Canada: Grocery / Food

of eighteen

Top Food Trends

The top predicted food trends for 2020 and beyond in Canada revolve around health. Canadians are now more conscious of their health and what they take in. As a result, their demand for plant-based foods, CBD-infused food, and functional foods, is expected to increase.


  • The future is looking greener than ever for Canada. With ingredients such as heme, plant-based milk gotten from pea protein, innovative products like Beyond Meat, and barley being used as an animal product replacement, the plant based craze is Canada is expected to carry over into 2020 and beyond.
  • Within the last few years, plant-based meat by companies like Beyond have gained traction in Canada. A study by Angus Reid Institute revealed that around 95% of all Canadians are aware of plant-based meats, with 39% stating that they have tried plant-based meats.
  • The plant-based trend is expected to extend beyond faux meats to include plant-based fish, eggs, cheese, and condiments, among others. Companies like Mimic Seafood and Neew Wave Foods are already developing their plant-based fish substitutes.
  • Since 2009, diary milk consumption has decreased by over 20% in Canada. Individuals in this country are opting for plant-based alternatives like seed milk made from flax, hemp, and sunflower.
  • Another study showed that almost one-third of Canadians are considering switching to a plant-based diet. The same study stated that millennials are more interested in plant-based diets in the country. As more young Canadians begin to take control of their health and incorporate plant-based diets, the demand for plant-based alternatives continues to increase.

CBD- & THC-Infused

  • In 2019, THC- and CBD-infused foods and beverages exploded in Canada. With the legalization of cannabis edibles in the country, this trend is expected to continue its upward trajectory in 2020 and beyond.
  • Restaurants, cafes, and coffee shops are now amping up their CBD oil offerings, particularly in beverages, as the demand for CBD products in the country explodes.
  • This trend is fueled by the increasing interest of Canadian consumers in eco-friendly, plant-based ingredients.
  • Companies like AB InBev are already capitalizing on this trend. Through a joint venture with Tilray, a cannabis company, AB InBev developed Fluent Beverage Company. The company plans to offer CBD-infused beverages to the Canadian market.
  • Molson Coors is another company that is leveraging this trend. It started a joint venture called Truss through a partnership with HEXO, a cannabis producer in Canada. Like AB InBev, the company is developing non-alcoholic cannabis-infused beverages in Canada.

Functional Foods

  • Canadians are more health conscious than ever. They not only want to eat healthy, they want to heal with every bite.
  • Over the next few years, experts expect a surge of plant-infused concoctions featuring super food ingredients like matcha and camu camu.
  • This trend is forecast to evolve to include "stress-fighting, mood-boosting and energy-enhancing adaptogens, like macadamia milk, ashwagandha and MCT (derived from coconut oil.)."
  • Companies like Coffee Booster and Saputo are at the forefront of this trend in Canada. Coffee Booster, for example, offers a wide range of vitamin-infused coffee options.
  • Acadian Seaplants is another company that is capitalizing on this trend. The company "incorporates unique sea plants into foods and nutraceuticals."


To gather the top predicted food trends in Canada, we leveraged top publications in the country such as Nuvo Magazine. We proceeded to select the three most discussed food-related topics across three to four credible Canadian publications. We focused mainly on future food trends.
of eighteen

Plant-Based Eating Hypothesis

A vegan or plant-based diet is determined to be the optimal diet for the environment as it produces the lowest level of greenhouse gas emissions and requires less land use and water supply. Canada's Food Guide 2019 endorsed a plant-based diet as better for the environment. These and other findings are outlined below.

Vegan Diet Environment Impact

  • The literature review paper "Which Diet Has the Least Environmental Impact on Our Planet?" was published on MDPI on July 2019 and looked at the environmental impact of vegan, vegetarian and omnivorous diets.
  • According to the authors, the 16 studies and 18 reviews they analyzed from PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science showed that a plant/vegetable-based diet had a better influence on the environment than a meat-rich diet.
  • Most of the studies were conducted in the US (North America) or Europe and showed that "vegan diet is the optimal diet for the environment because, out of all the compared diets, its production results in the lowest level of GHG emissions."
  • A vegan diet is defined as not including any products from animals while a lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) diet contained milk, dairy and eggs.
  • An omnivorous diet is defined as including all kinds of animal-based foods including dairy, eggs and meat.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHGE)
Land Use
Water Footprint
Environmental Impact of Vegan Diet
  • A complete shift to vegan or plant-based diet could cut carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 17%, nitrous oxide (NO2) by 21%, and methane (CH4) by 24%.
  • Among the three diets examined, the vegan diet was determined to make the least demand on water supply at 14.4% less freshwater and 20.8% less groundwater compared to an omnivorous diet.
  • The 2018 study "Global Diets Link Environmental Sustainability And Human Health" also reported that plant-based diets require less phosphorus than meat-based diets.
  • Mineable phosphorus used in fertilizers for food production is currently being rapidly depleted around the world and could run out in 50–100 years if current consumption trends continue.

Canada Food Guide 2019

Canadians Choosing Vegan

  • Insights West reported in 2019 that more Canadians are considering shifting to a primarily plant-based diet (27%).
  • Another 26% said they are considering cutting out dairy products from their diets.
  • 36% of surveyed Millennial Canadians aged 18 to 34 years old said they are considering removing dairy from their diet.
  • 28% of Canadians aged 35 to 54 years old said they also want to cut dairy from their diet.
  • The main reasons for Canadians' resolve to remove animal-based food from their diet include concern about animal cruelty, personal health, and impact on the environment.
of eighteen

Technology's Role In Healthy Eating

Technology, in the form of the internet, serves as a convenient way for Canadians to purchase healthy ingredients or meals, identify fresher, local products, and research or learn about healthy eating and nutrition. The convenience that it provides makes it easier for Canadians to start or continue eating healthy.

A Convenient Way to Purchase Healthy Ingredients or Meals

  • Time-starved Canadians can have healthy ingredients or meals delivered to them by just completing a simple transaction online. The internet enables busy Canadians to prepare or eat a healthy meal without the hassle of having to travel to the restaurant or the grocery.
  • More than a quarter of Canadians say they have used the internet to order healthy food. Also, around 20% of Canadians aged 25-44 say they have subscribed to a food box or meal kit delivery service such as HelloFresh, Goodfood, and Chef’s Plate.
  • According to Ian Brooks, HelloFresh Canada’s chief executive officer and founder, “the internet has completely revolutionized the way Canadians cook and eat.” Brooks says that, with the demand for meal kits growing in Canada, he expects the internet to “continue to influence eating habits by expanding customer [palates] through thoughtfully curated menus.”
  • Meal kit delivery services are now a $120-million industry in Canada. The NPD Group reports that the industry is now double in size compared to 2014. According to the market research firm, 13% of Canadians have tried meal kits in the past, and 42% of Canadians are interested in subscribing to a meal kit delivery service.
  • In an article published by the National Post, it was mentioned that meal kit delivery services are confident that they will be able to change how Canadians eat, and encourage Canadians to eat healthy at home.

A Convenient Way to Identify Fresher, Local Products

  • The internet represents an easy way for retailers and producers to promote local ingredients or food products to Canadians, and for Canadians to find and identify these retailers, producers, and products. Canadians who patronize local businesses not only gain access to fresher ingredients or food products. They also eliminate the carbon footprint associated with transporting food across borders.
  • Sixty-two percent of Canadians say they prefer buying online from Canadian businesses. An older study also shows that of Canadians who purchase local produce, 97% and 96% do so to support the local economy and the local farmers, respectively.
  • There are also several Canadian provincial governments that promote local produce through a website. Among them are Ontario with its Foodland Ontario website and Manitoba with its Local Produce Guide.
  • Canadians get to learn about the provenance of the food they eat from the websites of restaurants and food product manufacturers. Both Fable, a restaurant in Vancouver, and Ruby WatchCo., a restaurant in Toronto, use their website to highlight to Canadians that they cook with ingredients that are locally sourced and are therefore fresh.

