American's Perceptions of Facts

Part
01
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Part
01

News Consumption Over Time

While print media has steadily declined over the past two decades, local television remains the main source of news for almost half of all Americans, followed by online news and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to verify the information they receive, Americans report diversifying their sources of news, as well as abandoning any source deemed to be fake or overly biased by independent fact-checking associations.

TV

Change over Time:
  • In 2000, 55% of Americans reported regularly watching the news on TV.
  • Currently around 49% of Americans regularly got their news from TV. This represent a slow but steady decline over the past 20 years.
Popularity among Generations:

Online News

Change over Time:
  • In 2000 internet news sources were still relatively new, and 33% of Americans reported using them regularly.
  • This number has not changed today. Currently online newspapers are the second most common platform by which Americans access the news, at 33%.
Popularity among Generations:
  • Online news sources are more popular among the younger generations than the older ones. This is possibly due to news apps which can be easily downloaded onto smartphones and tablets.

Radio

Change over Time:
  • In 2000, 20% of Americans got their news from listening to either NPR or NewsHour.
  • Radio is now the third most popular way to access news, with 26% of Americans listening to radio news on a regular basis.
Popularity among Generations:
  • Radio use remains quite consistent among all generations except for Americans aged 18-29. This youngest generation does not rely upon radio sources for news as much as older generations.

Print Newspapers

Change over Time:
  • In 2000, 46% of Americans reported regularly reading newspapers.
  • Today newspaper readership has gone down, with only 16% of Americans reporting getting their news from traditional print media.
Popularity among Generations:
  • Print news is still widely consumed by Americans aged 65 and older.
  • Americans aged 18 to 64 contribute to a collective 28% of those who often read print media.

Social Media

Change over Time:
  • News consumption over social media has skyrocketed over the past 20 years, especially when accessed through mobile devices.
  • Facebook is the most popular way to access news at 52%, followed by YouTube at 28% and Twitter at 17%.
  • While still not as popular as television, social media has now outpaced printed newspapers as the 4th most common way to access news.
Popularity among Generations:
  • Younger Americans are much more likely to use social media as a primary news platform.
  • Americans aged 18-29 use social media more than any other type of platform.

Willingness and Ability to Fact Check News Sources

  • Americans in general are concerned about what they consider to be a proliferation of fake news in today's media offerings.
  • When determining whether a source is reliable, 6 out of 10 Americans are more likely to believe what they are reading or watching if they are presented with data to back up any claims.
  • Around 80% of Americans fact check the news they read, and over 60% have stopped getting news from a particular outlet they deem suspect.
  • Americans who rely more upon social media for their news, and younger Americans in general report being less concerned about fake news.

Research Strategy

We searched through both recent and older polling data from the Pew Research Center to retrieve data surrounding Americans' news consumption over the past 20 years, as well as their current perception of fake news, and how best to avoid it.
Part
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Part
02

American's Appetite for Verifying Information

Americans are reasonably concerned about the sources of their information, with Republicans expressing strong distrust in the media (more than Democrats), and young people and white people also more concerned about bias.

How People in the US View the Country's Media

  • In the US, 47% of people believe their news media is doing well at reporting the different positions of political parties fairly. In addition, some 78% of people in the US say the media shouldn't favor one political party over another. 75% of people with less education believe the media shouldn't favor one party, while 82% of people with more education believe that.
  • 58% of people believe their news media is doing very well through to somewhat well at providing news about government leaders and officials.
  • 56% say the media is doing very well through to somewhat well at providing news that is accurate.
  • And 61% say the media is doing very well to somewhat well at covering the most important news events.
  • 72% of people trust national news sources some or a lot, compared to 85% who trust local news sources, and 37% who trust social media sources some or a lot. Within these figures, the vast majority chose "some" over "a lot."
  • Trust in the mass media has been steadily declining since 1997, with 41% having a great deal or a fair amount of trust in news accuracy last year compared to 53% in 1997.
  • People over the age of 65 have the most favorable view of the media (43% view it favorably), while Black people have the most favorable view (50%) compared to white people at 28% and Hispanic at 38%. These figures translate to perception of political bias in news coverage, with 50% of white people seeing a great deal of bias, and 31% of Black people.

