesting CBD recreationally. This search was immediately unsuccessful as multiple sources cited the fact that CBD has no psychoactive properties and was different from THC, which is responsible for giving people the "high" feeling. These industry reports and articles from publications such as cb central, key to cannabis, honest marijuana and even media articles by POP SUGAR noted that CBD is primarily used for its medicinal purposes to alleviate pain or to reduce anxiety among many other medicinal uses.

However, through these sources, we were able to determine the feelings given off after using CBD and we have detailed this in our report. Our response was limited due to the fact that CBD is used for medicinal purposes and we were unable to establish any recreational use of the compound.

CBD VS THC

There have been several advancements in the understanding of cannabis and there are products that isolate THC and CBD from the cannabis plant. Though both are cannabinoids, THC, it the only cannabinoid out of the two that contains psychoactive properties that give users a high. THC, can therefore, be used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. CBD in a cannabis plant often decreases the effects of the THC within the cannabis plant. That is, it reduces anxiety and reduces short term memory loss. Use of THC often leaves users feeling euphoric, paranoid or both and other side effects.

Cannabis plants and products that are bred for CBD must contain less than 0.3% of THC, according to federal regulations, the low levels of THC still make the product nonpsychoactive.

EFFECTS OF USE OF CBD on users

A Pop Sugar journalist documented her experience with CBD oil. Her experiences were sleepiness, extreme sleepiness, relaxation and feeling "nothing". It has been noted that the feelings from the use of CBD can often be difficult to quantify. This is due to the nature of CBD as it strives to maintain the body's natural equilibrium. Common feelings reported by users include;
  • Relaxed
  • Relieved
  • Calm
  • Comfortable
  • Normal
  • Better.






















Part
08
of thirteen
Part
08

Commonly Reported Effects of Ingesting CBD - Medicinal Use

After in-depth research, we provided countries with mature research networks around the medical use of Cannabidiol (CBD), these countries include Israel, Canada, Netherlands, and the United States of America. The most commonly reported medical effects of ingesting CBD, including both short and long-term impacts is explained in our methodology below.

METHODOLOGY

Our research team got the required information for this request from credible medical research, and government websites. However, we triangulated to ascertain some of the most common effects, by going through a plethora of sources and choosing the most repeated side effects across all of these sources.
For instance, the calming effect of CBD on seizures and cure for insomnia reoccurred in four out of eight sources, which is an indication that they are the most common positive effects.
A survey that was conducted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), as shown in table 5 precisely, provides a list of most common and most frequently reported adverse side effects from which we picked the first two in addition to the ones we found while searching.
In conclusion, we were able to discern if these impacts are physiological, emotional or psychological after finding the medical definition of the effects.

POSITIVE EFFECTS OF INGESTING CBD FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES

There is a general belief that CBD might be useful in the treatment of several other health problems. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) still consider these findings not advanced enough.
According to WHO the clinical use of CBD is more advance in the treatment of epilepsy, and this is because it drastically reduces seizures on long term usage. This effect can be considered as a physical one.
A popular, short term emotional effect of ingesting CBD for medical use is its ability to reduce anxiety. Another collective positive impact of CBD in short term use is the cure of insomnia, and this is a psychological effect.

NEGATIVE EFFECT OF INGESTING CBD

Generally, ingesting CBD is considered very safe; however, there are records of adverse effects from regular use or overdose. According to a survey by NCBI, the most reported adverse effect is dry mouth, which is a physical effect. Euphoria is the second most reported adverse effect of using CBD, and it is an emotional effect. Another adverse effect which is considered psychological is sleepiness.

ADDITIONAL FINDINGS

Countries with mature research networks on CBD include Netherlands, Israel, Canada, and the United States of America. The United States, however, is participating by sponsoring and partnering with other leading countries.
There is still a need for more studies to be done on long term use of CBD and the administering of children with CBD.

Part
09
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Part
09

CBD - Interaction Between Body and Mind: Part One

After conducting an in-depth search, we established that the genetic makeup of an individual affects how the body responds to CBD. Genetic factors determine cognitive functions when using CBD. Diet and stress are the two most common lifestyle factors that are affected by marijuana.