A Convenient Way to Research or Learn About Healthy Eating and Nutrition

  • For one participant of a focus group in Canada, the internet is a tool for researching what he or she should be eating to stay or become healthy. According to this participant who was once very sick, the internet was instrumental in determining the types of foods he or she was supposed to be consuming.
  • For Health Canada, creating a website is a cost-effective way of disseminating information about healthy eating. The government agency recently released its latest food guide, a mobile-friendly web application that provides Canadians with easier access to dietary guidance."
  • The guide, which was released last January 2019, aims to make it easier for Canadians to compare products and make better food choices. It has been providing nutritional advice to Canadians for over 75 years now.
  • In an article published by Retail Insider, it was mentioned that more and more Canadians are taking heed of the advice the new guide offers.
of eighteen

Food Dichotomies

While meat consumption in Canada has decreased, the consumption of chicken has increased as it is a healthier alternative to red meat and easy to innovate with. Most fast-food chains are becoming chicken-focused and some also offer plant-based meat alternatives. Survey data on the number of individuals opting for vegetarian or vegan diets is likely to be overestimated as consumers who say they do not consume meat may not always be vegetarian or vegan.

Virtue Signaling

  • According to Dalhousie University, the number of vegetarians in Canada grew from 900,000 in 2004 to 2.3 million in 2019. Additionally, 850,000 people in Canada say they are vegan. Collectively, this translates to 9.4% of Canada's population.
  • The University of Guelph's estimate of the vegetarian population and the vegan population of Canada is consistent with Dalhousie University's estimate.
  • However, many other surveys overstate the figures. One in three individuals in Canada who identify as vegetarians or vegans eat meat regularly. As a result of increasing social pressure--the Canada Food Guide also recommends not consuming meat--there is a rise in "virtue signaling". People say they are vegetarians or vegans even when they are not.
  • While the University of Guelph survey found evidence to suggest that Canadians are consuming lesser meat than before, it is likely that virtual signaling inflates the number of vegetarians and vegans. The real numbers are lesser than estimates.
  • The impact of the rise in vegetarianism and veganism on deep-fried meat consumption may not be as much as survey data may have someone believe.

Shift from Red Meat to Chicken & Innovations

  • The per capita meat consumption is a better metric than the proportion of vegetarians and meat-eaters or sales. The per capita meat consumption in Canada has been decreasing.
  • However, there has been a shift from red meat to chicken. Between 2008 and 2018, the per capita consumption of chicken increased from 67.84 kg per capita to 76.32 kg per capita; the consumption of beef decreased from 46.96 kg per capita to 39.82 kg per capita, and the consumption of pork decreased from 40.04 kg per capita to 36.31 kg per capita. Though the per capita consumption of chicken has increased, the overall consumption of meat has not.
  • The shift from red meat to chicken is also evident in the United States; however overall meat consumption in the United States has increased.
  • The average revenue per restaurant for Chick-Fil-A was $4.41 million in 2016, significantly higher than McDonald's $2.55 million. McDonald's has been adding more chicken items to its menu and has almost begun mimicking Chick-Fil-A's fried chicken offering.
  • Raising Cane, the fastest-growing fast-food chain in the United States only serves chicken tenders.
  • According to Ibis World, innovation in fast food menus and higher consumer spending led to the growth (3.4%) of the Canadian fast-food industry between 2014-2019.
  • As chicken is versatile, it allows for a variety of recipes and tastes. The top 250 restaurants in the United States collectively added 325 chicken items to their menus between June 2015 to June 2016.

Non-Health Motivations

  • According to a 2015 study, only 20% of vegans were motivated to go meatless because of health-related factors; 80% are motivated by animal cruelty and ethics. According to the University of Guelph, animal welfare is one of the main drivers of veganism.
  • The data suggest that a small proportion of individuals--the ones with health concerns-- will refrain from eating deep-fried vegetarian foods. However, four in five vegans may be open to eating deep-fried vegetarian items like french fries.
  • Large fast-food chains such as A&W are offering beyond Meat's plant-based burgers. Meat alternatives also account for a portion of fast-food sales, albeit small.
of eighteen

Plant-Based Foods in QSRs

Evidence that serving plant-based foods in fast food and quick service restaurants is not just a fad includes the fact that younger generations are driving the segment's growth and that consumers overall are eating more vegetables and vegetable-based foods, a trend that is not expected to slow any time soon.

Millennials and Gen Zers are Driving Growth

  • Evidence that plant-based foods in quick service restaurants are not just a fad includes the fact that millennials and generation Zers are driving growth in the segment.
  • As Colleen McClellan, director of client solutions for Datassential stated, "meat elimination is highest among millennials, gen Z and women."
  • A GreenBiz survey found that 48% of people under age 40 were already eating plant-based meats, compared to just 27% of people over the age of 40.
  • Likewise, an Impossible Foods survey found that half of millennials and gen Zers eat plant-based meats at least once a month compared with just 20% of adults over the age of 55.
  • Another survey from NPD found that in the past 10 years, "consumers under age 40 have upped their fresh vegetable intake by 52 percent and frozen by 59 percent, compared with those aged 60 and up, who’ve decreased fresh vegetable consumption by 30 percent and frozen by 4 percent."
  • This suggests that as generations get younger, they are electing to follow a plant-based diet more often than older generations. Since this trend is occurring in each successive younger generation beginning with millennials, there is no reason to suggest that future generations will return to heavy meat diets.
  • As GreenBiz stated, "With millennials expected to become America’s largest living adult generation, their willingness to embrace plant-based meats suggests continued success for this emerging biotechnology."
  • This is especially true since millennials are now raising gen Z children, which means they are teaching them to follow the same diet. It is assumed that gen Zers will parent their children in much the same way as they were raised.
  • In fact, Impossible Foods found that "72% of millennials with kids are consuming plant-based meat more often, vs. 60% of Millennials without kids compared to last year."

Consumers are Seeking Ways to Eat More Vegetables

  • McClellan of Datassential also pointed out that "70% of consumers are actively trying to increase fruit and veggies [in their diets]; they just can't figure out how to do it."
  • In the United States, 39% of adults are actively trying to incorporate more plant-based foods into their diets. This percentage is even higher in Canada, at 43%.
  • Plant-based foods from quick service restaurants make it simple for consumers to get in an additional serving or two of vegetables.
  • Consumers are not necessarily becoming vegan or vegetarian, but they are replacing meat in one or two meals per week, which is how QSRs and fast food plant-based options can fill a need.
  • In fact, a Gallup poll found that "the number of consumers refraining from animal products may not be skyrocketing, but the demand for veggies is," which indicates that more people are incorporating plant-based products in their diets without fully converting to veganism or vegetarianism.
  • As Robert Green, CEO of Coolgreens, stated, "Consumers are seeking a place to accomplish their dietary goals, as opposed to adjusting their diet to meet the menu. This switch in consumer behavior puts significant pressure on restaurants to offer more healthy options. I believe this pressure has—and will continue to be—very positive for our industry in the years to come."
  • NPD also found that fresh vegetable consumption in the U.S. is expected to increase by another 10% over the next few years, suggesting that the trend is not slowing.

