AR

Part
01
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Part
01

AR - Progress

OVERVIEW

AR technology has progressed in recent years but is not yet mature. Whilst the technology works, it has yet to find the breakthrough use cases that will spur widespread adoption. The consumer side is the best example of how early we are in the technology's maturity, the approximately 3 billion smartphones in the world are mostly AR capable yet the technology's most successful application (Pokemon GO) has 65 million monthly users. 2018 is projected to be a big year for AR as a result of developer platform launches and new hardware releases from tech giants.

HEADSETS (OR HEAD-WORN DEVICES [HMD])

The first AR headset release that excited the market was Google Glass in 2012. Their design and lack of use cases would quickly disappoint. In the ensuing years, tremendous progress has been made. From a technology perspective, the most hyped company in the HMD space is the massively funded (nearly $2 billion) Magic Leap. After 7 years in development, the company will release its first headset, the 'Magic Leap One', to consumer and B2B developers later this year. Microsoft's 'HoloLens' has already shipped to developers in 39 countries but has yet to ship to consumers. Intel's 'Vaunt' smart glasses were recently announced and are an exciting development. Particularly because unlike Microsoft and Magic Leap's offerings that are unnatural headsets, 'Vaunt' looks like stylish eyeglasses and uses a low-powered laser to project images directly onto the retina. Intel will invite developers to begin developing applications for the technology later in 2018.

HMD USE CASES

These major players not having an HMD product in the market points to how early we are in the development of AR. The vision for AR, however, is grand. Initial use cases will likely mimic what is already in the market. One example is Solos, these are AR glasses for cyclists that provide a useful data through a heads-up display. ODG's R7 AR glasses, which are enterprise focused and have been used to assist technicians by providing an extra layer of information during complex electrical procedures. ODG is currently shipping a limited number of these glasses to enterprises. Games like Pokemon Go have already been ported to the R7 AR glasses. We can expect larger players to follow suit once their products are ready. Google resurrected its Google Glass project, with a focus on the enterprise, in 2017. With good reason, the enterprise will likely be the initial large market for HDM because of their cost and the almost immediate value that organizations can realize by providing technical employees with an added layer of intelligence. Given the added friction of having to purchase an AR headset, maturity on the consumer side of the AR HDM market is likely to take longer. As a result, the consumer technology progress will lag behind that of the enterprise.

SMARTPHONES

As mentioned earlier, smartphones present an exciting opportunity for the AR consumer side given their ubiquity. All that is required, is a sufficiently advanced smartphone. AR applications for smartphones have existed for years but the major platforms are set to accelerate the creation of these applications by placing greater investment in the tools that allow developers to create these applications on their platforms. Google has its Tango mobile AR platform for Android applications, Apple launched ARkit in late 2017 which allows AR developers to create on iOS and Facebook has AR Studio. These massive platforms are distribution channels for digital entrepreneurs around the world. This will allow for applications with sufficient appeal, to get in front of customers, get feedback, improve and grow.

USE CASES FOR AR SMARTPHONES

At the moment, the applications of the technology are largely limited to overlaying information onto the real world. For instance, American Airlines has an application that will help you navigate through the airport slightly easier. Giphy World allows you to "stick" your favorite GIFs onto the real world so friends can see it. IKEA Place lets you see what a piece of furniture would actually look like in your home before you buy. Whilst all are fun and useful no AR smartphone applications, with the exception of Pokemon Go, have achieved breakout success. The use cases will increase, however, as they are potentially infinite. This is reflected in the projected investment in AR/VR, an estimated $108 billion by 2021.

CONCLUSION

AR is still not yet fully developed but its maturity, particularly on smartphone applications, is likely not too far off. The technology to create useful tools now exists, but what is lacking is the "killer app". A useful analogy for understanding how early we are in the development of AR is looking back at the first smartphones, particularly the iPhone. The phones were popular, but it wasn't until the App Store matured with useful applications that the market really took off.
Part
02
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Part
02

AR - Applications for Consumers and B2B

Based on several sites and reports that specializes in digital information, the following are the recent and common global applications where augmented reality (AR) is being used: virtual artistic endeavors, simulated dressing rooms, in-store make-up trials, house paint assessment, furniture visualization and purchasing, equipment repair and maintenance, property assessment and purchase, various food sector improvements, financial data processing and other banking transactions.