OVERVIEW

Cannabidiol (CBD) interacts with a number of receptors in the brain including CB1, 5HT1A, CB2, and TRPV among others. CBD enters the body through the endocannabinoid (ECS) system. The receptors are found in the body and brain. The ECS communicates with all body systems including the autoimmune system, organs, and GI tract. This is vital as it achieves homeostasis.

CBD can be used to control moods, appetite, temperature, memory, and immune response. CBD can also treat acne, relieve pain, alleviate cancer-related symptoms, and promote the health of the heart.

GENETIC AND BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES

The human genes are the origin of everything in the human body, hence it affects how CBD products influence the body. Genetic makeup affects how the body will respond to CBD. People with genetic anxiety disorders are more likely to feel paranoid. Patients with anxiety disorders using THC feel paranoid while patients using CBD tend to be more relaxed. This is attributed to the fact that THC causes psychoactive effects of marijuana.
Genetic factors determine cognitive functions when using CBD. Some people tend to have sharp minds, some feel lazy, some even experience short memory functioning, while some do not experience any side effects. The endocannabinoids, located in the brain, absorb the CBD. Some people are born with fewer endocannabinoids than others. Those born with more endocannabinoids receive more benefits from CBD, hence, genetics play a vital role when it comes to how the body reacts to CBD.
Biologically, men and women react differently to Cannabis. Women tend to be more sensitive to CBD, hence they get more benefits from it. Women require low dosage as compared to men. On the other hand, men require high dosages because of their higher body mass index and large girth in general, for them to feel the CBD effects.
Cannabis works closely with Estrogen hormone and that is why women tend to experience the benefit of pain relief on using CBD. The CB1 and CB2 receptors that are found in the uterus targets premenstrual pain. Women use CBD as menstrual pain relievers.

BIOCHEMICALS DIFFERENCES

CBD mostly affects people with health disorders. Patients suffering from fibromyalgia, for example, reported immediate benefits from CBD products. Healthy individuals do not feel the effects of CBD strongly. The differences in how CBD affects an individual are embedded in the biochemistry composition of the individual. People with medical disorders have different biochemistry than healthier ones. Hence, the CBD will act differently.

CBD adjusts abnormal biochemistry and helps patients feel normal. By feeling normal, the patients can perform their everyday tasks without glitches. Just like a normal person. An individual's biochemistry affects their endocannabinoid balance in the body. If the CB1 receptors are stronger than the CB2 receptors, one will not experience CBD benefits.

LIFESTYLE DIFFERENCES

CBD oil products work differently on each person because some people are more sensitive to marijuana than others. Lifestyle choices also play a role in the effects felt by using CBD. Diet and stress are the two most common lifestyle factors that are affected by marijuana. A diet with low fatty acids will result in a person's endocannabinoid system being affected by CBD. CBD being a fatty acid in itself does not get absorbed faster when there are more fatty acids in the body. Thus, a diet that is high in fatty acids is less sensitive to CBD. People who live a stressful lifestyle have better chances of responding to CBD. This is exciting for people who are exhausted and overworked.

CBD is absorbed in the CB2 receptors. This result in one feeling relaxed and calm. CBD makes serotonin to be produced, which in turn makes one feel serene and happy. A majority of people using CBD reported having reduced stress levels.
Part
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Part
10

CBD - Interaction Between Body and Mind: Part Two

The use of CBD can lead to an interaction between a person's body and mind, changing one's physical health status by providing drastic relief to people suffering from chronic pain and epilepsy. The use of CBD changes one's psychological health status by inhibiting any feeling of anxiety and depression and creating an improved mental state for unstable patients. The type of CBD strain can also determine the experience gotten and how the user's body and mind interact. The indica strain provides a relaxed feeling and the sativa strain can be more motivating, energizing and inspiring.

CBD OVERVIEW

Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is "a concentrated solvent extract made from the cannabis plant materials such as flowers or leaves that is dissolved in an edible oil such as sunflower, hemp, or olive oil." CBD can be applied medically to control moods, pain, appetite, temperature, memory, and immune response and it poses no serious effects on the heart rate or blood pressure under normal conditions. There are two main cannabinoid (CB) receptors: CB1 which is located in the central nervous system and also in the peripheral tissues and CB2 receptors, which can be found in the periphery on immune cells, in the gastrointestinal tract, and some traces in the central nervous system.