Research Note

North American data was provided instead of Canadian data due to the fact that most surveys unearthed during research were either U.S.-focused or North American-focused. It is our belief that the reasons why serving plant-based foods in fast food and QSR restaurants is not just a fad is the same for both Canada and the U.S.
of eighteen

Consumer Eating Trends: Chicken and Beef

Some current Canadian consumer eating trends around chicken and beef include the growing consumption of chicken, decline in the consumption of beef, and the rise in ethical consumption of beef and chicken. The next section describes the trends in detail and further explores some drivers of the identified trends.

Growing Consumption of Chicken

  • According to the Canadian Poultry Magazine, the per capita consumption of chicken has been on the rise and is unlikely to be dethroned anytime soon as the number one meat in Canada.
  • In 2017, Chicken Farmers of Canada (CFC) estimated that per capita consumption of chicken stood at 33.1kg, reflecting an increase of more than a kilogram from the previous year.
  • One factor driving the demand for chicken is the health profile that allows it to fit into various lifestyles and diets. Chicken can fit into low calorie, low carb, low fat, keto, and paleo diets.
  • Canadians are trying to eat healthily, and aspects such as calorie count now influence consumers' choice of foods. In Ontario, for instance, food service chains with 20 or more locations in Ontario are required to disclose calorie counts of each food item on their menu.
  • Chicken's competitive prices against other foods such as beef is also a factor contributing to increased demand among consumers.
  • According to the Dean of the faculty of management at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Sylvain Charlebois, consumers choose chicken because "chicken is a cheap protein, it's supply-managed, and the quality is there."
  • Other factors include the growing Canadian population and exposure to multicultural chicken dishes.
  • Such food chains as Paramount Foods and Pacific Poke are capitalizing on the growing demand for chicken, taking note of millennials' key role in changing what people eat.

A decline in the Consumption of Beef

Rise in Ethical consumption of Beef and Chicken.

  • According to the 2019 Trend report, consumers who eat meat are shifting to perceived "better for you/better for the planet" sources such as grass-fed, and Certified Humane.
  • Some consumers who have reduced their consumption of meat products, have done so, and continue to do so because of animal welfare.
  • The 2019 Trend report indicates that "Consumer concern about the humane treatment of farm animals increased from 40% in 2017 to 49% in 2018."
  • The same report also highlights that while six in ten Canadians agree they would consume meat, milk, and eggs, if farm animals are treated humanely, less than one-third feel they are treated humanely.
  • There is increased awareness of animal welfare as well as growing eco-friendly consumption trends.
  • In response to consumers' concerns and as part of their corporate social responsibility, McDonald's and Tim Hortons have declared their plan to use cage-free eggs by 2025. On the other hand, B. Good franchisees have resorted to buying food from local producers to lower the environmental impact
  • A&W serves chicken raised without antibiotics.

Research Strategy

To find information on the current Canadian consumer eating trends around chicken and beef, we utilized industry publications Foods in Canada, magazines such as the Canadian Poultry Magazine, reputable news outlets such as CBC News, and food reports such as the 2019 Trend Report. In identifying the trends, we cross-referenced various sources and picked on the trends that were highlighted across multiple sources. We also focused on current trends (from 2018 to 2020) and those that continue to dominate discussions to-date.
of eighteen

Top Healthy Eating News Stories

Some of the most popular healthy eating news articles liked and shared by Canadians over the past six months include topics on the politics of healthy eating, the health risks of red meat, whole versus low fat milks, and the health of children and babies.

Healthy Eating News Articles

  • Published in CBC News on July 20, 2019, "Are food politics defeating Canada's healthy eating strategy?" makes the claim that food industry lobbyists are keeping Trudeau's healthy eating strategies proposals from becoming law. There is also evidence that conservative leaders are hoping to win lobbyists by offering to change or reject laws that fail to boost food and beverage interests.
  • CTV News published an article on December 30, 2019, titled, "'Wake-up call': Study suggests kids who drink whole milk may be leaner." The article discusses a study in which researchers from Saint Michael's Hospital in Toronto claim that children who regularly drink whole milk are less likely to be overweight than those who drink lower fat milks.
  • According to another CTV News article, "How risky is eating red meat? New papers provoke controversy" published September 30, 2019, Researchers dispute current advice regarding the risks of consuming red meat. The team of researchers suggests the risk would not be worth cutting red meat out of one's diet altogether.
  • Published August 26, 2019, the CTV News article, "Canadian schoolchildren are eating better than they used to: study" claims that while schoolchildren in Canada are eating foods of higher quality than 15 years ago, school-aged kids are still not eating enough dark green vegetables.
  • The article, "Keep it simple: Consistency, positive attitude key to eating healthy in 2020, dietitian says" published January 5, 2020, in CBC News advocates for focusing on adding healthier foods to one's diet instead of cutting out the bad in order to cultivate a healthier eating strategy.
  • "Added sugar found in the diets of many babies and toddlers" as published by CBC News on January 1, 2020, explains how more than half of toddlers are exceeding their recommended daily sugar intake due to added sugars in foods like yogurt.
  • The popular article published by CBC News from December 20, 2019, "Would you re-consider that cookie if you knew it would take 20 minutes to run off?", discusses a new food labeling idea. Health and exercise experts have suggested labeling foods with icons that show how many calories are contained in the food as well as the amount of time it would take to burn off the calories.

Research Strategy

By searching the top news sites in Canada, Wonder researchers looked at the number of shares and comments on articles covering healthy eating topics from July 2019 – January 2020. CBC News shows how many comments each article has. CTV News shows how many times an article have been shared. Other popular Canadian news sources either did not show likes, shares or comments, or they were behind a paywall. The articles selected for this report have between 71-670 comments and between 271-3000 shares and all were found among Canada's more popular media sources.
of eighteen

Online Meal Delivery Service Providers

The top five providers of online meal delivery services in Canada are SkipTheDishes, DoorDash, Uber Eats, Foodora, and Fantuan Delivery. These companies have 3,000 to 20,000 partner restaurants in Canada.



  • DoorDash has 9,751 partner restaurants (estimated) in Canada as of 2019.
  • The San Francisco, California-based company operates in cities such as Calgary, Edmonton, Newfoundland, Ottawa, Toronto, and Winnipeg, and provinces such as Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Saskatchewan.
  • DoorDash has not revealed specific revenue figures, but it has been reported that the company reached a valuation of US$7.1 billion in February 2019.

Uber Eats

  • Uber Eats has 3,878 partner restaurants (estimated) in Canada as of 2019.
  • The San Francisco, California-based company operates in 27 Canadian cities, which include Calgary, Ottawa, Toronto, and others.
  • Uber Eats has not revealed revenue figures specific to its operations in Canada, but it has been reported that the company’s worldwide revenue in 2018 was US$759 million after subtracting driver referrals and incentives.


  • Foodora has over 3,000 partner restaurants in Canada.
  • The Berlin, Germany-based company operates in cities such as Quebec City, Montréal, Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton, Mississauga, and Vancouver.
  • Foodora’s estimated revenue for its operations in Canada is US$15.6 million.

Fantuan Delivery

  • Fantuan Delivery has over 4,000 partner restaurants in Canada.
  • The Burnaby, British Columbia-based company operates in cities such as Vancouver, Toronto, Victoria, and Edmonton.
  • Fantuan Delivery has not revealed any revenue figures, but it has been reported that the company raised US$5 million in funding in 2018.