METHODOLOGY AND ASSUMPTIONS

The AR applications included in this research are pre-existing and derived from multiple digital information reports and articles. There were no pre-compiled lists though that directly state which of these applications are common. In order to come up with the recent and common AR applications in the B2C and B2B spaces globally, the following criteria were employed: (1) AR applications were taken from reports, articles, and sites that specialize in releasing digital articles and reports; (2) write-ups used were either from just over several months ago or dated up to the past two years only; (3) sites specializing in releasing digital news have chosen to highlight the application among the vast number of data available; (4) applications fall under the most popular application use and interest levels based on a global survey; (5) pioneering applications with no other competition at the moment; and (6) several players in a limited market already using the application.

AR OVERVIEW

Augmented reality (AR) is a technological innovation where a real-time camera view of an actual location seen from a mobile device can be overlaid with virtual objects. The digital objects usually blend seamlessly with the real-world view as seen on the screen due to the proper scale and proportion that were setup for both the virtual and digital components.
There are already several applications of this technology especially in the gaming arena where the AR-powered Pokemon Go rule supreme. In this research, the applications covered were mostly coming from the B2C- consumer retail and B2B banking and financial services space.
The most important factor to consider when promoting technological innovations such as these AR applications, is to ensure that consumers are emotionally engaged when using them. When consumers enjoy the interaction experience, they are more inclined to get immersed and spend more time to learn about the solutions. Businesses can benefit from this because of the wealth of data that can be gathered from the consumers, as well as the financial returns that will go along with the customers’ purchases.

AR MARKET STATISTICS

Globally, the augmented reality market was worth around $3.33 billion in 2015 and is seen to hit approximately $133.78 billion in 2021. Estimated CAGR of around 85.2% between 2016 and 2021 is expected. The high growth rate is due to the various developments that are being done to further increase the application of AR in various industries.
AR applications, most of the time couple with VR, that are expected to pull in the largest investments in 2017 are the following: showcasing retail products ($461 million), product development ($267 million), and industrial maintenance ($249 million).
The year 2018 will see a lot of development in the AR arena as more businesses get to understand the technology and apply it in order to reap the business benefits. In fact, based on a Harris Interactive Digital Consumer Survey conducted for Accenture, consumers are looking forward to more AR applications.
The percentages below reveal several ways that consumers are using AR and the corresponding interest levels. Note that VR is still integrated here as there are no reports on this that are specific to AR only. AR and VR are also combined most of the time so the values should not skew too much.
67% — Learning more about a place they are visiting
67% — Want to learn new skills or techniques
61% — To visualize how clothes might fit
58% — To view 3D manuals
54% — Want to shop for household items and furniture
47% — To play games
The survey involved around 21,000 consumers in 19 countries.