HOW INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BODY AND MIND, WHEN USING CBD, CHANGES WITH A PERSONS PHYSICAL HEALTH STATUS

For people with no physical health issues, CBD use won't affect them as drastically as it does to those with health issues. People with unfortunate physical health conditions experience dramatic change when they use CBD oil products. CBD is vital to people suffering from painful physical health conditions because it provides great pain relief. Patients suffering from epilepsy, chronic pain, and degenerative neurological diseases will experience the benefits of CBD immediately because its therapeutic effects are felt more by those in need of pain relief. The treatment of epilepsy is the most advanced clinical application of CBD.

HOW INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BODY AND MIND, WHEN USING CBD, CHANGES WITH one's PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH STATUS

CBD can inhibit any feeling of anxiety and depression and improve the user's overall mental health. An individual suffering from any sort of psychological or mental disorder may get better relief through the use of CBD products compared to an individual that is mentally stable. The use of CBD decreases schizophrenia symptoms and medical experts believe that cannabidiol can benefit the brain, reduce the symptoms of stress, anorexia, depression, and anxiety.

HOW INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BODY AND MIND, WHEN USING CBD, CHANGES WITH THE STRAIN TYPE OF THE CBD

The type of CBD strain a person uses affects the interaction between the body and the mind. There are various CBD strains each with varying levels of endo cannabinoids. Some strains have a high concentration of THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) while others have low THC but high CBD. Therefore, each CBD strain gives a different experience to the user and it is perfectly normal for the body to react strongly to a particular CBD strain but mildly when taking another strain. For example, the Indica strain produces a feeling of relaxation while the Sativa strain can be more creatively inspiring, energizing, and motivating.
Part
11
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Part
11

Tolerance for CBD Based on Consumption

We have identified multiple reports from the World Health Organization and the US National Library of Medicine that suggest CBD has no impact on an individual’s tolerance levels. Though the World Health Organization notes a certain paucity of data, their expert review of the subject indicates that CBD does not substitute for THC; their experts assert that CBD does not exhibit the potential for abuse or dependence. Iffland and Grotenhermen and Bergamaschi et al. share this conclusion. However, recent research from Tel-Aviv contradicts these findings indicating that CBD is subject to tolerance effects.

Methodology

We began our inquiry with scientific databases and journals that would cover the subject matter. We located reports from both the World Health Organization, the US National Library of Medicine of the National Institute of Health via the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center via the American Epilepsy Society.

However, there is some contradiction in the conclusions reached. Reviews and research acquired from the World Health Organization and the US National Library of Medicine all conclude that there is no evidence to suggest that CBD causes tolerance in users. The outlier is the research from Tel-Aviv that suggests tolerance is possible with CBD use. But there are caveats present in all of this.

The first caveat is that the World Health Organization’s review of the research makes note that there is limited reporting on CBD’s physical dependence in animals nor were there any reports of controlled human studies regarding withdrawal and tolerance. But there was well-controlled human-subjects research on CBD’s potential for abuse.

The second caveat is a potentially crucial difference in the Tel-Aviv research. The researchers from Tel-Aviv use a cannabis oil extract of CBD/THC in a 20:1 ratio. All other research is used extracts of either CBD or THC. Researchers make no indication of a significant presence of THC in the extract used in their CBD trials or vice-versa.

Finally, none of the studies involved note gender difference in tolerance effects.

Tolerance for CBD Based on Consumption

In a World Health Organization (WHO) review, researchers examined experimental models of abuse liability using CBD and THC. The researchers report that CBD appeared to have little effect on conditioned place preference or intracranial self-stimulation. For both animal and human drug discrimination models, CBD failed to substitute for THC. The reviewers assert that CBD does not exhibit the effects indicative of potential abuse or dependence.

To model dependence, researchers injected potential male mice with CBD or THC once a day for 14 days. Mice injected with THC exhibited signs of tolerance during observation; however, mice injected with CBD exhibited no signs of tolerance at any dosage. According to the WHO report, they were unable to identify any studies of CBD’s physical dependence (i.e., withdrawal, which differs from tolerance) in animals. Nor was WHO able to identify any reports of controlled human studies regarding withdrawal and tolerance (i.e., physical dependence effects) related to CBD. Nevertheless, though the data are limited (by the number of studies), the evidence from well-controlled human-subjects research does not indicate that CBD is associated with abuse potential.