Views on Media Bias

  • In 2017, 72% of people thought news organizations tend to favor one side. This was down slightly from 74% in 2016.
  • The biggest factor for people that impacts the perceived trustworthiness of a story is the sources cited (51%), followed by the news organization publishing the story (48%), followed by gut reaction (30%), then the person who shared the story (26%)
  • In terms of what comes to mind when people think about made-up news and information, 18% said the news media, 12% said Trump/administration, 9% said politics, and 7% said specific news topics.
  • When it comes to responsibility for unbiased consumption, and who is responsible for ensuring people have an accurate and politically balanced understanding of the news — 48% say the news media and 48% say individuals themselves.
  • Today, 66% of Americans believe most news media does not do a good job of separating fact from opinion. In 1984, 42% held that view.
  • 44% of people in the US say they can think of a news source that reports the news objectively. "Republicans who can name an accurate source overwhelmingly mention Fox News, while Democrats’ responses are more varied," the Knight Foundation reported.
  • 27% of Americans say they are “very confident” that they can tell when a news source is reporting factual news versus commentary or opinion.
  • In terms of the major problems associated with new coverage, people perceive the spread of inaccurate information on the Internet as the top one (73% of people), followed by the influence of media owners (69%) and sensationalism (66%).
  • When it comes to the news media carefully separating fact from opinion, young people are more critical, with 73% of those aged 18-29 saying the media doesn't do a good job, and 60% of those over 65 saying it doesn't do a good job. Some 70% of white people say it doesn't do a good job, compared to 46% of Black people.

Press Freedom and Its Impact

  • 85% of Americans agree that the “Freedom of the press is essential for American democracy.” while 68% believe “reporters should be protected from pressure from government or big business interests.”
  • 26% agree “the president should have the authority to close news outlets engaged in bad behavior,” while 72% of people in the US think “it should be easier to sue reporters who knowingly publish false information.”

Party Support and News Views

  • The US is one of very few countries where supporters of the governing party (i.e. Republicans) are less satisfied with news media than non supporters (i.e. Democrats, independents, etc).
  • Only 21% of supporters believe news organizations in the US are doing well at reporting different party positions fairly, while 55% of non supporters believe that.
  • In 2017, in the early Trump presidency days, 89% of Democrat supporters felt news media was playing a role of keeping political leaders from doing things that shouldn't be done, while 42% of Republicans felt that.
  • Only 34% of Democrats and 11% of Republicans trust the information they get from national news sources a lot.
  • 80% of Republicans and 23% of Democrats agree that “most news outlets have a liberal bias,” while 79% of Republicans and 11% of Democrats agree, the mainstream media treats President Trump unfairly".

News Habits and Preferences

  • Around 55% of people in the US access the news on a daily basis.
  • 93% of people say they follow national news closely, compared to 82% who follow local news and 68% who follow international news closely.
  • 48% of people over 50 use the Internet to get news at least once a day, compared to 69% of people aged 18-49.
  • People with more education are more likely to follow international news, while older adults tend to follow local news more than young ones.
  • 28% of people use social media to get the news various times a day.
Media Coverage of COVID-19
  • When it comes to the pandemic, 37% of US adults think the media has greatly exaggerated the risk, and 25% believe it has been slightly exaggerated.
  • 48% of those surveyed believe they have seen some made up news up the topic.
Part
03
of six
Part
03

Americans' Trust in Government Data

As trust in government reaches an all-time low since the 1960s, studies show that few Americans trust government data initiatives and government sources.