AR B2C AND CONSUMER RETAIL APPLICATIONS


1. Crayola AR Experience: Crayola unveiled an AR-powered Theme Park that encourages creativity in kids with the use of various art installations. Crayola also launched several AR-rich immersive experiences that include a 3D virtual dressing room where kids can try various styles. With this, it joined several apparel companies like American Apparel and TopShop who are already providing AR-powered virtual dressing rooms.
2. South African Malls’ Virtual Dressing Rooms: Nokia, Zugara and Virtuelle will launch kinect-based virtual dressing room experience in South African malls. The virtual dressing rooms will allow shoppers to try on various virtual clothes with having to put them on.
3. Cover Girl and Sephora Make-up Trials: Both companies launched their own AR space where consumers can try various make-up styles and shades virtually. The digital colors move with their actual faces, making it easy to visualize the finished look that they want. Once they have settled on a style, they have the option to purchase the exact products from the site.
4. Dulux Visualizer: Dulux has come up with an AR-infused Visualizer application that lets users try different paint colors digitally while their mobile cameras are aimed at their walls. With this, there is no need for messy paint testers.
5. Cyzone and ModiFace: Cyzone, a popular Latin American cosmetics brand has partnered with ModiFace, an AR technology provider for the beauty industry. Their joint AR-powered application called CyMakeApp has face-tracking and make-up rendering feature that will enable hyper-realistic make -up trial live video images in the user’s mobile.
6. IKEA AR Application: The IKEA AR application allows potential furniture buyers to scan their house layout with the use of their mobile devices. They can then select digital pictures of various IKEA furniture and place them virtually in any area of the captured physical layout. These users can then virtually view from various angles on how the furniture will look like inside their houses.
7. ThyssenKrupp Elevator Company and AR Technology: The elevator company has extensively used various AR technologies such as the Microsoft Hololens, a wearable AR headset, to train their engineers as well as provide virtual maintenance and repair support. During the trial period, they claimed to have improved their service time by 400% because of the AR technology.
8. Food Industry AR Pioneering Applications: AR applications in the food industry may not be publicly widespread yet but several companies and organizations are already conducting numerous trials on the technology, qualifying a few of the food applications to be included here.
Dr. Katsunori Okajima, professor at Yokohama National University, has been conducting several experiments that involves pioneering AR technology, His goal is to improve the visual appearance of food in order to make them more appetizing.
Another food-related application that is currently being tested is ServAR. The AR-based application aims to make it easier to estimate the right food portion in order to enable more accurate food serving sizes.
Kabaq is another application that enable AR-powered virtual menus to help deliver enhanced restaurant ordering experiences.

AR B2B BANKING AND FINANCIAL SERVICES APPLICATIONS

9. AR Applications in the Banking Industry: Several banking companies have already started testing various AR technologies like Oculus Rift to form AR/VR spaces that can help traders view, analyze, and process huge amount of data. This can facilitate faster decision-making compared to the traditional processing methods.
Citibank even went further with the Microsoft HoloLens headset to produce holographic workstations for traders. These AR-powered headsets enable virtual and actual data overlaying that can make it easy for traders to visualize the data and collaborate more efficiently with their clients.
10. National Bank of Oman’s AR Application:
National Bank of Oman’s Augmented Reality Mobile App (NBO AR) can help their customers locate their branches or ATM stations and discover their best offers while walking through the malls or even in the streets.
11. China Merchant’s Bank’s AR Application: The China merchant’s Bank use various technologies including AR in their retail and wealth management units.
12. South Africa’s First AR Property Application: PHNX, a South African-based property marketing agency, has deployed an AR-VR property app for a real estate company, Harcourts Platinum. It is a pioneering AR-VR application in Africa that enable prospective buyers to virtually visualize their homes, as well as help in producing an immersive experience for international investors.

CONCLUSION

Globally, recent and widespread use of AR technology in the B2C and B2B spaces are manifested in the following: AR-powered simulated dressing rooms, cosmetic trials, delving in artistic pursuits, paint trials, furniture buying, maintenance and repair, various food industry applications, property purchasing, financial data processing and other banking applications.

Part
03
of seven
Part
03

AR - Leaders in Tech Development

I've assembled a list of 10 leading AR hardware companies, including AR products from established tech giants like Google and Microsoft, AR-specific major players like Daqri and ODG, and some niche AR companies and startups like VX and Optinvent. Read on for my full rundown and a few additional notes.

OVERVIEW

I chose the below companies based on media mentions as top or leading companies in the AR hardware and technology development space. All of these products or companies are either produced by an already-leading company (Google Glass, Microsoft Hololens), are considered industry leaders in AR (ODG is among the first commercially successful B2B AR companies, for example), or have made significant progress in AR technology development (display improvements, reducing the size of the AR technology, etc.). My reason for including each specific company is included below. I was able to find details on 10 companies in the scope of one Wonder request and have included links to a few more companies. If you need additional examples, please feel free to submit another request.

