Evolution of Bladder Cancer Treatments
Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive types of cancers to treat, and has one of the highest rates of recurrence. Researchers are constantly looking for ways to detect and treat bladder cancer. Current research is looking at genetic changes in cancer cells. Surgeons have recently begun to use robotic cystectomy when removing tumors, this approach is currently being studied to see if it is more beneficial than standard surgery. Our research has identified five innovations that may be used to treat bladder cancer in the next five years. As the innovations are all currently undergoing clinical trials there is no guarantee that they will be approved in the time frame or at all.
We began our research looking for what leading authorities, hospitals, and cancer centers are saying about potential innovations for the treatment of bladder cancer. We next looked for innovations that are currently in clinical trials, as the process for approval can take a number of years. We did not focus on treatment options that have not yet been tested in some way. We next reviewed the current treatment options for bladder cancer, to make sure the innovations were not currently being used to treat bladder cancer. The innovations identified are below;
Nanomedicine for drug delivery
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center are currently researching the development of nonadhesive, biodegradable nanoparticles. The nanoparticles will contain chemotherapy and immunotherapies. The research hopes to increase the effectiveness of the treatments for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Novel immunotherapy approaches to nonmuscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Clinical trials are currently underway to combine a novel immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab (a PD-1 antibody), with a second immunotherapy drug, known as urelumab (a 4-1BB antibody). The trial is for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who are not eligible for chemotherapy.
RNAi Optimization of Nanotechnology Bladder Cancer Therapy
Combining RNA (RNAi) and nanotechnology is showing promise for the treatment of bladder cancer. RNAi technology has been found to combat chemoresistance and improve outcomes.
nanomotors carrying anti-FGFR3
Nanomotors carrying anti-FGFR3 for the treatment of bladder cancer is showing signs of being a promising treatment. The technology allows cancer cells to be specifically targeted and inhibits the fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway. This particular technology is a possible innovation, specifically to bladder cancer as the nanomotors need urea to move.
BCG and anti-PD-L1 combination therapy
Promising clinical trials are currently underway testing the effectiveness of a BCG and Anti PD-L1 therapy combination. PD-L1 is a critical immune checkpoint molecule, research has found that targeting PD-L1 slowed or suspended tumor growth. The combination is still in clinical trials but is looking like an effective treatment innovation for those with bladder cancer.