American's Trust in Government

  • In a PEW study conducted in 2014, only a small portion believed that government can effectively share data with its citizens.
  • According to the study, only 5% of Americans believe the federal government can effectively share data with citizens. Another 5% of the respondents trusted state governments to share useful data with Americans.
  • When asked whether they could remember any example when their local government did a good job in providing relevant and useful data to the public, only 19% had a positive response. Another 19% said they could only recall a situation where the local government failed in disseminating useful information to the public.
  • The PEW study further showed that few Americans use government sources to monitor what is going on in the country.
  • According to the findings, 20% of the participants had used government sources to find information about the performance of a teacher or a student.
  • Moreover, 17% of the participants had used government sources to find information on health and healthcare; 7% of the participants had used “government sources to find out about contracts between government agencies and outside firms.”
  • The study also revealed that only 17% of adults had signed up to government data initiatives while 20% of the participants use online government resources even though they feel skeptical the payoffs.
  • Another 27% were found to support the idea that open data initiatives could improve government performance. However, 36% of the respondents neither trust government sources nor transact with government via the Internet.
  • Another PEW study revealed that public trust in the government has been on a downward trajectory since the 1960s. Partisan attitude slightly influenced whether a person trusts or distrusts the government of the day. For instance, more Democrats than Republicans distrust the government if the president is a Republican. Likewise, more Republicans than Democrats distrust the government if the president is a Democrat.
  • Age is hardly a determining factor when it comes to the share of Americans who do not trust the government. For instance, Millennials distrust government just as much as older generations.
  • Trust in government is also at an all-time low across ethnic and racial demographics. However, African Americans trust the government more when the president is a Democrat. Likewise, white people trust the government more when the president is a Republican.
  • Since 2007, the number of people who trust the government has never surpassed 30% regardless of partisan affiliation.
  • Lack of trust in the government can have serious implications on the accuracy of crucial policy-driven surveys such as the Census.
  • According to a 2019 poll, 26% of the participants believed government intends to insert a citizen-related question that would later be used to hunt down illegal immigrants. However, more Republicans support the idea of a citizen question in the census report.
Part
04
of six
Part
04

Perception of Trustworthy News Sources

Political affiliation yielded the most differences in perception towards trustworthy news media. Overall findings indicate that Democrats trust a broader range of sources, while Republicans focus on fewer sources. ABC, CBS, and NBC appeared as trusted sources for both political affiliations. Race and age also yielded differences in perception of trustworthy news sources. The following similarities were noted for sources ranking higher in trust among white, black, and Hispanics: CNN, national network news, and major national newspapers. Fox News, CNN, and local newspapers were amongst the most trusted sources for all age demographics.

Political Affiliation — Democrats

  • According to a study by Pew Research, Democrats trust a wider variety of sources for political news. Of the 30 sources mentioned in the study, 13 are trusted by at least 33% of Democrats, contrasting to only 2 that are trusted by 33% of Republicans.
  • In the Pew Research study, the top five sources trusted for political and election news by Democrats indicated a higher percentage of trust amongst all five, ranging from 56% to 67%. CNN was most trusted at 67%, followed by NBC News at 61%, ABC News at 60%, CBS News at 59%, and PBS at 56%.
  • The Pew study "wasn't designed to evaluate outlets themselves or the content they produce. Instead, we ... grouped each outlet according to the ideological composition of its audience, based on where our respondents told us they get political and election-related news and how they describe themselves ideologically — liberal Democrat (including independents who lean Democratic) or conservative Republican (again including leaners)."
  • The Pew study found that Democrats "rely on a wider number of outlets" for their news sources.
  • A 2019 study by Gallup found that 82% of Democrats trust local television news, followed by 79% trust in nightly news on ABC, CBS, and NBC, 74% trust in public television news, 73% trust in local newspapers and national public radio, 72% trust in local radio news and CNN, 71% trust in national newspapers, 67% trust in morning news shows on national networks, and 60% trust in discussions with friends and family.