Research Strategy

The articles published by Thinknum Media and The Globe and Mail have identified SkipTheDishes (subsidiary of Just Eat), DoorDash, Uber Eats, and Foodora (subsidiary of Delivery Hero) as the top providers of online meal delivery services in Canada based on the number of partner restaurants. Atlantic Institute for Market Studies, CBC, and Digital Trends have also published articles and researches that focused on some of the companies mentioned above. Due to the lack of media coverage on other food delivery apps in Canada, we have selected the fifth company by examining which food delivery provider operates on a comparable scale in terms of the number of partner restaurants in the country. Fantuan Delivery has been selected as it has over 4,000 partner restaurants in Canada.
of eighteen

Prepared Meals Market Size

The current market size for online food delivery in Canada is $2,263 million; upon conversion, its market size is approximately worth C$2,956 million. The market size is projected to grow at a CAGR of 8.5% from year 2020 to year 2024.

Sub-Categories Of Online Food Delivery Canada

Platform-to-Consumer Delivery

  • The online market size for the Platform-to-Consumer Delivery in year 2020 is $793 million; upon conversion to Canadian dollars, its market size is approximately C$1,036 million.

Restaurant-to-Consumer Delivery

  • The online market size for the Restaurant-to-Consumer Delivery in year 2020 is $1,471 million; upon conversion to Canadian dollars, its market size is approximately C$1,921 million.

Research Analysis

Our research focus for this analysis covers the Canadian market size for online food delivery, which includes the delivery of prepared meals and food that was ordered online for direct consumption. Our scope includes meals ordered online and directly delivered by the restaurant, online meal order, and delivery both carried out by various platforms and online orders that are picked up in the restaurant. The team made use of a currency converter to convert the money from US dollars to CA dollars.
of eighteen

Online Grocery Shopping Market Size

The market size for the Canadian online grocery shopping was C$.05 billion in 2018 and is forecast to reach C$.74 billion by 2023 at a CAGR of 21%.

Overview of the Canadian Online Grocery Shopping Market

  • In 2018, the Canadian online grocery shopping market size was about C$1.05 billion ($800 million).
  • Online grocery shopping market size is forecast to reach approximately C$2.74 billion ($2.10 billion) by 2023.
  • The Canadian online grocery shopping market is forecast to grow from 2018 to 2023 at a CAGR of 21%.
  • In terms of market share, the online grocery shopping market is forecast to grow from 0.8% in 2018 to 1.8% in 2023.
  • A 2019 study by PwC shows that Canadians prefer shopping at brick and mortar shops over online shops as only 20% of the surveyed Canadians were sure of shopping grocery online within the next 12 months while 69% were unsure.
  • Online grocery shopping accounted for one percent of the total grocery market in 2017.
  • The Canadian online grocery shopping market is one of the top ten largest markets in the world.
  • Costco, Amazon, Maxi, Loblaws, Sobeys, Longo’s Grocery Gateway and Walmart are some players in the Canadian online grocery industry.

Research Strategy

Your research team leveraged publicly available information on IGD (a reputable market research and training organization with a focus on the food and consumer goods industry) to provide the requested information regarding the online grocery shopping market size in Canada. This information is further corroborated with Canadian Grocer published data and PwC.

Note: Google currency converter was used to convert all values reported in $ (USD) to C$ (CAD) at a conversion rate of $1.00 to C$1.31.
of eighteen

Online Grocery Store Shopper Demographics

Employed Millennials living in urban areas make up the largest share of Canadians who shop for their groceries online. It is also likely that


  • Canada's online grocery shopping is being driven by time-strapped Millennials in need of convenience and a portion of the aging Baby Boomer generation. However, of the two demographics, it is the Millennials who are facilitating the growth of the trend as they take over the market from Boomers.
  • According to the Canadian Grocer, 25% of millennials would be open to shopping for groceries online if they were presented with the option. About 41% of Millennials use mobile shopping apps for grocery shopping.
  • Baby Boomers and the Silent Generation are the two demographics that are most loyal to in-store grocery stores. About 93% of Boomers are loyal to their stores and Silents are driven more by paper coupons than the need for convenience.


  • According to a report highlighted by the Vancouver Sun, online grocery shoppers in Canada are mostly the "aging population with less mobility and a young, overworked population wanting to buy back time." Since experts agree that Millennials make up the largest composition of online grocery shoppers, then it is logical that most Canadians who shop their groceries online would be employed.


  • According to experts, the online grocery trend is most established in urban areas, especially Victoria and Vancouver followed by the Greater Toronto Area.
  • Also, the activities of online grocery retailers seem to be concentrated in urban centers. For example, Loblaws, the national leader in the space, uses PC Express to fulfill home deliveries in urban locations including Toronto, Etobicoke, North York, Mississauga, Richmond Hill, Markham, and Pickering.
  • This seems to follow overall online shopping trend in Canada where 45% of Canadians in urban areas shop online compared to 19% of the rural population.

Household Size

  • While there were no insights specific to the grocery shopping habits by household type and size, a Nielsen study found that Millennials with children in Canada are in more and regular need of grocery than those without. The study said that their basket sizes are bigger and they tend to spend more than their childless counterparts.
  • If Millennials in Canada are opting to shop for their groceries online because they are over-worked and time-strapped, then it is possible that those with Children would be more attracted by the trend.


  • The costs associated with delivery and registration/membership fees are among the reasons most Canadians are wary of online grocery shopping. Also, Loblaw, which commands the largest market share, is skewed towards well-off consumers.
  • Additionally, according to Canad Post, the average annual income of Canadians who shop online is about $92,656. Based on the aforementioned factors, it is possible that online grocery shoppers in Canada have high income levels.

Gender and Race

  • In Canada, Millennial males and females account for 13.9% and 13.7% of the population, respectively. When it comes to online shopping, about 48% and 52% are male and female, respectively.
  • According to a Mintel report on the grocery market in Canada, "virtually all Canadians (96%) hold some level of responsibility for the task of shopping and the large majority partake in the activity at least once per week (85%)." This means that both genders are responsible for grocery shopping. Based on these insights, it is likely that grocery shopping in Canada is undertaken by both males and females.
  • While there were no insights on the racial orientation of grocery shoppers or online shoppers in Canada, the Canadian population is predominantly Caucasian. It is, therefore, logical to assume that a majority of shoppers would be Whites.


The research team managed to find insights into the age, employment, and location of Canadians who shop for their groceries online from our initial search through media reports and market research reports. However, we could not garner any insights on their sex, income level, race, employment, and household composition. Next, we searched through media reports and the websites and for any communications from the main players on the market such as Loblaw to establish whether they have provided any information on the demographic of their online customer base. However, there was none. Third, we searched for any international reports or studies that might have highlighted the information on Canada. While there were several reports that highlighted the extent of the Canadian grocery market, most were behind paywall, and others only provided high-level data on its size. We believe that the information is missing because the Canadian online grocery market only took off in 2018. For the missing information, the research team evaluated the overall online shopping market in Canada as well as other Canadian data to provide useful insights. Notably, most information was centered on Canadian millennials since they are the biggest online shoppers of groceries. We could not highlight differences between this group and those that shop in-store because there was not much data to compare.
of eighteen

Meal Kit Demographics

The demographic profile of Canadians who use or purchase online meal kit or dinner box services are married millennial males (aged 23-38) who have children, graduated from university, and have a high-income level. Additionally, they are most likely to be Caucasian and are likely to live in Ontario, Canada.