WHO'S EXPERT REVIEW ON THE DEPENDENCE POPTENTIAL OF CBD

In the WHO’s Expert Peer Review of CBD, the authors acknowledge that animal studies assessing the dependence potential of CBD are sparse. Yet in those animal studies, the available literature is not supportive of CBD having an abuse potential The authors repeat what we stated above, researchers recorded tolerance effects with THC but not with CBD. The WHO notes that another earlier study indicates that CBD does not increase dopamine release in the brain’s reward pathway like other drugs of abuse.

The current human studies do not suggest that CBD has the potential for abuse. One study using 16 males notes that CBD had no physical or psychological effects on subjects. A secondary analysis of the data provided in another study determined that CBD was similar to placebo in all collected measures. Researchers concluded that CBD lacks any signs of abuse liability.

In their update on the safety and side effects of CBD, Iffland and Grotenhermen reference the earlier work of Bergamaschi et al. After reviewing an array of acute and chronic studies on the side effects of CBD, Bergamaschi et al. determined that tolerance to CBD was not a side effect. Iffland and Grotenhermen note that as early as the 1970s researchers had shown that CBD did not lead to adverse effects.

OTHER RESEARCH SEGMENTS WHICH OUTLINE THE TOLERANCE for CBD

However, recent research performed by Ulliel-Sibony, Hausman-Kedem, and Kramer at the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center challenges these previous studies. Ulliel-Sibony et al. tested the tolerance of CBD on 92 consecutive patients aged 1-37 years for 19.8 months. The researchers observed tolerance in 32.6% (30) patients in a mean time of 7.3 months (range: 1-24 months). Increasing the CBD dose reduced tolerance in patients with an observed tolerance. Twelve patients returned to their previous response level, while 15 saw a slight improvement in their response levels. Tapering the drug for nine patients resulted in a concomitant with observed tolerance.

However, there is a potentially important detail in this research that distinguishes it from the other studies we have reported. Ulliel-Sibony et al. used a cannabis oil extract with a CBD/THC ratio of 20:1. All previous research involved extracts that were purely CBD and THC. While it is outside the scope of this project to make a full determination, given the previous research we speculate that the presence of THC in the cannabis oil extract resulted in the tolerance effects witnessed in Ulliel-Sibony et al.’s research.

Conclusion

Though limited by the number of studies, the WHO’s expert review of the research suggests that CBD has limited potential for human dependence and abuse. Iffland and Grotenhermen as well as Bergamaschi et al. share this conclusion. However, recent research by Ulliel-Sibony et al. using a CBD/THC mixture contradicts this view by suggesting that there is some potential for tolerance to develop with CBD use.
Part
12
of thirteen
Part
12

Hemp Strains - CBD Quality

Different strains of hemp and marijuana plants affect both the quality and strength of cannabidiol (CBD). However, research into this area is nascent and therefore sparse. Below, we will discuss our research in more depth.

Methodology

We were able to find the information directly from journals and studies. Our primary source was a research paper on CBD oil quality from the Medical Cannabis and Cannaboids journal by Arno Hazekamp. We also sourced information from Harvard Health Publishing wing of Harvard Medical School. Extra information was sourced from organizations such as Project BCD.

While we found a direct answer to whether the strain of hemp affects the quality and strength of CBD, scholarly information on CBD is notably sparse. Research is ongoing or just beginning.

Hemp Strain and CBD Quality

CBD is created from a solvent extracted from cannabis flowers, specifically those suitable for hemp products, with some caveats. This solvent is mixed with other ingredients to make CBD. The fact that CBD is sourced from cannabis flowers raises questions of its THC content and overall quality as there are different strains of hemp. Hazekamp states that "various concentrations of CBD, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and minor cannabinoids" are present in the extraction depending on the type of hemp plant used. For example, it's well-known that certain strains can produce a THC-rich CBD known as "Simpson oil." Other hemp strains produce CBD as well as larger concentrations of other components.