Political Affiliation — Republicans

  • According to a study (link to full report) by Pew Research, Republicans trust a smaller variety of sources for political news. Of the 30 sources mentioned in the study, only 2 are trusted by 33% of Republicans, while 13 are trusted by at least 33% of Democrats.
  • In the Pew Research study, the top five sources trusted for political and election news by Republicans indicated a large difference between the top most trusted source (65%), and the next 4 highest sources (ranging from 30% to 33%). Fox News was the highest trusted source at 65% by far, followed by ABC news at 33%, CBS News at 30%, Hannity (radio) at 30%, and NBC News at 30%.
  • The Pew study found that "Republicans have a more compact media ecosystem. They rely to a large degree on a small number of outlets and view many established brands as not trustworthy."
  • A 2019 study (link to full survey responses) by Gallup found that 72% of Republicans trust local television news, as well as discussions with family and friends. This is followed by 69% trust in Fox News, 61% trust in local radio news, 58% trust in local newspapers.

Race

  • A 2018 study (link to full report) by the Gallup and Knight Foundation indicated differences in race regarding the perception of the most objective news sources.
  • White people perceived the following as the most objective news sources: FOX News at 29%, and CNN and NPR both at 10%.
  • Black people perceived the following as the most objective news sources: CNN at 28%, MSNBS at 9%, and local news at 8%.
  • Hispanic people perceived the following as the most objective news sources: CNN at 21%, FOX News at 14%, and NPR at 7%.
  • The Gallup and Knight Foundation study also found differences in race regarding their confidence that various news media provide "mostly accurate and politically balanced news."
  • White people are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: local newspaper at 52%, major national newspapers at 46%, and national network news at 45%.
  • Black people are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: national network news at 74%, major national newspapers at 67%, and cable news at 65%.
  • Hispanic people are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: national network news at 61%, major national newspapers at 58%, and local newspapers at 55%.

Age

  • A 2018 study (link to full report) by Gallup and the Knight Foundation indicated differences in age regarding the most objective news sources.
  • 18 to 29 year-olds perceived the following as the most objective news sources: FOX News and CNN at 15%, and NPR at 13%.
  • 30 to 49 year-olds perceived the following as the most objective news sources: FOX News and NPR at 16%, and CNN at 14%.
  • 50 to 64 year-olds perceived the following as the most objective news sources: FOX News at 28%, CNN at 13%, and NPR at 7%.
  • 65+ year-olds perceived the following as the most objective news sources: FOX News at 35%, CNN at 12%, and MSNBS at 6%.
  • The Gallup and Knight Foundation study also found differences in age regarding their confidence that various news media provide "mostly accurate and politically balanced news."
  • 18 to 29 year-olds are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: local newspapers at 58%, major national newspapers at 54%, and news aggregators ("apps or websites that gather and show news from many different news organizations") at 47%.
  • 30 to 49 year-olds are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: local newspapers at 55%, major national newspapers at 52%, and national network news at 49%.
  • 50 to 64 year-olds are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: local newspapers and national network news at 52%, and major national newspapers at 49%.
  • 65+ year-olds are confident that the following sources provide a lot or a fair amount of mostly accurate and politically balanced news: national network news at 58%, local newspapers at 54%, and cable news at 53%.
Part
05
of six
Part
05

Impact of Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias has had an extensive impact on American society because of how it influences information processing and decision-making for many Americans. Research has shown that, while all groups are susceptible to some extent, older Americans are often among the most susceptible to believing misinformation and misleading news stories, colloquially known as "fake news," that confirm their opinions. Additionally, confirmation bias influences people to pay attention to and interpret information in ways that deepen partisan and social divides. The impact of confirmation bias also extends to poorly informed judgment calls in business, healthcare, and the legal system.

Facilitating the Spread of "Fake News" in the U.S.