ESTABLISHED TECH COMPANIES LEADING IN AR

Google (Glass) was among the first notable companies on the AR scene; they had a notably rocky launch as a consumer product, but Google remains committed to Glass for enterprise use. Since that rough consumer launch, Glass has become a leading B2B AR company in healthcare and industry.

Microsoft's Hololens has made it a leader in holographic AR with gesture control, voice commands, and other enhanced abilities not available in many AR headsets. Before Hololens, Microsoft experimented with AR through its Xbox Kinect hardware (Kinect began its life as an early AR pitch); they developed their capabilities over the course of several years as Kinect became "the fastest-selling consumer gaming device of all time" at the time of its release. Hololens has expanded Microsoft's AR leadership with B2B applications in healthcare, architecture, manufacturing, and several other industries. Like Kinect, Hololens also has potential as a consumer AR device for gaming and entertainment.

Apple's AR efforts are currently focused on software, but there's some evidence that they're looking to enter the AR hardware development field as well. They bought AR hardware developer Vrvana in 2017. They've also acquired several other AR companies, leading many to speculate that they're working on their own AR hardware. Apple is included on this list as a leader in hardware development generally whose AR efforts are still forthcoming.

Facebook has made VR plays already through its purchase of OculusVR, but the company is strongly hinting at an upcoming AR hardware product announcement; Mark Zuckerberg told Recode that VR is a stepping stone for Facebook, as "building VR is the path to getting to those AR glasses." Zuckerberg is optimistic about social AR as a consumer product, and the company is gearing up to announce its "biggest AR/VR news" ever this summer.

Snap Spectacles by Snapchat are a leader in social AR. Fast Company named Snap one of the "10 most innovative companies in VR/AR 2017" due to the spectacles' ability to "[give] users control of their own augmented reality." Snap became a leader in AR by taking lessons from Google Glass's initial troubles and focusing on the social aspects of AR: video and photo sharing from a first-person perspective.

AR INDUSTRY LEADERS

ODG (Osterhout Design Group) is "first commercially successful AR headset company." They create AR headsets and glasses for several enterprise purposes including the US military. Their growth into a leader in AR has mostly been through product iteration; they're currently on their eighth generation of AR headsets.

Meta is an Israeli company creating AR headsets for a variety of applications, focused for now on enterprise use cases; early customers included Boeing and Toyota. Meta has raised over $200 million in funding from companies like Lenovo, Comcast Ventures, and Tencent. They boast "the world's most immersive AR experience," and, like ODG, they're building leadership through product iteration. Their third-generation headset, the Meta 3, is forthcoming and could have commercial possibilities in addition to its enterprise uses.

Magic Leap has been an AR thought leader for several years, starting in 2014 with a relatively simple AR demo and growing into a commercial and enterprise product line launching in 2018, the Magic Leap Lightwear. The Magic Leap headset is focused on AR for creative and educational purposes. While they haven't always had the smoothest reception, Magic Leap has consistently been on the cutting edge of consumer AR.

AR STARTUP LEADERS

VX is a new startup aiming to "shape the industry" of AR with its compact displays. The VX CNED (compact near-eye display) fits in a standard eyewear form factor, eliminating the need for larger headsets. The CNED is a "best-in-class augmented reality display offering up to 54 degrees FOV at 1080p resolution." I included VX as a leader because, although they haven't been around long, they appear to be pushing the AR technology envelope in a way I didn't see elsewhere.

Optinvent is another, newer player that I've included due to their technological improvements on established AR technology. Their Ora-2 AR headset has a similar form factor to Google Glass, but includes a movable display and several other improvements like Android app integration. Optinvent boasts the Ora-2 is "the most powerful wearable computing device in the world" with consumer and enterprise use cases.

ADDITIONAL AR PLAYERS

Daqri is a newer player creating AR-enabled hard hats and helmets for industry and military uses. They're also a leading vendor in educational and training-focused AR.

AccuVein provides AR vein scanning and visualization tools for healthcare.

EchoPixel is a combined hardware-software solution for healthcare, focused on 3D visualizations for surgery planning and other similar uses.

