Additive Manufacturing Metal Alloys
Adjustments incorporated into the attached spreadsheet reflect the metal characteristics resulting from the deployment of different additive manufacturing processes, i.e., cold spray, thermal spray, laser directed energy depositions (DED), warm spray, and wire arc (WAAM) on the metals in row 1. These changes affect rows 2, 6, 8, 12, 15, 18, and 22. Below is a summary of some findings, with most of the information compiled into the spreadsheet.
- The ultimate tensile strength for cold spray additive manufactured chromium carbide is 290MPa.
- The fracture toughness (J) of titanium alloys — Ti-6Al-4V ranges from 84 -107 J.
- The minimum and maximum hardness of Ti-6Al-4V varies from 407.12 to 459.54 HV.
- Norsk Titanium, WAAM, GEFERTEC, Prodways, and Lincoln Electric are the main market players in laser direct energy deposition (DED).
- Cold sprayed cobalt chrome has a hardness that ranges from 650 to 800 HV. Likewise, cold spraying processes achieve, on average, process rates of about 20 pounds per hour.
Your research team has conducted thorough searches to find information about the chemical properties of the metals in column A and match them with the appropriate additive manufacturing processes included in column B of the attached spreadsheet. The searches focused on science journals, academic research studies, engineering publications, 3D-printing companies, and market research reports published by reputable institutions such as CTE Magazine, Research Gate, 3D Natives, Science Direct, Azom, etc.
Despite extensive searches, most of the information regarding the chemical properties of the metals in the spreadsheet remains unavailable in public. Moreover, there are many inconsistencies in the findings due to the deployment of different 3D-printing machines or the varying of the parameters of the processes. In this regard, most of the figures uncovered are inconsistent and dependent on other variables such as the distance of the printing machine to the object, powder feed rates determined by the speed of the equipment used, etc. Due to these variations, we have included general chemical properties of the metals in question.
Research findings indicate that Tool Steel Series A (rows 2-5) features different steel types, i.e., A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, A8, A9, and A10, with each exhibiting different chemical properties when subjected to either cold spray 3D-printing, thermal, or even laser printing processes. Therefore, for every finding included in the spreadsheet, we have added a note in brackets to specify the exact tool steel in the series. For example, Tool Steel A2 has a feed rate of 0.020 inches per revolution (IPR), Tool Steel A3 has a feed rate of 0.015 ipr, while Tool Steels (A4, A6, A8, A9, A10) have feed rates of 0.007 ipr.
Overall there is limited information on cold sprayed chromium carbide, specific to its tensile, bond strength (ksi), and toughness (J); thus, we have provided the general chemical properties of the metal and not those resulting from cold spray additive manufacturing. The same is true for nickel-based alloys, whereby general information is also provided. Importantly, we found out that resolution depends on the machine used; therefore, it varies based on the parameters set. Also, numerous research studies use different units of measurements for resolution, including micron, the diameter of the nozzle in (mm), particle velocity, etc. On that note, the spreadsheet is populated with the units provided in the studies examined, which also depend on the additive manufacturing process deployed.