The Demographics

Research Strategy

The research team started the search by looking into expert-compiled information regarding the demographic profile of Canadians who use online meal kit/ dinner box services. Meal kit/dinner box services primarily include those who avail of the services of meal kit/dinner box delivered by Blue Apron, Hello Fresh, Miss Fresh, and other online meal-kit companies. During the search, we were able to find information regarding the Canadian meal-kit market from reliable sources such as Nielsen, PR Newswire, and The Chartered Professional Accountants Canada. Information from these sources detailed that there is a possible growth in the meal-kit subscription market, as most Canadians have tried it. We also found that Hello Fresh currently has the highest market share in both Canada and the US, with a 60% market share and 36% market share, respectively. Because of this information, we were able to hypothesize two useful strategies. First is to look into the possible demographics of the subscribers of Hello Share in Canada. Second is to look into the interest of Canadians towards meal-kits to see if their interest varies by gender, age, income level, and others.

The team first looked into the annual reports of the company to see whether the company lists the demographics of the subscribers in Canada. As per the indicated sources, it owns the majority of the market share in Canada. Upon checking the annual reports, we found that recent reports only bifurcated subscribers between two categories, USA and International. Furthermore, the only information we could find regarding the demographics of their consumers is that it varies from country to country, and that the company relies primarily on the openness of consumers to e-commerce to gain orders for their meal-kits (p.20, sub-section 2. Performance Measurement System). We then visited the company’s blog to see whether they would provide information regarding their subscribers. However, most of the company’s blog posts were about food trends and recipes. We were not able to find bifurcated demographic information regarding the subscribers of Hello Fresh.

The team decided to look into Canadian consumers who are open to e-commerce to see whether they are likely to subscribe or purchase meal-kit services. As stated from Hello Fresh’s annual report, sales of the company relied primarily on the openness of consumers to e-commerce. By looking into this, we hypothesized that we might find demographic information regarding these Canadian e-commerce consumers that we can use as a demographic profile if the assumption is proven to be true. During the search, we were able to find a recent report by Canada Post regarding the state of e-commerce in Canada in 2019. In the report, we found that meal-kits were not part of the categories most often bought by Canadians online. In fact, food items were not even part of the listed categories.

We then looked into the interest of Canadians towards meal-kits. The team hypothesized that by looking into the interest of Canadians towards meal-kits, we might be able to find a number of interested Canadians and a bifurcation of the size by demographics. We visited market research sites such as NPD Group, IBIS World, PR Newswire, and others. During the search, we were able to find a recent report from Restobiz, which got its data from a research conducted by the NPD Group, that 42% of Canadians are interested in trying meal-kits. However, only 11% of Canadians purchased a meal kit from 2018 to 2019. There was a bifurcation of these buyers by gender, sex, location, income level, and children. However, the source did not indicate the ethnic group of those who use online meal-kits.

The team then decided to triangulate the ethnic group that is most likely to use online meal-kits. From the indicated information of those who purchase online meal-kits, we found that they are males who have high-income levels, live in Ontario, and have children. As per Statistics Canada, most of the citizens within this given demographic information are also married men and are highly educated. Furthermore, statistics from the Conference Board of Canada stated that those who earn $70,196 (considered to be a high-income level in Canada) tend to be university-educated Canadian-born Caucasians. From this given information, highly educated, Canadian-born, Caucasians, are most likely to purchase online-meal kits.

of eighteen

Online Meal Delivery Service Demographics

Consumers aged between 25 and 44 are most likely to use online meal delivery services. Females use the service slightly more than males. The low-income demographic uses online meal delivery services more frequently than other income groups. Given the population density of Canada, it is not surprising that users are predominantly based in urban areas, with the densely populated Ontario having the highest number of providers.


  • In 2019, the age group that was most likely to use online meal delivery in Canada was the 25-34 year age group, with 30% of online meal deliveries being made to this age group.
  • Further analysis shows that 24.4% of online meal deliveries are made to the 35-44 year age group in Canada.
  • 17.7% of deliveries are made to the 18-24 year age group, and 17% of deliveries go to the 45-54 year age group.
  • 23% of consumers in the 18-34 year age group use online meal delivery services like SkiptheDish, UberEats, and DoorDash at least once a week.
  • The 55-64 year age group is the least likely to use online meal delivery services, with only 10.8% of deliveries being made to this age group.


  • The genders are almost equally divided in Canada regarding online meal delivery services, with 53.4% of deliveries being made to females and 46.6% of deliveries being made to males in 2019.


  • Online meal delivery services are most likely to be used by Canadian consumers in the low-income group, with 41.48% of deliveries being made to this group.
  • Medium-income consumers receive 35.7% of online meal deliveries, while high-income consumers receive 22.8%.
  • Unfortunately, the income levels for each category were not defined. Middle-income in Canada varies based on location in Canada, but based on data compiled at the end of 2017, the range for middle-income in Canada is $33,000 to $130,000, with a median income of $70,336.
  • Based on the above figures, low-income is less than $33,000, and high-income is greater than $130,000.


  • The use of online meal delivery services is most common in urban areas. This is because the service is less likely to be offered outside of the major towns and cities as low population density makes it economically unviable.
  • UberEats is focused predominantly on the Ontario market operating with the majority of major cities in the province offering the service. While it operates in the other Canadian provinces, there are fewer operations outside of Ontario. This is probably because Ontario has more areas of high population density compared to other regions. At the start of 2019, UberEats was available in 100 Canadian cities.
  • In British Columbia, UberEats is primarily focused on Vancouver and the cities immediately surrounding it.
  • Winnipeg based SkiptheDish is the most popular online food delivery service in Canada.
  • While the online meal delivery service has been popular in Manitoba with 45% of consumers indicating they intended to use an online meal delivery service within the next six months at the end of 2018, by mid-2019, this number had fallen to 37% of consumers. This is despite a high satisfaction rate by Canadian consumers.


  • No specific metrics are available regarding the number of consumers using online food delivery services that have children in Canada. A review of Canadian data shows that 41.6% of the 20-34 year age group are living with their own family. This is defined as either a spouse (or partner) and/or child.

Research Strategy

By searching a range of precompiled market reports and industry publications regarding online meal delivery services in Canada, we were able to locate key information regarding the age, sex, and income levels of consumers using the services. Unfortunately, these reports either did not contain information regarding the location of the consumers, their race, their employment, or whether they had children, or if they did provide this information, it was hidden behind paywalls. We expanded our review of precompiled marketing reports to North America but encountered the same issue. The reports that covered North America also had a tendency to focus predominantly on the US population, and often Canadian data was excluded.

Our next strategy saw us review the data, usage reports, and metrics provided by various online food delivery providers in Canada. We hoped this strategy would yield information that was useful in defining consumer demographics. This strategy provided some general information regarding the concentration of the services and the areas which offer these services, but it was not specific. We expanded this review to North America but encountered the same issues. While there was some specific information regarding the location of consumers, it was specific to US consumers, so we have not incorporated. The general information available on a North American basis was consistent with the general data we found relating to Canada. No information regarding race, employment, or whether consumers have children was available in these sources. There was some information suggesting that that meal kits that are delivered are becoming popular with families, but given this information is being covered in another project, we have not included it.

Finally, we considered a range of media articles and press releases from the respective delivery providers. By scanning sources of this nature in Canada, we were able to locate some information that confirmed our initial findings regarding age, income levels, and gender. Even when we expanded our search to North America, little additional information was found that could be applied to the Canadian market. The information found in US media sources was specific to that market, although, like the Canadian media sources, it did confirm the data around the age, sex, and income levels of consumers. No additional information was found regarding the location of consumers, and no information was available regarding race, employment, or whether the consumers had children.

To supplement the concrete information we had found, we turned to the Canadian census and government data. This enabled us to determine the number of people in the age group that uses online meal delivery services the most that had children. While it is not specific to the online meal delivery service demographic, it does provide some information that can be used to place the more detailed findings in context.