Atheer is a leader in healthcare AR, providing AR glasses for healthcare professionals.

Solos is a notable player in consumer AR, offering smart sunglasses for cyclists. They're also a partner of US Cycling.

Lucyd is a Singapore-based AR startup currently going through an ICO; they create both AR hardware and software.

Vuzix is another up-and-coming AR player, offering "a line of AR gear that's less conspicuous than a full headset."

CONCLUSION

I've assembled a list of 10 leading companies in AR hardware development, including AR efforts from tech giants like Google and Microsoft, AR industry leaders like ODG, and newer startups that are on the cutting edge of AR technology. I've also linked to several smaller AR players that are leading in their own niches, just not quite as notably. If you need additional AR leaders, please feel free to submit another request.
Part
04
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Part
04

AR - Leaders in Tech Application

The top 10 most innovative companies in the tech application of AR are: Snap, Google, Facebook, NVIDIA, NIANTIC, HTC, Sony, Wevr, NextTVR, and Osterhout Design Group. The information on each company including its thought leadership, products created, stance, target audience and adaptation over time has been compiled in the attached spreadsheet.

METHODOLOGY

We identified the top 10 most innovative companies in the tech application of AR based on the amount of recognition the companies have received for their work on augmented reality. On top of that, we focused both on thought leadership and products created. For each leader, we included information regarding their stance, their target audiences, and how they've adapted over time to become leaders.

As the research asked for a lot of different points to be identified for each company, the standard Wonder time frame allowed for us to only include 10 innovative companies. We have used this list of top 10 most innovative companies in AR/VR to identify the top ten firms in the field to have made the most progress. We then cross-referenced our findings with articles from renowned industry websites such as TechCrunch, Business Insider, and eMarketer and researched further to answer all the requested questions.

The top 10 most innovative companies in the tech application of AR are: Snap, Google, Facebook, NVIDIA, NIANTIC, HTC, Sony, Wevr, NextTVR, and Osterhout Design Group. The information on each company including its leadership, products created, stance, target audience, and adaptation over time has been compiled in the attached spreadsheet.
Part
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Part
05

AR - Leaders in AR Funding

The top five leading investors when it comes to AR funding are Rothenberg Ventures, Presence Capital, Intel Capital, The Venture Reality Fund and Qualcomm Ventures. All the information for each of the companies including a short description of each investment company, their location, the number of AR companies they invested in as well as examples of the locations of AR companies they invested in have been compiled in the attached spreadsheet.

METHODOLOGY

We used this pre-compiled list of the top AR investors to identify the five leading investment companies when it comes to VR/AR. We have identified top companies as those who have so far funded the most companies (by total number of investments).

Although the scope of this research was global, all the investors are based in California. However, the AR/VR companies they are currently investing in are located all over the world. The biggest concentration is still in California, mainly San Francisco.

All the information for the top five AR investors (Rothenberg Ventures, Presence Capital, Intel Capital, The Venture Reality Fund and Qualcomm Ventures) including a short description of each investment company, their location, the number of AR companies they invested in as well as examples of the locations of AR companies they invested in have been compiled in the attached spreadsheet.
Part
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Part
06

AR - Leaders in AR Funding - Strategies and Perspectives

Hello, and thank you for your question on leaders in Augmented Reality (AR) Funding.
The short answer is that leaders in AR funding, Rothenberg Ventures, Presence Capital, Intel Capital, The Venture Reality Fund and Qualcomm Ventures, have similar perspectives on the ability of AR technologies to transform the world, making an impact on both industry and consumer products. All include strategies that highlight the importance in investing in early-stage startups and helping companies realize their full potential.
The strategies and perspectives of these firms are summarized below.