The different strains of hemp produce different quantities and qualities of CBD. Hemp is regulated in many countries to ensure that varieties that produce less THC and possibly more CBD are grown. The European Union lists varieties of hemp that may be legally grown, and the hemp strains chosen are those whose THC content does not exceed 0.2% on average. For Canada, the legal strains do not exceed 0.3% while in Switzerland the limit is 1%. Special strains are being developed that produce higher concentrations of CBD, but they are not legal yet in most countries.

Notably, plants that produce CBD always produce THC as well. The quality and quantity vary with the strain of the plant. This is legal quagmire as some strains that produce a large quantity of CBD also produce THC above the legal limit.

Different strains of hemp are classified by their terpene fingerprint. Research into this area is new. A recent analysis showed that two "different" strains of a hemp plant, ACDC and Oracle, were actually the same plant. Examples of different strains of hemp that are used to produce CBD due to the quality and quantity produced are Harlequin, Sour Tsunami, Jamaican Lion, Cannatonic, Charlotte's Web, Valentine X and Omrita Rx.
Part
13
of thirteen
Part
13

Effects of CBD - Mode of Administration

Our research found that there are five methods of administration when it comes to CBD. Those five methods are topical, oral, sublingual, inhalation, and injection. We focused on smoking (inhalation), ingestion (oral), and topical. The ECS is designed to process cannabinoids, so the only differences found between consumption methods was due to the amount of time it takes before the effects are felt.

METHODOLOGY

We began our research by looking for industry publications and reports related to CBD and the ECS. We searched through sites like Canna Health and Medical News Today looking for differences in the effects of CBD based on the method of administration. We found lots of information that gave us the breakdown of each method. But there was nothing found that talked about the ECS.

Next, we looked at some research abstracts that were written on the topic of CBD/ECS and the methods of administration. Some websites that were viewed were NCBI and Cell. We were able to find that the method of administration doesn’t matter when it comes to the ECS from this strategy.

EFFECTS OF CBD — MODE OF ADMINISTRATION

When a doctor prescribes phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), they give instructions to the patient that is specific to their health issue, body weight, and the strength of the product prescribed. Once the CBD product gets inside the body there is a system that is designed to handle it. That system is called the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). ECS is in the human body for the purpose of responding to endogenous cannabinoids. Our research shows that the method of consumption doesn’t really matter when it comes to the ECS because all cannabinoid compounds respond pharmacologically to cannabis. Due to this, it was assumed that the only difference in absorption would be the amount of time it takes before the effects begin to take over. According to CBD Oil Review, by introducing CBD into the system several ailments can be treated. Some ailments are listed below:
There are five consumption methods for CBD. Those methods are topical, oral, sublingual, inhalation, and injection. Each method follows a different path and has different effect times. We have chosen to focus on smoking, ingestion and topical for the purpose of this brief.

EFFECTS ON THE BODY

Smoking
This method of administration is usually in the form of vaping or an inhaler, although one could choose to smoke the CBD hemp flowers as well. Once CBD is inhaled into the lungs, it is released into the bloodstream. Smoking is the second fastest method of administration; it only takes anywhere from 10 to 20 minutes to feel the effects.

Smoking or vaping CBD can have different results. For example, there are low-THC, high-CBD hemp flower strains as well as vape concentrates that have a higher CBD potency. Both methods are usually preferred by the masses because of how quickly it absorbs in the body.

Ingestion
Ingesting CBD is almost the slowest way to feel the effects after administration. People orally take capsules, eat edibles or drink beverages infused with the substance. The CBD is then passed through the entire stomach digestive. It can take around 20 to 30 minutes after it is consumed to feel the effects of this method.

Ingestion is considered the most common way of administering CBD. We mentioned before that this method can take anywhere from 20 to 30 minutes, but according to Canna Health, it could take as long as two hours in some cases. This extra time is due to what's called the “first pass effect” that is associated with ingesting CBD.

Topical
This is considered the slowest method of administration. It can take between 25 to 45 minutes before a person begins to feel the effects. Topical consumption is achieved through using lotions, salves, or patches. Depending on which of the topical consumption methods used, the CBD could be diffused through Lipids, through cell to cell permeation or through the person's hair follicles.