We also reviewed Canadian data regarding income levels as the data we had found regarding this aspect of the demographic did not provide a dollar figure as to what the different income levels were. By doing this, we were able to define low, middle, and high-income groups based on a dollar figure.

of eighteen

Future Canadian Food Trends

Future trends around the eating habits of Canadians are a decline in the consumption of dairy products, a rise in intermittent fasting, and a continuous rise in snacking.

No or Reduced Dairy

  • A survey report published by Insights West revealed that a significant proportion of Canadians are looking to remove or reduce dairy products from their diets going forward.
  • According to the report, 11% of the survey respondents are already working towards it, 14% reported to have tried it in the past, while 26% are likely to try it in the future.
  • The survey also reveals that this trend is more likely to be adopted by the younger generations. For respondents aged 18-34, 36% reported that they are likely going to consider cutting dairy.
  • Of those aged 35-54, 28% agreed that they are likely giving it a thought, while it is 18% for those aged 55 years and above.
  • This trend is to be driven by "concerns about animal cruelty, the environmental impact, and personal health."

Intermittent Fasting

  • Although Keto and Paleo diets are trending, the report by Insights West opines that intermittent fasting is a current and future trend for Canadians looking to manage their weight.
  • According to the survey result, 8% of respondents agreed to be attempting intermittent fasting.
  • While 16% reported that they have tried it in the past, 28% — representing a significant rise — hinted that they are likely going to try it in the future.
  • Weight management consciousness is expected to drive this trend.


  • The Canadian snack food category is projected to be worth over $4 billion by 2021, a 6% rise over 5 years.
  • This rise shows that snacking would remain a prevalent part of the daily lives of Canadians by 2021.
  • With about 8% of Canadians currently foregoing large meals in favor of all-day snacking, this trend is expected to continue.
  • According to a report by Tree of Life, confections and indulgent treats constitute 50% of all purchases in the snack food category in Canada.
  • This trend will be driven by the constant rise in the need for nourishing and satiating snacks, as well as the consciousness about what they are putting into their bodies.

Research Strategy

To identify and describe 2-3 expected trends around the eating habits of Canadians, your research team commenced with a thorough search through reports published by food regulatory organizations in Canada. We hoped to find a 2020 food and beverage outlook published on these sources. We could only find current feeding trends published by the Canadian Food Guide with no insight into projected feeding trends.

Next, we search through expert publications and educational journals related to the food and beverage industry. We hoped to identify feeding habits and patterns that are projected to trend among Canadians from 2021 and above. While we could find feeding trends from reliable sources, they were projections made for 2019 and 2020.

Furthermore, we searched for industry reports and survey results conducted by independent market research groups for any insight into the future eating trends of Canadians. In the course of our research, we found a 2021 projection of the Canadian snacking habit. We also found a survey report on Canadian consumers that was published in late 2019 that made projections to the future eating trends in Canada with no specific mention of the projected year or duration. Due to a limited availability of reports related to the future eating habits of Canadians that are specific to 2021 and beyond, we have presented the available information on the 2021 projected trend on snacking in Canada, and the future eating habits of Canadians as established from a survey of "1,011 Canadian adults weighted according to Canadian census figures for age, gender, and region."
of eighteen

Canadian Food Guide: Trends

Two trends around the food habits of Canadians include plant-based foods and healthier eating habits. Canadians are now eating healthier foods as they become aware of their benefits. Details regarding these trends have been provided below.

Plant-based Foods

  • The consumption of plant-based foods has significantly increased in Canada. The trend has led to grocery stores and restaurants adding plant-based options in their offerings.
  • The growth and interest in plant-based foods in Canada is expected to increase in the next five to ten years. As it stands, approximately 10% of Canadians are vegan or vegetarian.
  • The shift towards plant-based foods in Canada has been fueled by consumers who are in search of products that have environmental and health benefits. In addition, the government is driving the trend towards plant-based foods. For instance, Ottawa has invested about $150 million in the plant protein industry.
  • In addition, the increased consumption of plant-based foods in Canada has been fueled by the deplorable nature of the dairy and meat sources in the country. Others are following this trend due to allergies.
  • Moreover, it is noteworthy that consumers are following the recommendations provided in the Canada Food Guide, which highlights the advantages of proteins from nuts, tofu, legumes, and beans.

Healthier Eating Habits

  • Canadians are trying to adopt healthier eating habits as they become more educated about the foods they consume and the population gets older. Currently, Canadians are interested in foods and beverages made with natural ingredients.
  • Consumers are paying attention to food labels and nutritional ingredients. Products labeled "100% natural" are becoming popular and common keywords in packaging.
  • Organic products are becoming a healthy food alternative for many Canadians. There has been increased consumer spending on such products especially among younger demographics such as millennials.
  • The shift towards healthier eating habits has been driven by the fact that Canadian consumers view clean, real, fresh food as being an important factor in the health and well-being of a person. They believe that a healthy diet is important in disease treatment, prevention, and mental energy.
  • In addition, government regulations have contributed towards the healthy eating trend in Canada. For instance, regulatory amendments have been made by Health Canada when it comes to food labeling so that consumers are more informed about the food they eat.

Research Strategy

After extensive research, we were unable to link the changes in food habits to the Canadian Food Guide. A search through various media publications and industry sites, such as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, National Post, and Retail Insider did not yield any relevant results. However, we found one study that was conducted, but the results will be published this year. For this reason, we provided the current trends around the food habits of Canadians.
of eighteen

Top Grocery Suppliers: Canada

Flanagan Foodservice Inc., Gordon Food Service Canada, Horizon Grocery + Wellness, Tannis Food Distributors, and National Importers Inc. are the top food suppliers in Canada. Columns B-F, rows 3-7 of the attached spreadsheet have been filled with information on the suppliers.

Flanagan Foodservice, Inc.

  • Flanagan Foodservice is the largest food distributor in Canada, founded in 1977 by Joe Flanagan. The company serves over 6,000 customers which include restaurants food chains, hotels, bakeries, healthcare and institutional facilities.
  • The company has estimated annual revenue of $234.14 million.

Gordon Food Service Canada Ltd.

Horizon Grocery + Wellness

  • Horizon Grocery + Wellness is the largest distributor of organic and natural foods in Canada, founded in 1976. The company supplies to grocery and independent grocery chains, independent natural health stores, restaurants, specialty food chains, supplement stores.
  • The company has $150 million in annual revenue.

Tannis Food Distributors

  • Tannis Food Distributors is a subsidiary of Syco Company which is a major supplier in the Canadian food industry. The company serves multi-chain fast food companies, restaurants, convenience stores, hospitals and institutions. Tannis was chosen as a major supplier in the Canadian market based on its revenue.
  • The company has $116.71 million in estimated revenue.

National Importers Inc.

  • National Importers Inc. is a specialty food and beverage distributor founded in 1947, concentrated on importing food to the Canadian market. The company serves grocery chains, drug chains, restaurants, among others.
  • The company's revenue is estimated at $87.53 million.

Research Strategy

To provide the top food suppliers in Canada, your research began by combing through Canadian food distributors databases for companies operating in the industry. After locating the companies presented on the databases, we searched through each company for their revenue information and services they provide to make sure they operate in the Canadian market; we then ranked the top companies based on revenues generated.

of eighteen

Top Grocery Stores in the Healthy Foods Space, Part 2

Metro Inc, The Jim Pattison Group, The North West Company, Longo Brothers Fruit Markets Inc, and M&M Food Market are five top players in Canada's healthy foods space. Details on each company are available in rows 8-12 of the Grocery Store tab of the attached spreadsheet.