ROTHENBERG VENTURES

Rothenberg Ventures, the leader in funding of AR technology, is the most prominent investor in AR, active in major cities such as San Francisco, CA, and New York, NY.
Perspectives on AR:
Rothenberg Ventures believes AR investment has a potential similar to internet investments in 1996 or mobile investments in 2007-2008. The partners recognize the ability for this technology to influence both enterprise and consumer-facing applications, and focus on the idea that AR can enhance the social experience through a 360 degree medium. The firm predicts more companies will be using AR for training purposes, where the extra dimensionality will allow employees to learn faster. Rothenberg also believes that AR is not exclusive to Silicon Valley and stress importance of having a global reach.
Strategies of investment:
Rothenberg Ventures is interested in the “Founder’s Journey”, which they define as the “transformative process of turning vision into real world impact through daily execution and grit”. The company’s strategy therefore involves investment in early, or seed stages, of “frontier tech” categories, including AR, where there is a great amount of interest for investment. Rothenberg Ventures operates AR investments through portfolio success programs and launched River Accelerator in 2014, the first accelerator that specializes in VR and AR startups. Investments range from USD$100,000 to USD$500,000, with the ability to scale up for certain companies. They have also taken a global approach to investment, given their belief that this is a global trend.

PRESENCE CAPITAL

Presence capital, unlike Rothenberg Ventures, was launched specifically for AR and VR technologies, and does not focus its investments elsewhere.
Perspectives on AR:
Presence Capital believes that AR technologies have transformative ability and may be the next computing platform, with mainstream applications plausible in just a few years. They anticipate AR (along with VR) as a major platform shift, that can lead to the creation of multi-billion dollar companies. The firm stresses that importance of making sure startups provide real value of exploration on the global scale. For instance, founder/managing partner Amitt Mahajan noted that big companies in mobile AR could help people perform tasks they wouldn’t otherwise be able to do, making a true impact and improvement on the world; in fact, mobile AR has been described as a stepping stone toward transforming other regularly used apps such as messaging. Presence Capital is particularly interested in AR’s ability to change the way we use mobile phones, to the point where we can work hands free.

Strategies of investment:
The firm is dedicated to supporting passionate entrepreneurs, highlighting the importance of new ideas in investment. One example is their portfolio company Scope AR, which allows a non-technical person to perform a technical task, like putting together an engine. The primary aim is to create a “healthy pipeline” of startups that will move the AR market forward. Their strategy focuses, akin to Rothenberg Ventures, on early-stage funding, as a gap exists here. Investments are placed in companies that they identify as building missing AR infrastructure or using AR to help people learn or be more productive in jobs. The firm distinguishes itself as one that will have more than just a capital impact on the AR industry, given a hands-on approach for portfolio companies provided by relevant industry experience of the founding partners. The firm recognizes that the true value in their strategy comes from helping the company set themselves up to get more financing, for example, by figuring out appropriate metrics, and does not invest as highly at the start as other firms described here.

INTEL CAPITAL

Intel capital works across a wide range of technologies and does not solely focus in AR technologies.
Perspectives on AR:
Seeing the current world situation as a “data explosion”, Intel Capital’s president recognizes individual data use is increasing at a rapid pace, in areas including AR. While AR-specific perspectives of the company were hard to pin down, some of their ideas on VR may translate to this arena. For instance, Intel Capital is interested in making technologies more immersive, in that hands-free is a major priority for the field to move forward.

Strategies of investment:
Intel is transitioning to a data company and therefore Intel Capital is now actively investing in startups, or so-called “trailblazing” technologies in AR. The company has recently invested more than $16 million in 15 tech startups. Though specific information on how the firm makes strategic AR investments (separate from other tech investments) was not readily apparent, Intel Capital does highlight its ability to provide more than investment alone, helping with strategic planning for these upcoming companies.

THE VENTURE REALITY FUND

The VR Fund brings expert guidance and resources to promising and early stage VR, AR and MR startups.
Perspectives on AR:
The VR fund believes the best way to predict the future is to build it, and “the second best way is to fund it”. The firm believes the new medium of AR is something that will transform the world we live in.
Strategies of investment:
As with the other funds mentioned, The VR Fund is interested in early stage AR startups. The firm seeks companies that span infrastructure/development tools to application purposes. The Fund also emphasizes helping entrepreneurs move quickly to bring ideas and technologies to industry, providing guidance through insights and strategic partnerships, beyond providing financial investment alone.