  • Confirmation bias in how people in the U.S. select the news they see and what they choose to believe has made the American public overall susceptible to fake news, especially because most people access news via social media. Studies have shown that people tend to only share, engage with, or believe pieces that confirm their beliefs or that are shared by like-minded people.
  • A study from the Pew Research Center found that both Republicans and Democrats were better able to identify a true statement when it aligned with their political beliefs. One example of this trend was: "89 percent of Democrats identified, 'President Barack Obama was born in the United States,' as a factual statement, while only 63 percent of Republicans did the same."
  • Although all groups can potentially allow confirmation bias to influence what information they see as credible, certain groups are more likely than others to believe "fake news." A study conducted by Princeton University and New York University determined that those who were more "politically aware" and could be described as "digitally savvy" were less likely to label opinions as facts when asked. While 39% of that group got all the fact vs opinion questions correct, overall, only around 25% of the general group scored the same.
  • Additionally, the study revealed, "that people 65 years of age and over are seven times more likely to share fake news than those aged 18-29." According to the researchers, the significant divide in the impact of confirmation bias among these age groups could be explained by the fact the idea that “it is possible that an entire cohort of Americans, now in their 60s and beyond, lacks the level of digital media literacy necessary to reliably determine the trustworthiness of news encountered online.”
  • Other research results confirm this trend, as a study from the Pew Research Center found only 20% of its participants over the age of 50 could correctly identify if 10 statements were opinions or facts, compared to 32% of participants between the ages of 18 and 49.
  • Confirmation bias also influences the way that Americans search for information. In a study of how anti-vaccination parents found information on the efficacy of vaccines, researchers found that, "relying primarily on Google as a search engine, parents searched using negative phrases and questions, often demonstrating a confirmation bias throughout the search process."

Reinforcing U.S. Partisan and Social Divides

  • Americans are more likely to properly identify facts that support ideas that they already believe. As a result, they are less open to and less exposed to alternative viewpoints. Additionally, a study from the Pew Research Center revealed that, when it was something they agreed with, study participants were more likely to incorrectly label a statement that was an opinion as a fact. When they disagreed with an opinion, they were much more likely to label it as one.
  • Although the study found that age, regardless of political leanings, was the strongest determinant of who would share "fake news," the study also revealed that conservative social media users overall were the most likely to share misleading or incorrect news pieces. Generally, the study found that social media users would primarily share news pieces that confirmed their beliefs and established their political identity.
  • Because of this trend in news sharing in social media, the way that Americans interact with the news has furthered the impact of confirmation bias on American society. Because they are exposed to belief-confirming news constantly in social media echo chambers, social media can become more prone to looking for evidence that supports a predetermined hypothesis and will ignore, devalue, or misinterpret information that contradicts their beliefs.
  • The impact of these behaviors has deepened political divides, as Americans allow confirmation bias to inform how they process information and decide what to believe. In one study, "two groups of people read [misleading] articles about how Iraq had weapons of mass destruction before the U.S. invasion. One group then read an article correcting that information: the 2004 Duelfer report, which confirmed that the country had no such weapons. Of conservatives who read only the first article, 34 percent believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction before the invasion. But of conservatives who read both, that number climbed to 64 percent. Contradictory information didn't change their beliefs; it actually strengthened them."
  • This is known as the "Backfire Effect," in which people will re-frame new information to conform to previous worldviews or beliefs. This can often be done to avoid the discomfort, anger, or confusion that can come with reconsidering strongly held beliefs. The tendency for people to double down on disproved beliefs when shown evidence that contradicts can make political and other types of discussion unproductive, especially on more controversial, emotional topics.