The topical method is absorbed through the skin and never reaches the bloodstream. That means that topical CBD must be applied directly to the affected area in order to feel the effects. Since topical absorption rates are very low, creams and oils must be applied very liberally.
Sources
Sources

From Part 01
Quotes
  • "Although hemp (Cannabis Sativa) and marijuana (Cannabis Indica) are two varieties of the cannabis plant, they’ve developed a hell of a rivalry within the industry. "
  • ""
Quotes
  • "Marijuana, as it is widely known, is used for medicinal or recreational purposes."
  • "Hemp is used in variety of other applications that marijuana couldn’t possibly be used in. These include healthy dietary supplements, skin products, clothing, and accessories."
  • "An average batch of marijuana contains anywhere from 5-20% THC content"
  • "Hemp, on the other hand, has a max THC level of 0.3%, essentially making it impossible to feel any psychoactive effect or get a “high”"
Quotes
  • "Genus of three species of flowering plants: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. "
  • "Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are the species colloquially known as “marijuana”. Cannabis ruderalis is rarely farmed due to its naturally low THC and small yield.1 "
  • "Hemp is defined as cannabis containing less than 0.3% THC, and is regulated as an agricultural product and not a controlled substance"
Quotes
  • "Cannabis is a family of plants with two primary classifications — Indica and Sativa"
  • "marijuana can be considered a member of either the Indica or Sativa families, Hemp is a member of the Cannabis Sativa family."
  • " Marijuana is abundant in THC with concentrations between 15% to 40%."
Quotes
  • "any cannabis plant with less then 0.3% THC is considered hemp, not marijuana, in the United States."
  • ""Hemp is the non-drug usage of that plant, while marijuana is the drug use," "
  • "Hemp and marijuana may come from the same source — cannabis sativa — but in the United States, laws regarding their use are quite different."
  • " hemp is now considered an agricultural product, whereas marijuana is still considered a drug"
  • "There are four states that still consider hemp-derived CBD products illegal though: Idaho, South Dakota, Kansas, and Nebraska, according to the National Conference of State Legislature's website. "
  • "In December 2018, President Trump signed the Farm Bill, which legalizes hemp and classifies it as an agricultural product in the United States."
From Part 02
Quotes
  • "The higher the clay content of the soil the lower the yield of grain or fibre. Clay soils are easily compacted and iHemp is very sensitive to soil compaction."
Quotes
  • "At approximately 110 days, the head of the industrial hemp plant (X-59) has fully matured. At 9% hemp grain can be long-term in silos under processed further by customers."
Quotes
  • "Baling can be done with any kind of baler"
Quotes
  • "The reason for experimenting with daylength-extension is to allow the plant to engage longer in photosynthesis while remaining in the flowering state for an additional two hours each day. That’s an increase of over 16% which would equate to a similar increase in harvest weight.”"
Quotes
  • "For healthy vegetation marijuana needs over twelve hours of light per twenty-four hour period. Indoors this is controlled by you with timers. "
  • "Outdoors germination must be delayed until the plants can be exposed to more than twelve hours of daylight and receive at least eight hours of direct sunlight per day."
Quotes
  • "After harvesting and properly drying our cannabis plants, storing them is a crucial stage if we want to enjoy top grade marijuana during the following months. "
  • "A correct storing process is one of the most important and most oftenly forgotten aspects of cannabis cultivation, so it requires proper attention if we want to be proud of our buds."
From Part 03
Quotes
  • "Explores hydrocarbon extraction, butane in particular, including its functionality, laboratory requirements and what features should be considered during extractor selection."
Quotes
  • "Cannabis extracts are an important part of the rapidly growing marijuana industry, especially in medical markets. The essential oil of cannabis, which is a concentrate of all the active pharmaceutical ingredients in the marijuana plant, is a dynamic substance that can be transformed into numerous forms for user consumption. As a starting point, extracts can be converted (with a bit of basic chemistry know-how) into products such as tinctures, transdermal patches, effervescent tablets, drink powders, suppositories and oral tablets, not to mention the standard vaporizing and dabbing oils."
From Part 07
Quotes
  • "Note that CBD does NOT get you high."
  • "It has many medical benefits and its primary effects (as you’ll soon learn) include pain relief, anxiety reduction, and a ton of other great things."