Metro Inc

  • Total revenue: US$11.03 billion (C$14.38 billion)
  • Metro Inc operates a network of about 950 food stores, such as Metro, Metro Plus, Food Basics, and Super C, including about 650 drugstores in Canada. It is a top player in the healthy food space because its stores offer several healthy food categories.

The Jim Pattison Group

  • Total revenue: US$8 billion (C$10.6 billion)
  • Founded in 1961, it operates as a holding company with interests in 25 industries comprising 545 locations across Canada. With over 170 stores under its Save-On-Foods brand and 35 Buy-Low Foods retail stores offering a broad range of healthy foods, The Jim Pattison Group is a top player in the healthy foods space.

The North West Company

  • Total revenue: US$1.54 billion (C$2,01 billion)
  • Established in 1668, North West is a leading retailer to rural and remote areas across Canada, with at least 192 stores in its Canadian operations. With a focus on food, the company offers several healthy food options in its grocery stores, which include its 117 Northern stores, and five NorthMart stores in Canada.

Longo Brothers Fruit Markets Inc

M&M Food Market

Research Strategy

Using available a list of the top supermarket and grocery chain companies in Canada from Statista, along with a list of the top retailers in Canada, we researched each company on the lists (excluding those provided in part one of this request) to identify grocery stores that offer a significant range of healthy food products. We then ranked the next five top grocery stores that sell direct to consumers according to their total revenues.

of eighteen

Top Grocery Stores in the Healthy Foods Space, Part 1

Full details for the top five grocery stores in Canada in the healthy foods space have been entered into the attached spreadsheet. The companies are Walmart, Costco, Loblaw, Empire Company Limited, and Whole Foods Market. The companies are ranked based on total company revenue.


  • Walmart Canada was founded in 1994 with headquarters in Mississauga, Ontario and 411 locations across Canada. Walmart is a top player in the healthy foods space because it has over 450 healthy food products.
  • The recently reported revenue of Walmart is US$514.4 billion.


Loblaw Companies Limited

Empire Company Limited

  • Empire’s food business is conducted through its subsidiary, Sobeys which serves millions of Canadians and has over 1,500 locations in Canada. Empire is a top player in the healthy foods space because several of its brands including Sobeys and Safeway have several healthy food categories.
  • The revenue of Empire is US$19.2 billion (C$25.1 billion).

Whole Foods Market

  • Whole Foods Market was established in 1980 and is the leading natural and organic foods company with 13 locations in Canada. Whole Foods Market is a top player in the healthy foods space because it focuses on healthy food products.
  • The revenue of Whole Foods Market is US$15.7 billion.

Research Strategy

We found a list of the top food and grocery stores in the US and Canada from The Balance Small Business. It included companies that have locations in the US only. We therefore selected the top five companies with locations in Canada based on total company revenue. We then searched through their websites and third-party sites to confirm they offer a significant number of healthy food products, and that they sell directly to consumers.