Reducing Economic Efficiency Because of Poor Decision Making

  • Confirmation bias has also been shown to encourage poor decision-making in business. Research into how entrepreneurs make decisions when planning their business has revealed that confirmation bias may play a role in why so many small businesses fail early on in the U.S.
  • Researchers have found that, when compiling information on their industry, market, competitors, and customer base, entrepreneurs with confirmation bias will latch onto information or resources that indicate their chances of business success are high. As a result, they will assume they have fewer and less capable competitors, will not address any potential faults in how their products or services meet the needs of their customers, and will assume their business expenses will be lower, which makes them more likely to fail.
  • This tendency has also been observed in research about how people conduct business dealings. Researchers studied how people assessed the value of a business transaction based on how they reacted to the presented information. The researchers divided people into two groups: those showing evidence of confirmation bias and those assessing the transaction rationally. Both groups were shown positive information and then a series of ambiguous/neutral pieces of information, but the confirmation bias group was shown to b willing to pay 18% more for the transaction compared to the rational group.
  • Additionally, the research revealed that the group showing signs of confirmation bias was significantly larger than the rational group: roughly 2 out of 3 of the study participants were in the first group. This suggests that these tendencies to allow confirmation bias to affect workplace decisions could be having widespread effects on how prudently people conduct business in the U.S.

Reducing Accuracy in Healthcare and Legal System

  • Medical professionals have also been shown to exhibit the impact of confirmation bias on their decision-making when treating patients. Specifically, there has been extensive evidence about the role of racial bias in how patients are treated in the American healthcare system. For example, a published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology in 2016 demonstrated that oncologists were more likely to be less supportive and to have shorter conversations and appointments with black patients compared to when they were treating white patients.
  • In another study, male physicians treated female athletes injured during a game or practice were found to be less likely to correctly diagnose a patient with a concussion if she was black. This trend of how racial, ethnic, or cultural identifying information can cause doctors and other healthcare practitioners to look for confirmation of potentially incorrect preconceived opinions or diagnoses for their patients has been well documented, especially in the field of psychiatry. This issue has prompted some medical educators to suggest removing such information from patient charts to help reduce the impact of confirmation bias before a patient is seen while their chart is reviewed.
  • Confirmation bias has also negatively impacted objectivity in the legal system in the U.S. In one study of how suspects were treated by law enforcement when interrogated, researchers found that "apprehended suspects were interrogated in a more guilt presumptive way and rated as less trustworthy than non apprehended suspects. However, the tested debiasing techniques, primarily reducing cognitive load for the interrogating police officer, hold some potential in mitigating this bias."
  • The negative impact of confirmation bias has affected the judgment of other participants in the legal system, including those who examine evidence before and during legal proceedings. One study found that "preexisting beliefs about the background or guilt of a suspect can bias the subsequent evaluation of evidence for forensic examiners and laypeople alike."
  • During one part of the research, study participants reviewed details of a fictional case and were presented one of three types of evidence — neutral, incriminating, or exonerating — and then asked to give a verdict. The study found that, when presented with additional, inconclusive evidence, the number of guilty verdicts increased for all three groups, which shows that confirmation bias likely led the participants to apply incriminating interpretations to the inconclusive evidence.
Part
06
of six
Part
06

American News Media Bias

Our research found that the American news media is considerably biased overall. Findings from surveys conducted by Pew Research, Gallup, and the Knight Foundation demonstrated the presence and extent of that bias in the American news media.

Gallup Survey

1. Overview

  • Gallup conducted a comprehensive survey of over 19,000 adults in the U.S. about bias in the American news media.
  • Though the survey was conducted from August to October 2017, we included its findings herein because of how comprehensive and directly applicable the study was about the subject of bias in the American news media.
  • Before presenting the specific findings, it's important to note that the overall takeaway from the study was that "Americans' perceptions of bias in news reporting have grown and are now a fairly common view."
  • In fact, fewer than half (44%) of Americans were able to name "a news source that reports the news objectively."