  • "While THC is often used recreationally to produce a “high” effect, CBD oil does not have any psychoactive effects and thus is not normally used recreationally."
Quotes
  • " Due to the effects of THC’s psychoactive qualities, it’s known to provide a high that can be either euphoric or accompanied by paranoia and other negative effects, depending upon the strain and user. "
  • "While THC is frequently used for those suffering from chronic pain, mood disorders, and other medical ailments, its effects can be difficult to predict, and – sometimes – unpleasant."
  • ""
Quotes
  • "The result is described by many as a wave of relief or relaxation that can be felt throughout the whole body when CBD is ingested orally, smoked, or vaporized. Topical application also provides relief, resulting in a near instantaneous reduction in swelling, pain, and discomfort."
Quotes
  • "The short answer to the question, “Does CBD oil get you high?” is no. CBD oil won’t get you high because it has been specifically produced to minimize THC count (the stuff that gets you high) while maximizing CBD count (the stuff that actually prevents you getting high)."
  • "Because of the way CBD blocks THC activity in the brain, it is known as a CB1 antagonist. Antagonists are basically substances that interfere with or inhibit the physiological actions of another substance."
  • "For many patients, achieving these beneficial effects without the psychoactive effects normally associated with marijuana would be like the holy grail of medical treatment. And while it might seem like science fiction, it is, in fact, reality."
From Part 08
Quotes
  • "CBD shows potential therapeutic efficacy against a diverse assortment of medical conditions."
Quotes
  • "There is still a lack of available long-term safety data. Also, to date, researchers have not performed studies involving children"
Quotes
  • "Sleep deprivation affects your psychological state and mental health"
Quotes
  • "Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure."
From Part 11
Quotes
  • "Male mice were injected i.p. once a day for 14 days with either CBD (0.1, 1, or 3mg/kg) or delta-9-THC (1, 3, or 10mg/kg). Tolerance to the effects of THC was observed, however no tolerance to CBD at any of the dosages was observed. [54]"
  • "Controlled, human studies regarding the potential physical dependence effects (e.g. withdrawal and tolerance) of cannabidiol have not been reported."
  • "Hayakawa, K., et al., Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance. Neuropharmacology, 2007. 52(4): p. 1079-1087."
Quotes
  • "Animal studies assessing the dependence potential of cannabidiol (CBD) are sparse. One animal study was identified. Male mice received once daily i.p. injections of escalating doses of CBD (0.1, 1 or 3 mg/kg) of CBD or ∆9 THC (1, 3 or 10mg/kg) for 14 days. Although tolerance to the effects of THC was observed, no tolerance was observed at any of the doses of CBD administered."
Quotes
  • "Bergamaschi et al. list an impressive number of acute and chronic studies in humans, showing CBD safety for a wide array of side effects.1 They also conclude from their survey, that none of the studies reported tolerance to CBD. Already in the 1970s, it was shown that oral CBD (15–160 mg), iv injection (5–30 mg), and inhalation of 0.15 mg/kg b.w. CBD did not lead to adverse effects."
  • "1. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, et al. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011;6:237–249"
Quotes
  • "In human studies, CBD administration did not induce side effects across a wide range of dosages, including acute and chronic dose regimens, and tolerance to CBD did not develop"
Quotes
  • "Fourteen-day repeated treatment with Delta(9)-THC, but not cannabidiol, led to tolerance of the neuroprotective and hypothermic effects. In addition, repeated treatment with Delta(9)-THC reversed the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF), while cannabidiol did not reverse that effect"
Quotes
  • "Prospective review of the tolerance to cannabinoids of 92 consecutive patients aged 1-37 years (mean11.8 years) with treatment-resistant epilepsy during the period of 1.3.2014 to 31.9.2017. Tolerance was defined as either the necessity to increase dose in 30% or more following reduction of efficacy, or response reduction of more than 30%. "
  • "Ninety-two patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy of various etiologies were treated with cannabis oil extract (CBD/THC ratio of 20:1) for an average of 19.8 months. Tolerance was seen in 30 (32.6%) of the patients. "
  • "It was reported on an average dose of 12.6 mg/kg/d and the mean time till appearance of tolerance was 7.3 months (range: 1-24 months). Out of these patients 58% (17 patients) showed > 50% reduction in mean monthly seizure frequency."
  • "Our findings suggest that cannabidiol tolerance exists and it limits the efficacy of this antiseizure treatment in the long-term clinical management of epilepsy in the pediatric and adults population "