QUALCOMM VENTURES

Qualcomm Ventures makes investments in startups developing next-generation technologies that build a better future.
Perspectives on AR:
Qualcomm Ventures noticed the potential of AR several years ago, and has seen these technologies gain traction in recent years. For instance, the firm uses evidence from the uptake of Pokémon Go as a demonstration of the explosion of AR, and notes that we have only seen a small amount of what AR can do. The firm anticipates major players within AR will emerge, and strengths of AR over VR will be demonstrated. This perspective of superiority of AR to VR appears to be unique for Qualcomm, compared with the other firms outlined above.

Strategies of investment:
Qualcomm Ventures makes investments in technologies that the firm believes will have a major and surprising impact on the world 5-10 years down the line. A focus is on accelerating mobile innovations that can create “stronger economies and lives for everyone”. Within their strategy Qualcomm highlights their ability to connect entrepreneurs to one another and to resources and expertise needed to succeed.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the leaders in AR funding, Rothenberg Ventures, Presence Capital, Intel Capital, the Venture Reality Fund, and Qualcomm Ventures, all have similar hope in the future of AR technologies While they plan investments in different manners, they are all excited to invest in startup companies in early stages to help this field grow and change the world.

Part
07
of seven
Part
07

AR - Related/Parallel Technologies

Our research has yielded a number of sources pointing to the current and future impact of augmented technology (AR). Several important technologies drive the future of AR, presenting exciting opportunities for its application. Parallel technologies include artificial intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud technology. Mixed Reality (MR) is a related technology that hybridizes AR with virtual reality.

PARALLEL TECHNOLOGIES
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a parallel technology that is crucial to the advancement of the future of AR. According to topbots.com AI with AR can help in a number of areas including but not limited to selective hazard warning, physical environmental mapping, character modeling, and social media. AI working in conjunction with AR allows "intelligent, multidimensional interaction" with the physical world around us. An example of this is in the use of AI technologies in predicting natural disasters and feeding such data to the displays or AR devices as smartphones and tablets. AI plays a role in the creation of "intelligent adaptive interfaces" that adjust to the needs of consumers in real time.

MACHINE LEARNING
Another technology that works in conjunction with AR is machine learning (ML). Machine learning refers to AI that allows computers to learn and adapt without reprogramming. In addressing client questions about the role of machine learning in the development of AR, our research has yielded a few examples of the practicality and effective use of machine learning in AR. Even the simplest of AR technology such as Snapchat lenses require highly adaptive ML algorithms for facial recognition of Snapchat users.

INTERNET OF THINGS
Internet of Things (IoT) is another technology that, when integrated with AR creates business value for companies and for consumers. AR technology collaborates with IoT technology, along with appliances, gadgets, and electronics, by embedding predictive maintenance, intelligence, and analytical to add enhanced functionality to everyday items. An example that a few of my sources have made mention of is Caterpillar, Inc., in its use of AR devices such as AR glass or smartphone technology providing repair instructions for its field technicians.

RELATED TECHNOLOGIES
In researching this response to your query, we found information on Mixed Reality (MR) as a technology that relates to AR. It has been our goal, per your request to exclude virtual reality trends and MR does address VR in a way. But we felt that our findings on MR would still be of value in this discussion as MR is a hybrid technology comprised of both AR and VR. MR makes use if technology such as sensors, advanced optics, and next generation computing power to change the way consumers interact with games, apps, and experiences.

CLOUD TECHNOLOGY
We also want to make mention of cloud technology as an important related technology that potentially parallels AR. In our research for this response we found resources on trends and uses of cloud commuting in AR but the sources tended to either lean heavily toward cloud tech in its relationship to VR or to discuss AR/VR interchangeably.

CONCLUSION
Such technologies as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the Internet of Things work in conjunction with augmented reality to provide fascinating opportunities for consumers and for businesses. The aforementioned technologies are shaping the future of AR through such key elements as optics, 3D capabilities, authoring, and interaction.

Sources
Sources

From Part 03