2. The Findings

  • Almost half (45%) of Americans think there's "a great deal of bias in the news media." That percentage has nearly doubled since 1989 when it was 25% and in 2012 it was 37%. Perceptions of news media bias vary sharply by political-party affiliation, as among Republicans 67% think the news media is really biased, while among Democrats 26% think so.
  • Just 32% of Americans think that the media carefully distinguishes between opinion and fact. That percentage has fallen drastically since 1984 when the majority of Americans (58%) held that view. The political party that one affiliate with appears to be a key factor as to whether a person thinks the media carefully distinguishes between opinion and fact, as among Republicans 13% think so, while among Democrats 53% think so (among Independents, 27% think so).
  • When asked about their perceptions of news-outlet owners trying "to influence the way stories are reported", 69% of Americans think that's a major problem, 24% think it's a small problem, and four percent don't consider it a problem.
  • When asked their opinions about "[t]oo much bias in the reporting of news stories that are supposed to be objective", 65% think that's a major problem, 29% think it's a small problem, and four percent don't consider it a problem.
  • Nearly two-thirds (64%) of Americans think that "too much bias in the selection of what stories news organizations cover or don't cover" is a major problem, 29% think it's a small problem, and four percent don't consider it a problem.
  • Among Americans surveyed, 61% think that "[m]ore news sources reporting from a particular point of view rather than being neutral" is a major problem, 31% think it's a small problem, and six percent don't consider it a problem.

Collaborative Knight Foundation & Gallup Survey

  • Per 2018 surveys conducted by the Knight Foundation and Gallup, 62% of "Americans believe that . . . the news they consume" from radio, newspapers, and television is biased.
  • The surveys also found that 80% of Americans believed that "the news they see on social media . . . is biased."
  • The same surveys also found that over 80% of the Americans surveyed "were angered or bothered by seeing biased information."

Liberal, Conservative, & Neutral U.S. News Sources

1. Neutral

  • A survey conducted by the Knight Foundation and Gallup assessed which news media sources Americans consider neutral, more liberal, and more conservative.
  • The overall bias rating for each of the news media sources was determined by subtracting the percentage of individuals that considered the source as biased (either liberally or conservatively) from the percentage of individuals who regarded the source as unbiased.
  • That approach identified that "PBS News and the Associated Press were the least biased outlets."
  • PBS had a 31% unbiased rating (the highest of any source) and the Associated Press had the second-highest unbiased rating at 23%.

2. Conservative

  • A recent study of over 12,000 adults in the U.S. conducted by Pew Research analyzed the overall political leanings of 30 American news media sources.
  • From the survey findings, Fox News was identified as an American news media source that tends to be judged as more conservative.
  • The survey results found that "75% of conservative Republicans" trust Fox News, yet a mere "12% of liberal Democrats" believe the same.
  • The Washington Examiner was also identified as an American news media source that tends to be judged as more conservative. Among its readers, 44% said they are conservative Republicans, while just 14% said they are liberal Democrats.

3. Liberal

  • The aforementioned Pew Research study that surveyed over 12,000 adults also identified American news media sources that tend to be judged as more liberal.
  • The survey findings identified CNN as an American news media source that tends to be judged as more liberal.
  • Among liberal Democrats surveyed, 70% said they trust CNN, while just "16% of conservative Republicans" believe the same.
  • Business Insider was also identified by the survey as an American news media source that tends to be judged as more liberal. Of its readers, 40% said they are liberal Democrats and half that number (20%) said they are conservative Republicans.
Sources
Sources

From Part 04
Quotes
  • "wasn't designed to evaluate outlets themselves or the content they produce. Instead, we used an approach that grouped each outlet according to the ideological composition of its audience, based on where our respondents told us they get political and election-related news and how they describe themselves ideologically – liberal Democrat (including independents who lean Democratic) or conservative Republican (again including leaners)."
  • "Republicans have a more compact media ecosystem. They rely to a large degree on a small number of outlets and view many established brands as not trustworthy."
  • "rely on a wider number of outlets"
Quotes
  • "mostly accurate and politically balanced news"
  • "News aggregators – apps or websites that gather and show news from many different news organizations."