From Part 02
  • "A comparison of a vegan, vegetarian and omnivorous diets. This systematic review is based on 16 studies and 18 reviews."
  • "The included studies were selected by focusing directly on environmental impacts of human diets. Four electronic bibliographic databases, PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria."
  • "3.3.1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Meat production generates far more GHGEs than production for vegan and LOV diets [13]. Another study shows that, for each gram of beef protein consumed in the human diet, beef production requires 42 times more land use, 2 times more water use and 4 times more nitrogen, while it generates 3 times more GHGEs than the staple plant foods [12]."
  • "3.3.2. Land Use Beef production requires a vastly larger amount of resources than the staple plant foods such as rice, beans, and potatoes. One study [2] calculates that each kg of beef requires 163 times more land use, 18 times more water use, 19 times more nitrogen and 11 times more CO2 than 1 kg of rice or I kg of potatoes."
  • "3.3.3. Water Footprint One study finds that the difference between water inputs for animal protein vs. plant protein is normally around a factor of 26; even when intensive irrigation is needed for plant-based protein, animal protein production requires 4.4 times as much water [22]. A second study supports this finding, stating that production for LOV diets has increased the water-scarcity footprint by 26% [15]."
  • "3.4.1. GHGE Impacts for Production of LOV Diets A study in Sweden compared beef with soybeans and reports that per gram of protein, beef requires 18 times more energy and produces 71 times more CO2 than soybeans [12]. A study of different dietary patterns in the UK determined that OMN had causes 4 times higher GHGEs per kcal than LOV."
  • "3.5. Environmental Impact of a Vegan Diet Nonetheless, one study estimates that a complete switch to a vegan diet could result in reductions of 17% for CO2, 21% for NO2 and 24% for CH4 [2]. Among the three diets, the vegan diet makes the lightest demands on the global water supply, requiring 14.4% less freshwater and 20.8% less ground water than the omnivorous diet [12]."
  • "Finally released Tuesday after a long delay, the 2019 guide advises Canadians to limit sugar, salt and saturated fat and, in a departure from previous guides, embrace a plant-based diet."
  • "Finally released Tuesday after a long delay, the 2019 guide advises Canadians to limit sugar, salt and saturated fat and, in a departure from previous guides, embrace a plant-based diet."
  • "The latest iteration of Health Canada's advice on what to eat has taken those two former dietary staples almost entirely off our plates and replaced them mainly with leafier vegetables, alternative proteins, such as tofu and beans, and whole grains, such as quinoa."
  • "An eating pattern that is higher in plant-based foods and lower in animal-based foods can decrease the negative impact of food on the environment. In general, plant-based foods use fewer resources such as land and water."
  • "Make environmentally-friendly choices Make food and drink choices that are better for the environment. You can: - choose plant-based foods more often"
  • "‘Plant-based’ is a flexible diet where the bulk of calories and nutrition come from plant sources."
  • "It requires an average of 6kg of plant protein to produce 1kg of animal protein, and 100 times more water. "
  • "A single dairy cow produces approximately 120 pounds of wet manure per day, which is equivalent to that of 20 to 40 humans. On average 990 litres of water are required to produce one litre of milk. "
  • "Small family farms are the exception to the rule. In reality, about 97% of animals grown for food in Canada are raised on huge factory farms, where they are subject to intensive confinement."
  • "Currently, over 70% of grains grown in the North America feed livestock, not people. Livestock eat 80% of the world’s soybean crop and more than 50% of the world’s corn crop, meanwhile more than 3 billion people on the planet are malnourished."
  • "Plants such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, grains, nuts and seeds, are the base of the diet."
  • "This way of eating is not as strict as going vegan, and is more focused on whole foods and healthy options, not just foods free from animal products. This diet results in significant benefits to our health, the environment and the lives of animals."
  • "While only 7% of Canadians currently follow a primarily plant-based diet, a significant number (27%) are considering doing so in the future"
  • "According to a new Insights West study on food and diet trends across the country, a sizable number of Canadians are considering a reduced-meat or meat-free diet including vegetarian, vegan, and pescatarian options. And another sizable percentage is considering a dairy-free or reduced-dairy diet."
  • "When asked about future diet considerations, a full 27% of Canadians said they were likely to consider a vegetarian diet and 11% would go further and explore a vegan diet."
  • "Another significant proportion of Canadians have or are considering reducing or removing dairy products from their diet—11% already do and 26% are considering it. Again, this sentiment is more likely to be shared by younger generations."
  • "For those aged 18-34, 36% say they are likely to consider cutting dairy. That also holds true for 28% of those aged 35-54. The 55+ set is less likely to pass on the dairy—only 18% are giving it consideration."
  • "The reasons for cutting animal products from the menu often varies by the diet. Vegetarians, vegans, and pescatarians are mainly doing so or thinking about it because of concerns about animal cruelty, the environmental impact, and personal health."
  • "One other environmental concern that is less well publicized, but certainly not less important, is the rapidly depleting global supply of high-quality, mineable phosphorus. Used as part of fertilizers for food production, known reserves of phosphorus are limited and could potentially be depleted within 50–100 years if consumption trends continue at the same rate [28,54]."
  • "Vegetarian diets require considerably less phosphorus to produce than meat-containing diets; as such, shifting broad-scale dietary patterns to less meat consumption could be a vital strategy to contend with a looming mineable phosphorus shortage [28]."
From Part 04
  • "Between 2013 and 2016, about 37 percent of U.S. adults consumed fast food on any given day, according to the data brief published Wednesday by the National Center for Health Statistics ."
  • ""On any given day in the United States, an estimated 36.6 percent or approximately 84.8 million adults consume fast food," said Cheryl Fryar, first author of the report and a health statistician at the CDC."
  • "Fast foods tend to be high in calories, fat, salt and sugar, which -- when consumed in excess -- can be associated with obesity, high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease, among other health risks."
  • "The data revealed that fast food consumption varied by age, income level, race and sex. For instance, 44.9 percent of adults ages 20 to 39 said that they consumed fast food on a given day, compared with 37.7% of adults 40 to 59, and 24.1 percent of adults 60 and older."
  • "The percentage of adults who said they consumed fast food rose with family income level, according to the report. Overall, 31.7 percent of lower-income, 36.4 percent of middle-income and 42 percent of higher-income adults said they had eaten fast food."
  • ""That connection or correlation is opposite of what I perhaps would have expected," he said. "But we need these kinds of studies and these kinds of facts and statistics to get a better understanding of what drives the use of foods that, as a nutrition expert I would say, are not your first choice for a variety of reasons.""
  • "Last month, a Rudd Center report said that 91 percent of 871 parents who took an online survey said they had purchased lunch or dinner for their child in the previous week at one of the four largest fast-food restaurant chains: McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's or Subway. The survey was conducted in 2016."
  • ""On average, they'd gone 2½ -- actually 2.4 -- times per week. So those numbers are pretty comparable to about a third on any given day," Harris said."
  • "That 91 percent was an increase from 79 percent of 771 parents in a 2010 survey and 83 percent of 835 parents in a 2013 survey, according to the Rudd Center report."
  • "We do know that fast food advertising has gone up during that time by pretty large amounts. We do know that parents take their children, they say, because it's convenient, it's a good value, and their kids like the food. So all of those are driving purchases of fast food," Harris said"
  • "According to research from Dalhousie University, there are 2.3 million vegetarians in Canada, up from 900,000 15 years ago. Another 850,000 people consider themselves vegan. Those two numbers add up to 9.4 per cent of the Canadian population."
  • "Sylvain Charlebois, a professor of food distribution and policy at Dalhousie, says the most “disturbing fact” for meatmakers is that the majority of Canadian vegetarians and vegans are under the age of 35. "
  • "Charlebois says there are several reasons more and more people are choosing to go meat-free, with one of the most common being animal welfare concerns."
  • "Other factors cited by Charlebois include the rising prices of beef and other meats, environmental concerns and personal health."
  • "“I can’t remember the last time I read a study suggesting that we should eat more meat,” he said. “The scientific evidence seems to be pretty strong encouraging people to eat more vegetable proteins.”"
  • "Vegetable proteins, such as lentils and chick peas, are often eaten by people who have cut meat out of their diet and want to maintain a healthy level of protein consumption."
  • "Even larger chains that pride themselves on their meat are getting into the alternative protein game. Burger giant A&W recently introduced its “Beyond Meat Burger,” which includes a patty made from peas, rice and other plant-based ingredients."
  • "The rise in plant-based eating has resulted in a surge of vegan options across the country. With the rollout of the Beyond Burger at A&W Canada, the opening of 24-hour vegan drive-thrus, and an entire neighborhood dedicated to veganism, Canada is becoming more vegan-friendly every day and a place many vegans want to live."
  • "Over the past decade, veganism has seen consistent growth as millennials, the largest generation and the one with the most self-identified vegetarians, purchase their own food. But if you think millennials are vegan AF, you should know that Generation Z is even more into plant-based foods! As this generation grows older, we can expect to see a boom in vegan alternatives to meat, dairy, and eggs."
  • "And the research firm Global Data reports that veganism in America increased about 600 percent between 2014 and 2017."
  • "Studies in Canada suggest that approximately five to seven per cent of Canadians identify as vegetarian, and another three to four per cent as vegan. A recent survey at the University of Guelph was consistent with this estimate."
  • "Many surveys also overstate the number of true vegans and vegetarians in Canada. Our recent survey suggests that many of those identifying as vegans or vegetarians are actually eating meat. We found that one third of those who identified as vegetarians and more than half of those who identified as vegans ate meat relatively regularly."
  • "This phenomenon is called virtue signalling and is easy to understand; people want to eat less meat. There is increasing social pressure to reduce meat consumption, resulting in more plant-based diets and even a recommendation in the new Canada Food Guideencouraging meatless meals."
  • "And so as we see new surveys suggesting growth in the number of Canadians adhering to a vegan or vegetarian diet, we need to consider if perhaps virtue signalling is complicating the interpretation of these results. There may be real growth, but it is probably less than the surveys suggest. And so, again, it’s unlikely vegetarians and vegans are driving the changes in meat consumption."
  • "The same recent University of Guelph food consumer survey suggested that almost 85 per cent of Canadians are eating at least one main meal per month without animal protein. In short: Canadians eat meat, but they’re beginning to eat less of it."
  • "While there may be some virtue signalling here too, it is relatively clear that “meat minimizers” or flexitarians — those who still eat meat, but are eating less of it — are driving changes in meat consumption."
  • "Part of the decrease in meat consumption is due less to choice than to demographics. The Canadian population is aging, and as we age, we eat less overall and so protein portions become smaller."
  • "A 2015 U.S. study found that 80 per cent of vegans suggested that they were motivated by animal welfare/ethics and only 20 per cent by factors relating to health."
  • "What really drives Canadian fast food, however, isn’t burgers, fries, or even poutine. It is doughnuts. Canada has more doughnut shops per capita than any other country in the world. Part of the reason for that is the fact that after water, coffee is the most popular beverage purchased in the country."
  • "Despite changing consumer tastes, increased internal competition, and legislation governing food quality, from 2013-2018, the fast food industry in Canada saw an average annualized compound growth rate of 4.1%."
  • "Tim Horton’s also leads the Canadian fast food industry in total gross sales. In 2016, the company pulled in C$8.4 billion. McDonald’s came in second, with C$4.5 billion in sales. Subway came in third, with C$1.72 billion in gross sales. (Franchise Direct)"
  • "Fast-food chains, known within the industry as quick-service restaurants, generate $23 billion in sales in Canada each year, with about 4.3 billion visits from customers, NPD Group said in its report, "2020 Vision: The Future of QSR.""
  • "Growth is expected to be hinged mainly on larger populations in the foreseeable future, rather than an increase in the total number of visits per capita, which are expected to decline, the report said."
  • "Others in the food services industry have broadened their menus, like Subway which launched a more aggressive promotion of its breakfasts and McDonald's which brought in poutine and wraps for more health-conscious diners."
  • "The NPD Group said customer demands are evolving, with more people looking for restaurants that offer take-out and drive-thru options. Overall, that part of the business is expected to grow 10 per cent against in-store visits."
From Part 08
From Part 18